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Queensland museum 

20 APRIL 1997 

Volume 41 
Part l 



Momeith, G.B. 1997 04 20: Revision of the Australian flat bugs of the Subfamily Mezirlnae 
(Insecta: Hemipiera; Aradidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 41( I ): 1 - 1 69. Brisbane. 
ISSN 0079-8835. 

The laxonomy of the Australian Mezirlnae is revised and keys are given lo the 22 genera and 
9 1 species recognised. Related apterous genera from New Caledonia and New Zealand are 
included in the keys. Known Australian distribution records for all species are mapped. New 
genera proposed are Corynophloeobia, Mesophloeobia and Granulaptera. Artabanellus h 
synonyniised under Caecicoris', Dimofphacantha is synonymised under Scironocoris; 
Scirrhocoris is synonymised under Neophloeobia; Micromezira is synonymised under 
Carventiis and is shown to belong to the Carxentinae, not the Mezirinac. The following new 
species are described; Neuroctemis transitus, N. occidentalism N. woodwardi, M kapalga, N. 
yorkensis, Ctenoneums meridionalis. C robertsi, Scirorwcoris ausiralis, Chinessa cUiudiae, 
C.pusilta, Chiastnptoma bamaga. C. gramtiaiu, C. thoracica, Corynophloeobia dimorpha, 
Glochocoris gippslandicus, Arbanauis peninsularis, A. tropicus. A, frazieri, Arictus 
dimidiatus. A. obscurus, Drakiessa cantreUi. D. glaehula^ D. consobn'na. D. planula, D. 
wasselli, D. virago. D. sybilae, D. arelimira. Chelonodenis forfex, C. ihompsoni, C. minor, 
Aegisocoris komiilevi, Neopkloeobia bidburina, N. incisa, N. paluma, M caiaracta, /V. 
elongatGy Mesophloeobia verusta, M. kirruma, M. yeaiesi, Granulaptera verrucosa, G. ovata, 
G remota, G. alncolu, G. cooki, G. spiniceps. The following species are synonymised (senior 
synonym given firslV Neuroctemis proximus = N. majusculus. Anabanus bilobiceps = A. 
australis: Caecicoris microcerus -Ariabaneilus infuscalus; Hrachyrhynchus ausrralis = B. 
scrupulosus; Carx'entus brachypterus = Micromezira ausrralis The following non-Austra- 
lian species of Dimorphacantha are transferred to Scironocoris: sexpinosus. dtstinctus, 
luchti, Hsingeri. brachypterus, borneensis, armatus. New generic combinations are proposed 
for the following Australian species (previous genus in parentheses): Usingerida rtiberti 
(Mezira): Neophloeobia australiensis (Scinhocoris); N. mirabilis (Scirrhocoris), 
Mesophloeobia australicc {Neophloeobia); Granulaptera ruberculata {Neophloeobia)', 
Brachyrhynchus mlsont iMeztra). Lectotypes are selected for Neuroctenus proximus, 
Chmessa bispiniceps and Brachyrhynchus australis. The following genera and species are 
newly recorded from Australia: ArbanaiU!*, Neuroctenus crassicornis, N. par, N. 
eu r^'cephalus. Anabanus sinuams, Chinessa bispiniceps, C. t'niqua, Chiasiop Ionia pygmaea^ 
Arictus lohuliventris, Brachyrhynchus subinangulus Most Australian species are closely 
associated with rainforest tracts along the eastern seaboard of the continent. Patterns of 
diversity are examined with maxima occurring at Iron Range m Cape York Peninsula (30 
spp.). in the Wet Taipics Zone around Cairns (42 spp.) and in the Border Ranges between 
Queensland and NSW (18 spp). At Iron Range the fauna is dominated by winged species 
allied to the New Guinea tauna. In the other areas of high diversity wingless species with 
endemic and Melancsian Arc affinities predominate. □ Hemipiera, Aradidae, Mezirlnae, 
Australia, Pacific, taxonomy, biogeography, rainforests. 

Ceofftey Blylh Monteith, Queensland Museum, PO Box 3300. South Brisbane, Queensland 
4WJ. Australia. Received 25 July 1996. 


OF AUSTRALIAN MERIZINAE 4 x^r^onor^i r^r>v n 


Collecting Methods 4 J^ovhk .9 

Less * ^ 4. 12 

Borrowed Museum Colieciions ,., 5 Abdomen ! ! !'"! !M,l!^."/.,i 12 

Lists of Material Examined 5 Male Genitalia*^! !!!.*!!!! I'l! !!!!!!! ! 14- 



Macropterous and Brachypterous Genera -.16 

Apterous Genera 16 


Neuroctenus Fieber 23 

Key 10 Australian Neuroctenus .24 

N. gracilis Kormilev 25 

N. grandis Kormilev 26 

A', proximus (Walker) , . . * » ^ , . , . ,27 

A^. transiUis sp.nov, 4. 2§ 

N, occidenialis sp.nov 29 

A^. woodwardi sp.nov ,30 

N, haridschini Konnilev , . .-32 

M kapalga .sp. nov 33 

A', hyafinipennis australicus Konnilev ... .34 

N. crassicornis Kormilev . . • 35 

M par Bergroth 36 

M eurycephalus Kormilev . , , ,37 

A', yorkensis sp. nov 39 

Ctenoneurus Bergroth 42 

Key to Australian Ctenoneurus .42 

C. australis Kormilev ,,,», ^ ,..♦,. .42 

C. meridionalis sp. nov. ^ 43 

C. robertsi sp. nov 45 

Aspisocoris Kormilev » , ^ ^ , , , , ,47 

A. tennitophilus Kormilev ^ . .48 

Artabanus Slal ,.-.,, ^ ,,-,.. 49 

Key to Australian ArraiibanUf ...,. ,50 

A. sinuatus Stal i 4 1 1 . . ^ . - .50 

A. bilobiceps (Lethierry) 51 

A. bilobiceps papuasicus Konnilev 51 

Caecicoris Kormilev , , ,52 

C microcerus (Walker) 53 

Scironocoris Kormilev ,.,,•..,,. 54 

5. sexspinosus (Bergroth) 55 

S. arrnigerus Kormilev 55 

5. distinctus (Usinger & Matsuda) ....... 55 

5. luchti f KiriLshenko) , * i 55 

S. usingeri (Bldte) 53 

S. obscurus Kormilev , ,55 

S. papiuisicus Kormilev . . * 56 

S. baliensis Kormilev 56 

5. brachypterus (Liu) * ... i . ^ ..... 56 

5. malayensis Kormilev 56 

5. bomeensis (Kormilev) ,56 

5. armatus (Heiss) 56 

S. australis sp. nov , .56 

Usingerida Kormilev i 58 

U. roberti (Kormilev) , ,59 

Chinessa Usinger & Matsuda . , 61 

Key to Australian Chinessa ,62 

C. bispiniceps (Walker) .62 

C. claudiae sp. nov, , 64 

C. pusilla sp. nov ,,,,,,,,..,.. 65 

C ituqua Konnilev 67 

Clavicornia Kormilev 67 

C usingeri Kormilev 68 

C. usingeri granulata Kormilev 68 

Chiastophnia China 69 

Key to Australian Chiastophnia 69 

C. minuta Kormilev 70 

C. batnaga sp. nov 7 1 

C granulata sp. nov 71 

C thoracica sp. nov 72 

C. pygmaea China 73 

Corynophloeobia gen. nov 73 

C. dimorpha sp. nov 75 

Glochocoris Usinger & Matsuda 1 . 76 

Key to Australian Glochocoris 78 

G. monteithi Kormilev 78 

C. abdonunalis Kormilev 78 

G. brisbanicus Kormilev 79 

G, gippslandicus sp. nov 79 

Arbanatus Kormilev 80 

Key to Australian Arbanatus 81 

A. peninsularis sp. nov * 81 

A. tropicus sp. nov 81 

A. frazieri sp, nov , 82 

Arictus Slal 83 

Key to Australian Arictus , 85 

A. monteithi Kormilev .....«..* 85 

A. tasnmni (Kormilev) 86 

.4. dimidiatus sp. nov 87 

A. thoracoceras (Monirouzier) 87 

A. obscurus sp. nov 89 

A. lobuliventris (Kormilev) 90 

A. chinai (Kormilev) 90 

Brachyrhynchus Laporte 90 

Key to Australian Brachyrhynchus 92 

B. sulcatus (Kormilev) 92 

B. subtriangulus (Kormilev) , , , 93 

B, elegans (TCormilev) 93 

B australis (Walker) 93 

B. wilsoni (Kormilev) . . . , , 97 

Drakiessa Usinger & Matsuda 97 

Key to Drakiessa 99 

D. hackeri (Drake) 99 

D. cantrelli sp. nov lOl 

D. glaebula sp. nov , , . . , . 102 

D. pan'a Kormilev ^ 103 

D consobrina sp. nov. 103 

D. tertia Kormilev 104 

D. planuia sp. nov ^ ...,.,.,. . 105 

D. minor Kormilev . , . 1 . r . • « . i . r . 1 , . . 107 
D. confusa Kormilev 108 


D. wasseUi sp. nov 109 

D. virago sp. nov 110 

D. sybilae sp. nov Ill 

D. arelimira sp. nov 112 

Drakiessa unnamed species 115 

Chelonoderus Usinger 115 

Key to Chelonoderus 116 

C stylatus Usinger 116 

C.forfex sp. nov 1 17 

C thompsoni sp. nov 118 

C. minor sp. nov 119 

Pseudoargocoris Kormilev 121 

P. grossi (Kormilev) 1 22 

Aegisocoris Kormilev 123 

Key to Aegisocoris 123 

A. granulatus Kormilev 124 

A. kormilevi sp. nov 126 

Neophloeobia Usinger & Matsuda 127 

Key to Neophloeobia 127 

N. montrouzieri Usinger & Matsuda 128 

N, australiensis (Kormilev) 129 

N. mirabilis (Kormilev) 130 

N. bulburina sp. nov 131 

A', incisa sp. nov 133 

N. paluma sp. nov 1 35 

N. cataracta sp. nov 135 

A^. elongata sp. nov 1 36 

Mesophloeobia gen. nov 137 

Key to Mesophloeobia 138 

M. vetusta sp. nov 139 

M. australica (Usinger & Matsuda) 140 

M. kirrama sp. nov 141 

M. yeatesi sp. nov 142 

Granulaptera gen. nov 144 

Key to Granulaptera 145 

G. tuberculata (Kormilev) 145 

G. verrucosa sp. nov 147 

G. ovata sp. nov 149 

G. remota sp. nov 150 

G. alticola sp. nov 1 50 

G. cooki sp. nov 153 

G. spiniceps sp. nov 154 

Micromezira Kormilev 156 

Carventus Stal 156 

C. brachypterus Kormilev 157 

Phloeobia Montrouzier 157 

Woodwardiessa Usinger & Matsuda 158 



North-South Transition in Eastern Australia . 1 60 
Cape York Peninsula Zone 161 

Wet Tropics Zone 162 

Central Queensland Zone 163 

Southern Queensland Zone 163 

Northern New South Wales Zone 164 

Southern New South Wales Zone 164 

Victoria 164 

Tasmania 164 

Complementarity Values for Barriers ... 165 

Transition in Faunal Components 165 



The Aradidae is a large family of heteropterous 
sucking bugs which share the features of 2-seg- 
mented tarsi, 4 segmented antennae, stylets elon- 
gated and withdrawn into a coil inside the 
enlarged clypeus when not in use, and connexival 
areas of the abdomen broadly exposed around the 
perimeter of the small-sized hemelytra (when 
present). The stylets are used to tap juices of 
fungal hyphae in dead and dying wood. Typical 
species are flattened to live under loose bark of 
dead trees and logs. This leads to the common 
names of 'flat bugs' or 'bark bugs*. 

A feature of the family is the propensity to wing 
loss, particularly in ground habitats in rainforest 
environments. This wing loss has occurred on 
separate occasions many times throughout the 
taxonomic and geographic components of the 
family. These wingless aradids become highly 
modified and include some of the most bizarre- 
shaped insects known. They are also extremely 
cryptic in nature and consequently rare in collec- 
tions. Monteith (1969, 1982) discussed the evo- 
lutionary and ecological significance of this wing 

The higher classification of the family has re- 
mained relatively stable since the masterly world 
revision of Usinger & Matsuda (1959). They 
recognised 8 subfamilies which have remained 
unchanged despite study of new characters such 
as the labrum (Stys, 1969), the stylets (Lee & 
Pendergrast, 1 976) and the pretarsus (Vasarhelyi, 
1986). Australia and New Zealand are the only 
land masses on which all 8 subfamilies live. 

The Mezirinae is the largest subfamily by far, 
comprising more species worldwide than all the 
other subfamilies combined. It is also the most 
evolutionarily advanced as shown by the cladistic 
analysis of Vasarhelyi (1987) and Jacobs (1980). 
When Kormilev & Froeschner (1987) catalogued 
the world fauna they listed 1 24 genera and 1 075 
species which they pointed out was an increase 
of 277% in species in the 28 years since Usinger 


& Matsuda's monograph. This increase was al- 
most entirely due to the work of Nicholas A. 

The Mezirinae are easily recognisable using 
Usinger & Matsuda's key to subfamilies. They 
share the open metathoracic scent gland orifice, 
usually enlarged genae, abdominal glabrous area 
pattern of 2:2:1 and lack surface incrustation on 
the body. 


The present study brings the known fauna of 
Australian Mezirinae to 91 species in 22 genera. 
This is based on comprehensive modern collec- 
tions and it is useful to speculate on how complete 
our knowledge of the total fauna now is (Fig. 1). 

The earliest known specimens are those un- 
dated ones of Neuroctenus proximus from 'King 
George Sound' and of Brachyrhynchus australis 
from 'Australia' which were in the British Mu- 
seum prior to their publication in Walker (1873) 
which is the earliest publication to mention Aus- 
tralian species. By the end of the nineteenth cen- 
tury only 8 species had been collected. In the first 
15 years of the 20th century another 12 species 
were collected by A.M. Lea of the South Austra- 
lian Museum, H. Hacker from the Queensland 
Museum and Eric Mjoberg of the Rijksmuseum 
in Stockholm. These were some of the earliest 
collectors in the rainforests of north Queensland. 
Over the next 40 years 1 more Australian species 
were collected until 1 963 when I began to collect 
Aradidae as a specialist group. The very steep rise 
in the curve (Fig. 1) indicates that more than 50 
additional species were revealed over the next 10 
years as major rainforests were intensively sam- 
pled. Though collecting intensity has increased in 
more recent years the curve has flattened out to 
the extent that only 2 species have been discov- 
ered in the last decade, the most recent being 
Drakiessaarelimira 5 years ago. This rapid taper- 
ing off of the rate of species discovery, despite 
continuous collecting effort, indicates that most 
Australian Mezirinae are now known. 

The curve for publication of these records (Fig. 
1) follows a very different pattern. Following 
Walker (1873) and Bergroth (1896) who re- 
corded just 3 species prior to the turn of the 
century no further species were published for 45 
years until Usinger (1941) and Drake (1942) de- 
scribed two large apterous species Chelonoderus 
stylatus and Drakiessa hackeh, respectively, 
these being the first apterous species noted from 


No. ol species 

1B75 IQOO 1925 1950 1775 2000 

Accumulative totals ol 5-year intervals 

FIG. 1. Diagram showing the progressive increase in 
knowledge of the Australian Mezirinae since first 
records about 1870. The top line is based on the 
earliest dates of collection of each Australian species. 
The lower line is based on the earliest dates of publi- 
cation of Australian records of each species. 

the continent. The modem era began with Usin- 
ger & Matsuda's (1959) monograph of the world 
fauna. At about the same time N A. Kormilev, the 
leading specialist on the family, began a series of 
papers dealing with Australian museum collec- 
tions which led to another 22 species being re- 
ported. Following Kormilev' s last paper dealing 
with Australian species in 1971 there have been 
no addifions to the Australian mezirine fauna for 
25 years until this present pubHcadon which adds 
58 new taxa taking the published fauna from 33 
to 91 species. This takes knowledge of the Aus- 
tralian fauna to die happy situation where virtu- 
ally all species have probably been collected and 


Aradidae, particularly the cryptic apterous spe- 
cies, are relatively poorly represented in museum 
collections and a large number of species have 
been described from unique specimens. The pres- 
ent study deals with 6424 specimens of Austra- 
lian Mezirinae; despite this, Brachyrhynchus 
elegans (Kormilev) and Arbanatus peninsularis 
sp. nov. are still known only from singletons. The 
great bulk of this material has come from special- 
ist field collecting by the writer and associates. 

COLLECTING METHODS. The traditional 
method of peeling loose bark from dead trees and 
logs yields normal macroplerous genera such as 
Neuroctenus, Brachyrhynchus and Arictus which 


are the principal mezirine components in open 
eucalypt forests. However, most Australian spe- 
cies live in the dim, damp interior of rainforests 
where bark peeling is of limited usefulness. Most 
of these rainforest species, and practically all the 
apterous species, live on undersides of dead wood 
(sticks, branches, large and small logs lying on 
the ground). These are collected by close inspec- 
tion of these undersides. Because of their extreme 
camouflage and immobility a head torch is useful, 
even in the day time. Carrying pieces of wood to 
sunny patches in the forest is also of help. Since 
most species are gregarious the finding of one 
specimen on a particular piece of wood means 
that careful inspection usually reveals more. 
Often nymphs, which are less camouflaged, are 
detected first. Larger nymphs for which no asso- 
ciated adults are located can usually be reared to 
adults by keeping them with moist bark and wood 
in a plastic vial. 

Extraction in a berlese funnel of leaf litter and 
bark frass is useful for some small species, such 
as Glochocoris and Arbanatus. The technique of 
'stick brushing' is very effective for sampling the 
cryptic apterous species. Loose material adhering 
to the underside of wood lying on the ground is 
brushed with a stiff brush into a plastic bucket. 
This is continued until a couple of htres of male- 
rial is obtained. This is then extracted in an ordi- 
nary berlese funnel. 

Very small species which live in crevices and 
beetle burrows on the outer surface of dead stand- 
ing trees and stumps (e.g., Chiastoplonia spp.) 
can be obtained by spraying the surface with 
household aerosol pyrethrum and collecting 
specimens which fall onto fabric sheets on the 
ground. Occasional specimens are taken in flight 
intercept traps, including almost all known 
Ctenoneiu'us robertsi. 

All field specimens are collected directly into 
ethanol and mounted under the microscope later. 
Before mounting compacted soil is cleaned under 
ethanol from dirty specimens by loosening with 
a mounted needle and brushing with a small 
artist's camel hair brush cut off short to form stiff 
bristles. This cleaning is absolutely essential for 
most apterous species and for certain macropter- 
ous species which habitually coat themselves 
with soil (e.g., Glochocoris spp.). 

A systematic attempt has been made to sample 
all significant rainforest tracts m Australia. 
Darlington's (1960) list of his rainforest collect- 
ing localities has been useful in this respect. Only 
the monsoon forest patches in the Kimberley 

region of WA have not been included in the 



Australian Mezirinae were borrowed from the 
following institutions to which I am most grate- 
ful. They are listed with their abbreviation used 
in the text and the curators with whom I dealt: 
ANIC, Australian National Insect Collection, 
Canberra (M.S. Upton, T. A. Weir); AM, Austra- 
lian Museum, Sydney (C.N. Smithers, G.A. 
Holloway, G. Cassis); BCRI, Biological and 
Chemical Research Institute, Sydney (C.E. Chad- 
wick, M.J. Fletcher); BPBM, Bemice P. Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu (G. Nishida); BMNH, The 
Natural History Museum, London (W.R. Doll- 
ing); CAS, Californian Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco (P.H. Amaud); DJ, D, Jacobs col- 
lection, Pretoria; DSIR, Department of Scientific 
and Indusmal Research, Auckland (L. Deitz); 
EH, Ernst Heiss collection, Innsbruck; HNHM, 
Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest 
(T. Vasarheiyi); HUB, Humboldt University of 
Beriin, Berlin (U. Gollner-Scheiding); MCG, 
Museo Civico, Genoa (R. Poggi); MDPI, Deptirt- 
ment of Primary Industries, Mareeba (R.I. Sto- 
rey); MM, Macleay Museum, University of 
Sydney (H.S. Homing); MNHG, Natural History 
Museum, Geneva (D. Burckhardt); NMB, 
Naturhistorisches Museum, Basle (W. Wittmcr); 
NMNH, National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington (R. Froeschner); NRS, 
Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm (P. I. 
Persson); NTM, Northern Territory Museum 
(M.B. Malipatil, G. Brown); QDPI, Queensland 
Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane (J.F. 
Donaldson); QM, Queensland Museum, Bris- 
bane; SAM, Soudi Australian Museum, Adelaide 
(G.F. Gross); TAD, Tasmanian Agriculture De- 
partment, Hobart (M. Williams); TMAG, Tasma- 
nian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart (A. 
Green); UQIC, University of Queensland Insect 
Collection (M. Schneider); UZMH, Uni- 
versitetets Zoologiska Museum, Helsinki (M. 
Meinander); WADA, Western Australia Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Perth (K. Richards); WAM, 
Western Australian Museum, Perth (T.F. Hous- 


the maximum amount of information with econ- 
omy of space the following standard procedures 
are followed in each species account. 

A separate entry is given for the TYPE in which 
full label data is given for the primary type spec- 


imen/s, together with location, registration num- 
ber, whether examined and nomenclatural proce- 
dures such as lectotype selection. 

All other specimens are summarised under 
'Materials Examined'. An initial statement gives 
the total number of specimens. Generally with 
new species all specimens are made paratypes 
and this is indicated in that statement. In a few 
species variant specimens are excluded from 
paratyping and these are listed at the end as 'the 
following specimens are not paratypes'. Speci- 
mens are listed by Australian state and since most 
are from coastal Queensland this state is divided 
into North Queensland (north of Bowen), Central 
Queensland (Gladstone to Bowen) and South 
Queensland (south of Gladstone). Within each 
region the localities are listed from north to south 
as far as practicable. Specimen data is listed in the 
sequence: locality, number of specimens, date, 
collectors name, museum deposition. The local- 
ity name is not repeated for separate collections 
at the same locality and the museum deposition 
is only entered when it changes from the last 
citation. Thus the entry: 'Brisbane 2?!/, 
12.ii.l984, BKC, 4/, 26.ix.1993, GBM (in QM), 
5/1?,, DJC (in ANIC)' indicates 3 sepa- 
rate collections from Brisbane of which the first two 
are in the Queensland Museum and the third is in 
the Australian National Insect Collection. Material 
of species being described as new is listed in this 
manner. For common (>100 specimens), wide- 
spread described species localities and museum 
locations only are given. QM registration numbers 
for paratypes being lodged there are given at the end 
of each 'Material Examined* list 

The majority of original specimens studied are 
in the Queensland Museum, Brisbane, often in 
long series with identical data. Duplicates from 
these series have been lodged in museum collec- 
tions around the world as recorded at the end of 
each 'Material Examined' list. An almost com- 
plete collection of Australian Mezirinae is now 
housed in the Natural History Museum, London. 

Common collectors' names, and other terms, 
are abbreviated as follows: AC, A. Caider; AN- 
ZSES, Australian and New Zealand Scientific 
Exploration Society; BKC, B.K. Cantrell; DJC, 
D.J. Cook; DKY, D.K. Yeates; EW, Earthwatch; 
GBM, G.B. Monteith; GIT, G.L Thompson; 
HAH, H. & A. Howden; HJ, H. Janetzki; JFL, J.F. 
Lawrence; JH, J. Hasenpusch; JS, J. Seymour; 
LR, L. Roberts; NP, National Park; RIS, R.L 
Storey; RS, R. Sheridan; SJP, S. & J. Peck; SH, 
S. Hamlet; SF, State Forest; SRM, S.R. Monteith; 
TAW, T.A. Weir. 

MEASUREMENTS. Aradidae are variable, and 
often asymmetrical, insects. Precise measure- 
ments are generally not useful in taxonomy 
though relative proportions of some body parts 
are. For these reasons the amount of measure- 
ments presented is moderate. For each species the 
primary type has been measured plus a large and 
small specimen of each sex where available. This 
is designed to give the size range, rather than any 
statistical mean which is not a useful concept. The 
standard series of measurements with the abbre- 
viations used in the text are: L, total length from 
apex of head to tip of abdomen; W, width across 
widest part of abdomen; HL, head length from 
anterior tip of head to front margin of proihorax; 
HW, head width across the eyes; PL, median 
length of pronotum; PW, maximum width of 
pronotum; AS (I-IV), length of antennal seg- 
ments from the basal segment (I) to the apical 
(W); SL, median length of scutellum; SW, max- 
imum width of scutellum; WL, wing length; CL, 
length of the corium. Wing, corium and scutellum 
measurements are not taken for apterous species. 


The biology of the Aradidae was reviewed by 
Usinger & Matsuda (1959). Their life style is a 
rather sedentary existence in association with 
fungal decay of dead wood. Long periods are 
spent feeding with the elongate stylets inserted 
into the wood. Camouflage is a necessary adjunct 
to this behaviour and protects them during this 
enforced immobility. 

Macropterous and apterous Mezirinae live in 
Australia (Fig. 2) and so far as is known all except 
termitophilous Aspisocoris live in association 
with dead wood. 

The basic division in biology is between those 
that live in the compressed space beneath loose 
bark (subcortical) and those that live on the out- 
side of the bark. The subcortical environment is 
a temporary one, existing only for the period after 
the bark becomes loose and before it is com- 
pletely shed (Monteith, 1969). It is also a spatially 
discontinuous habitat and there may be a consid- 
erable dispersal required from one log to another 
with suitable loose bark. The subcortical environ- 
ment is typical of open forest where direct sun- 
light and desiccation cause bark to shrink and 
loosen. In rainforest, bark on dead wood usually 
stays moist and persistent, decaying slowly as the 
wood decays. Higher humidity enables Aradidae 
to live on the outside of the bark in rainforest, 
particularly on the underside of logs and sticks 



P -,--:?^- 

FIG. 2. Living examples of Ausiraiian Me/.irinae. A, d (righl) and 9 of Drakiessa hackeri. AustraJia's Largest 
iipecies. B, 9 (lower right) and 2 d o( Drakiessa confusa. C, Six adults (top) and 3 nymphs of A rictus monreiltu. 
D. Adults of Neuroctenus woodwardi. A and B are wingless species which live on undersides of dead wood c«n 
ihe ground. C and D are typical winged species which live under loose bark on dead logs and trees. 

lying on the ground. This habitat is abundant and 
semi-continuous on twigs, slicks and logs in and 
on the moist litter of rainforests. Thus long dis- 
persals to new food sources are not necessary in 
this environment. 

Tlie implications of these habitat differences to 
the biology of Mczirinae ai"e: 

1) Opeti forest species are flattened, subcorti- 
cal, winged species with good dispersal powers 
and hence most arc rather widespread They lay 
large numbers of eggs and go through their life 
cycle rapidly, building up large colonies to ex- 
ploit their temporary habitat. Most open forest 
species of Brachyrhynchus, Neuroctenus (Fig. 
2r)) ami Arictiis (Fig. 2C) fall into this category. 

2) Rainforest species tend to be less flattened 
(sometimes highly convex) and live on the outer 
surface of the bark. They occur in small colonies 
which may persist for a number of years on a 
smgle log. Eggs produced are few, large and are 
not deposited in batches. Individuals are king 

lived and colonies usually consist of overlapping 
generations of all nymphal stages. Habitat lon- 
gevity and spatial continuity means that there is 
little or no need for dispersal flights. Thus many 
species have lost wings entirely (Neophlaeobui^ 
Drakiessa, etc.), others are macropterous hut ce- 
ment their wings down with accumulated debris 
early in adult life (Chinessa, Glochocorix, 
Chiasroplonia, etc.), while a very few compro- 
mise by maintaining wing dimorphism 
iCaecicoris, Usingerida). Lack (A di.spers<ll 
power means that many rainforest species have 
small geographic ranges. 

Naturally there are exceptions to these general- 
ized categories but They are relatively few in 
number. There are some normal subconical spe- 
cies in rainforest (some Neurocrenus, Arictm, 
Ctenoneurus). There are a few litter-inhabiting 
species in open forest (Glochocoris brishanicus^ 
Brachyrhynchus witsom). and there are occa- 
sional i^^terous jipeiies in open forests f OniAir ami 




D P^' 


FIG. 3. Brachyrhynchus ausrralis, morphology, A, 9 dorsal view; B. ventral: C. 6 ventral abdomen; D, c5 dorsal 
abdomen with wings removed. Abbreviaiions: ll-Vll=connexivaorabdominai segments 2-7. VlII=paratergitcs 
ol'segment 8; acr=anlenna!crenuialionsiant=aiitenniterousLubertie;ca=cailus;cga=connexivaI glabrous areas; 
cl=c!ypeus; cla=clavus; co=corium; Cu=vein Cu; gp=gcnal process; iga=inner glabrous areas; j=jugum: 
m=hcmelyiral membranes; mpsg=metapleural scent gland; mga=midlateral glabrous areas; ms=mesosiernuTn; 
mt=metastemum; pc=pronotal collar; pf=pronotal furrow; ptl=pronotal fore lobe; phl=pronolul hind lobe; 
pot=posiocular tubercle; pp=postenor paiandria; ps=prosiemum; py^pygophore; r=roslmm; ra=rostrai atrium; 
rg=rostral groove: R+M=veins R+M; sc=scuiellum; sle=sublaieral elevations; sme=submedian elevations; 
soc=supra-ocular carina; td=tergal disk: v=vertex- 

hackerl). Wing condition, habitat preference and 
vegetation aftllialion are recorded for all Austra- 
lian Mezirinae in Figs 69 & 70. 

Often a considerable number of species co- 
exist in the one rainforest tract. There does not 
seem to be any species association with wood 
from particular host tree species. However there 
is a decided preference by aradid spectes for 
timber of different si/e and decay stale, and this 
may reflect associations with specific fungal spe- 
cies. Rough categories of Aasiralian rainforest 
Me/irinac in terms of their association with wood 
of different decay states are as follows: 

1) Newly fallen timber. Includes fallen wood, 
less than about a year old, in which the bark has 
not begun to decay on the underside and many 
separate smaller branches and twigs on the forest 

floor. Associated aradids tend to be less sedentary 
species. (Neophloeobia, Mesojyhloeohia, 
Granulaptera, Caecicoris, Usingerida). 

2) Intermediate aged limber. Includes small and 
large logs with most bark intact but decayed on 
the underside to provide many small cracks and 
crevices. Associated aradids are the more seden- 
tary and often convex species which lead a cam- 
ouflaged life resting in cavities {Aegisocorix, 
Chelonoderus, Cfnnessa, Scironocons). 

3) Old roued timber. Includes large old logsund 
remnants of old logs which have lost all bark and 
are decayed on underside into large crevices and 
cavities. Two distinct groups inhabiting this situ- 
ation arc large apterous species heavily camou- 
flaged with detritus {Drakiessa spp.), and very 


Mnall winged species which form large colonics 
(Glocliocons, Chiostoplonia, Claxkomtay 


Morphology of the Aradidae is rreaied by Usin- 
ger &. Matsuda (1959) while others with usefu] 
general discussion^i are Jacobs f]'?K6j, Picchi 
(1977) and Stys (1974». Other works with signif- 
icant components devoted to the Me/irinae in- 
clude Wygodzinsky (1948) on Neotropical 
species, Lee & Pendergrast ( 1976) on New Zea- 
land species and Kaniai (1967 1 on iniemal anat- 
omy ot Austraiiao species. The excelleni 
illusiralions in the publications of Ernst Heiss, 
e.g-> Heiss 1989h, contribute much to our knowl- 
edge of aradtd morphology. 

The present treatment aims lo describe charac- 
ters and terminology used in the subsequent keys, 
and descriptions. Some sections have been ex- 
panded where potential exists for wider taxo- 
nomic application. As a basis for discussion 
comprehensive labelled diagrams of a lypical 
inacropierous species. Brachyrhyrichusausiralis, 
are provided (Fig. 3). 

Head. The head is generally short and broad so 
(hat median length and width across the eyes are 
subcqual The head margin fcehind the eyes may 
be variously prodiiced into post-ocular tubercles 
which are commonly flattened, angulate projec- 
tions (Fig. 3 A ), but may be cylindrical (Figs 34B, 
60). backwardly-direc'ted lobes (Fig. 24A). re- 
duced to narrow strips (Fig. 37A), or entirely 
ab.senl (Figs 47B. 27A, 20G), Sometimes a sec- 
ondary pair oftubercles is developed posterior to 
the true posiociilar tubercles (Fig. 42) The eyes 
a/c small> usually rather exsened (Fig. 3A) and 
may be mounted on stylate bases (Fig. 42). Im- 
mediately anterior to the eyes arc the antennifer- 
ous tubercles which may be separated from the 
eyes by deep clefts (Figs 42, 41 ), especially in 
apterous species. The antenniferous tubercles 
may be strongly divergent (Fig- 61 D) or sub- 
parallel (Fig. 57). and may have acute (Fig. 6 IB) 
Of blunt (Fig. 40H) apices; sometimes they are 
greatly reduced (Fig. 27AI. A median anterior 
projection of the head consists of the enlarged 
clypeus, which houses the coiled sxylets when 
retracted. On each side of the base of the clypeus 
are the juga (mandibular plates) (Fig. 3A) which 
never approach the clypcai apex in Mezinnae; by 
contrast the genae are almost invariably enlarged 
and usually surpass the clypeal apex to form a 
bilobed (Fig. 3A). or even strongly bifid (Figs 
24H. 6 IB), apex to the head. In a lew cases both 

clypeus and genal processes are greatly reduced, 
bringing the aniennal bases closely approximate 
(Figs 27A. 27E). The vertex is usuallj elevated 
w the same jevel as the clypeus and bears gran- 
ules or small tubercles (Fig. 3A) which may be 
arranged in longitudinal rows (Fig. 34B). 

The antennaie are 4-segmemed, with, in Austra- 
lian species, all segments of the same order of 
length. Segments IK III and fV usually have ptrt- 
iolatc bases (Fig. 57) which may be absent on 11 
and JW (Fig. 3)- In Brachyr}iyfKhus (Fig. 37C) 
and Arktiu (Fig. 34C} the apices of segments IT 
and ni are crenulate. In the lermitophilous As- 
pn(?corh. segments 111 and fV are fused (Fig. 18) 
but with suture indistinctly visible. Anicnnal vcs- 
liture IS generall y inconspicuous but jnay be long 

The rostrum »s 4-5egmentcd and. m length, 
rarely exceeds the hind margin of the head (Fig. 
32Bi. It arises from a subapical rostral ulriurn 
which is usually narrow and slit-like (closcvi) 
(Figs 3B^ 121). but which may rarely be open, 
fully exposing the insertion point of the rostrum 
(Fig. 32B). The rostnmi norroaUy lies in arosuul 
groove en the ventral side of the head, margined 
by rostral carinae: die groove may be closed 
posteriorly by joining of the rostral carinae (Fig. 
1 21) or may de open (Fig 1 2J). Very infrequently 
the rostral groove and carinae may be obliterated 
(Fig. 12K;i. 

Thorax. The pronotum, in macroplerous species. 
is divided into a fore lob2 and a larger hiiid lolw 
by a transverse discontinuity which often forms a 
furrow (Fig. 3A.i. In its generalised form the fore 
lobe is divided into 4 low elevations: a pair in the 
middle of the pronoiiun, lying one on each side 
of the midline and here termed the submcdian 
elevations, and a pair lying between them and the 
lateral margins and here termed the sublatcral 
elevations. Each subn>edian elevation is usually 
formed around a smooth disc, termed the pionotal 
callus. These elevations of the fore lobe are vari- 
ably developed. The submedian areas may be 
obliterated tFig. 19). the subbteral oTies nrwy be 
lost (Fig. 20C), or all four may be absent, as m 
NeurocTenus (Fig. 12B). The pronoial hind lohe 
is conspictKius in macropterous species but com- 
pletely lost in apterous genera- In brachyptcrous 
species (Fig. 19) and in the tM-achypterous morphs 
of dimorphic st>ecies (Figs 20G, 22A). the hmd 
lobe is rediiced to a namow, transverse band 
smaller than the fore lobe. 

The scutellura is triangular in macropterous and 
brachypte.a>us species, usually wiQj raargm^ 
thickened 4nd carinate. The basal angles oltcn 




FIG. 4. Mezirinae dorsal surfaces. A- J, tergal discs of winged species with wings removed. A, Neurocienus 
yorkensis; B, N. crassicornis; C, N. proximus; D, Ctenoneurus australis; E, Artahanus bilobiceps\ F, Arbanatus 
frazieri; G, Chinessa bispiniceps\ H, Usingerida roberti; I, A rictus monteithi: J, Caecicoris microcerus. K-N, 
thorax and abdomen of wingless genera. K, Neophloeobia elongata; L, Aegisocoris konnilevi; M, Drakiessa 
wassetli; N, Chelonoderus minor. Abbreviations: I-VI=abdominal segments 1-6; mplll=median plate of 
segment 3; mst=mesothorax; mtt=raetathorax; otl, ot2, ot3, ot4, ot5, ot6, ot7=opposable tubercles at positions 
noted in text; pt=prothorax. 



FIG. 5. A-R, dorsal views of pygophores. A, Neuroctenus woodwardi\ B. N. occidentalis: C, N. grandis; D, N. 
pan E, M crassicomis\ F, N. yorkensis\ G, N. eurycephalus\ H, Ctenoneurus australis; I. Artabanus bilobiceps\ 
J, Scironocoris australis', K, Usingerida robeni; L, Chinessa bispiniceps; M, Arbanatus frazieri; N, Aricius 
monteithi\ O, Brachyrhynchussulcatus; P, 5. australis; Q,AegtsocorisgranulaTus\ R, Gramdapteraovaia. S-X. 
expanded aedeagi, ventral and lateral views. S-T. Neuroctenus crassicomis\ U-V, Mesophloeobia australica; 
W-X, Drakiessa consobrina. Abbreviations: ap=anterior parandria; c=conjunctiva; cp=conjunclival process; 
er=ejaculaiory reservoir: dop=dorsal opening of pygophore; gp=gonopore; ph=phallolheca; py(e)=exposed 
portion of pygophore; py(i)=iniemal portion of pygophore; pm=paramere; pp(b)=basal part of posterior 
parandria; pp(d)=distal part of posterior parandria; sp=spinu]es; si=scIeroiised teeth; X=abdominal segment 1 0. 



FIG. 6, Artabanus 
B. Dciail ot leeih 

have small teeth overlapping 
the hind pronotal margin (Fig. 
] 2B), or the middle of Ihe ante- 
rior margin may be broadly 
produced likewise (Figs 20A, 
27E, 34A}. The midline of the 
sculellardisc may havea smgle 
longitudinal ridge (Fig. 20C), a 
iriradiate ridge (Fig. 21 Ah or a 
distinct cross (Fig. 32F). In ap- 
terous speeics the scutellum be- 
comes completely fused with 
surrounding scleritcs bui is nor- 
mally SLJJI recognisable as an 
elevation in the centre of the 

The hemelytra of macropters 
rarely reach beyond the hind margin of abdomi- 
nal segment VI. and are usually a little longer in 
males than in females. Coria may be well devel- 
oped, reaching well beyond apex of scutellum. in 
which case two prominent longitudinal vems are 
present, R + M and Cu (Figs 3A. 20 A i In some 
genera the coria are vei7 abbreviated, often with- 
out veins present (Figs 29 A, 27Ck The term 
'Brachyplerous' is applied lo species with normal 
scutellum and with hemelytra reduced to mov- 
able vestiges which may be the entire original 
cohum (Figs l^, 22A), or only a linv vestige 
thereof (Fig. 20G). 'Apterous' species lack a de- 
fined scutellum and have wing vestiges either 
entirely absent, or as sttiaJI ngid tubercles which 
become fixed as pan of the thoracic ornamenta- 

The mesonotum and raeianoium become 
highly modified in the apterous species, with 
much of die original segmentation obscured by 
development of a complex secondary patterri of 
tubercles, ridges, pus and furrows. A recurring 
phenomenon of this secondary modification is 
the pairs of tubercles which project towards each 
other with their apices adjacent but not touching 
(Fig. 4K-Ni. These may occur on the dorsum of 
the head, thorax and abdomen and can be shown 
to be homologous wilhin and between certain 
genera; consequently they are of considerable 
value in classification. Siiicc they do not appear 
to have been noted per se previously 1 propose die 
term 'opposable tubercles* for them, Their func- 
tion and signitlcance arc unknown; they occur 
only in apterous species, always m pairs, and 
almost invariably on opposite sides of a sumre. 
The last observation suggests that they may have 
some function as strengthemng devices prevent- 
ing flexing of the body wall along the sutures. 

bilobiceps A. SEM of stridulatory fdc on the hind tibia. 
of same. 

This would aid in *crush proofing' these insects 
which live on the underside of wood lying on the 
ground where they are vulnerable to being 
squashed as the wotni is moved about on the 
forest floor by animal foraging and rain run-off. 

Some of the species with best development of 
diese tut>ercles are those which normally carry a 
thick soil layer(e.g . Driz/ju'^i^ispp); possibly the 
tubercles are also forenhancement of the capacity 
to hold a soil layer. Distribution of opposable 
lutiercles in four Australian apterous genera is 
shown in Figs 4K-N. 

Legs.lhc femora bear conspicuous ventral spines 
in Scironocons (Fig 20J) and Artobamtx <Figs 
15L, 16M). while the hind iibiae bear a striilula- 
tory mw of fine teeth in A nabanus (Figs 6A-B, I bL^ 

The pretarsal structures o^ Aradidae have po- 
tential m taxonomy but have been little em- 
ployed. Basically there are tw() pairs of processes, 
in addition to the claws, on the aradid preiarsus: 
a pair of fine bnsiles aiisi ng from the unguitractor 
plate between the bases of the claws, and a pair 
of larger lobes arising one beneath each claw and 
attached to it. There has been conlxision over 
terminology of these structures Myers A: China 
(19281 called them *pscudarolia' and 'aroha' re- 
spectively; Uslnger & Matsuda (]959i used 'me- 
dian bristles* for the appendages of the 
unguitractor plate and Kormilev followed this in 
his many papers. Cobben ( 1968). GocI & Schac- 
fer ( 1970) and Shuh (1976) established the no- 
menclature 'parempodia' and ^pu]villi\ 
respectively, for the 2 types of sU*ucturcs and this 
has been applied across the aradid subfamilies 
(Vdsdrhely. 1986; Fig. 7). Tlierangeof stnicturcs 
indicate future usefulness for higher classifica- 
tion within the subfamily. 
Abdomen The abdomen has 6 segments fuUy 
developed in dorsal view (U-VTI). all of which 



FIG 7- SEMs of preiarsaJ structures of Australian Mezirinae. A, Usingerida roberti. B, Aricms momeUht C. 
Artabanus bihbiceps. D, Cterwneurus ansiralis E, Neuroctem4S grandis. F, Neophloeobia montrouzi^ri. 
Abbreviations: cl=tarsal claw; p=pulvillus; pm=pareitipodia. 

have connexival plates cut off laterally by dorsal 
and ventral connexival sutures which run lon- 
gitudinally along the body. The margins of the 
connexiva, particularly of VI and VII, are fre- 
quently lobed (Fig. 47J) or angled (Fig. 47L) and 
their precise shape is of great value in identifica- 
tion at the specific level. The abdominal terga and 
sterna bear sinalU smooth discs which Usinger & 
Matsuda ( 1 959) termed glabrous areas and which 
Slys (1974) showed are points of muscle inser- 
tions on the cuticle. The Mezirinae have 2 con- 
nexival glabrous areas on each conncxivum, 2 
midlaleral glabrous areas placed immediately 
mesal of the connexival sutures, and a single 
inner glabrous area on each side of the midline of 
each of abdominal segments HT-VI (Fig. 3A-D). 

While tlie segmentation of the connexiva is 
clearly marked, except for occasional fusion of TI 
and in (Fig. 16A), the median regions of the 
abdominal icrga preceding VII are invariably 
fused to a greater or lesser extent into a rigid 
tergal disc. Normally the wings, at rest, cover 
only the middle of the tergal disc (Fig. 3A), 
leaving the rmdlateral glabrous areas exposed. 
B ul in a giDup of very small genera (davicornia, 

Chiasfoplonia, Glochocoris, Arbanatus\ 
Corynophloeobia) the wings cover the whole ter- 
gal disc (Figs 27A. 27F). The portion of the tergal 
disc concealed beneath the wings is always Hal, 
smooth and glabrous, But when the tergal disc is 
exposed, either partially as in most macn^pterous 
species or wholly as in apterous tonus the ex- 
posed portion becomes rugose, pitied and often 
setose. In some apterous genera this becomes 
extreme, with secondary patterns of ridges 
formed, or even gross convexity of the whole 
tergal disc as in Aegisocoris (Fig. 5 ID) and 
Pseudoargocoris {?'\g. 51 A). 

In cleared preparations the central tergal disc of 
macropterous species shows a very distinct pat- 
tern of glabrous areas, segmental punctured discs, 
and sutures which varies enormously from spe- 
cies to species. Usinger & Matsuda ( 1 959) drew 
attention to the potential usefulness of this feature 
in the Mezirinae and figured tergal discs in 15 
representative genera. However, they admit that 
a general phylogenelic picture is not yet evident. 
Hsiao ( 1 964) figured the tergal discs of a number 
of Chinese Mezira species. I tigure here 8 genera 
and 1 1 species tram the Australian fauna to en- 



large the available data on this useful character 
(Figs 3D, 4A-J). The most generalised pattern is 
seen in Caecicoris which has the inner discs of 
segments II-VI completely separate; variable 
amounts of fusion occur in other genera with 
virtually no sutures in Arictus and Arbanatus; 
partial fusion of 111 and IV seems characteristic 
o( Neuroctenus, Ctenoneurus Sind Chinessa. Sep- 
aration of a median plate between the lateral discs 
of segment 111 occurs in Artabanus and 
Usingerida (Figs 4E, 4H) as well as in 
Odontonotus (Usinger & Malsuda, 1959). Per- 
haps the most basic dichotomy is between those 
genera with the suture between II and DI contin- 
uous and forming the functional anterior margin 
to the fused tergal disc (e.g., Neuroctenus, 
Ctenoneurus and Chinessa), and those in which 
the l/II suture becomes the functional suture so 
that all or part of segment 11 is incorporated in the 
fused tergal disc (e.g., Brachyrhynchiis, Arictus, 
Artabanus), In Australian apterous genera the 
condition of the tergal disc agrees with the latter 
group and this is taken as partial evidence of their 
evolution from a Brachyrhynchus-Wko- ancestor. 

Spiracles in the Mezirinae are normally present 
on abdominal segments Il-Vlll and are usually 
situated on the ventral side, far from the margin 
as in Brachyrhynchiis (Fig. 3B). Among Austra- 
lian genera, Glochocoris is the only one with 
reduction in spiracle number, those of segment U 
being absent (Fig, 29G). Among other genera, 
some spiracles may move to the body margin and 
be visible in dorsal view (Figs 13F, 27C, 32G), 
but none are truly dorsal. In some apterous spe- 
cies which cover themselves with a thick layer of 
din the spiracles may be mounted on low tuber- 
cles, e.g., Drakiessa glaebida and D. cantrelli. 

Ornamentation of the abdominal sterna is rare 
except in males of some genera where secondary 
sexual structures provide very useful characters 
which have been largely overlooked in the past. 
In Arictus, sternum VI bears species specific pat- 
terns of raised, smooth callosities which may 
incorporate the glabrous areas (Figs 34K-P). In 
other groups ornamentation is restricted to ster- 
num VIl. In Glochocoris a prominent, flattened 
spine is present (Figs. 24F, 241); in the apterous 
Drakiessa (Fig 43), Neophloeobia (Fig. 53) and 
Mesophloeobia (Fig 58) median, unpaired, pol- 
ished calli, bosses or tubercles may occur. 

Male Genitalia. The male genitalia have been 
little used in conventional taxonomy of Aradidae. 
The aedeagus and parameres are contained inside 
the subspherical, externally visible pygophore (= 
'hypopygium' of Kormilev) which is morpholog- 

ically abdominal segment IX. On each side of the 
pygophore project the paratergites of the reduced 
segment Vlll. These bear a spiracle and their 
shape is often useful in taxonomy. The pygophore 
is divided into a smooth, lightly sclerotised ante- 
rior portion which retracts inside segment Vn at 
rest, and a rugose, heavily sclerotised posterior 
portion which remains exposed. Much of the 
dorsal region of the anterior portion is taken up 
with an opening through which the aedeagus 
protrudes during copulation. Visible in this open- 
ing are the vestigial tergum X bearing the anus, 
and the apices of the parameres. Posterior to the 
dorsal opening, the rim of the dorsal wall of the 
pygophore is divided into a pair of triangular 
plates which are variously modified. The nomen- 
clature and homology of these plates is a matter 
of considerable contention. One trend has been to 
call them styli, without necessarily accepting that 
they are true gonopods of segment IX (Usinger & 
Matsuda, 1959; Lee &Pendergrast, 1977; Jacobs, 
1986), though the homology of such structures 
with true gonopods in the Hemiptera has been 
argued by Matsuda (1976). The alternative is to 
accept Leston's (1955) proposal of parandria, a 
term which regards the structures as outgrowths 
of the pygophore wall without any primitive ho- 
mology, and this course has been adopted by 
Monteith ( 1 966) and Schaefer ( 1 977) and will be 
followed here. 

The best development of parandria in the 
Aradidae is in the chinamyersiines Kumaressa 
and Tretocoris, with 2 large pairs, called by Mon- 
teith (1966) the anterior parandria and the poste- 
rior parandria. The anterior parandria arc 
equivalent to what Usinger & Matsuda (1959) 
call the subtriangular plates, and similar differen- 
tiated regions of the pygophore wall have been 
noted in Ctenoneurus and Woodwardiessa (Lee 
& Pendergrast, 1977). The only case noted in the 
present study where the anterior parandria are 
distinct, semi-mobile sclerites is in Artabanus 
(Fig. 51). Only the posterior parandria are gener- 
ally developed in the Mezirinae. Lee & Pendcrgr- 
ast ( 1 977) commented on their division into basal 
and distal portions in Woodwardiessa quadrata, 
ahhough their figures of Ctenoneurus species 
showed similar divisions. This subdivision of the 
posterior parandria is here shown to be a wide- 
spread phenomenon in the subfamily. 

To illustrate the range of variability and the 
potential taxonomic use of parandrial develop- 
ment the pygophores of 1 1 genera and 1 8 Austra- 
lian species are shown (Figs 5A-R). The 
generalized condition appears in Brachy- 



rkynchns (Figs 5M-N) where the parandria are 
divided for their full length and have triangular^ 
membranous, djstal appendices which Ht under 
the niargin of lerguo) Vfl ai fesl. This sanic pat- 
tern occurs in most Australian apterous genera 
(e.g.. Grmiiiapiera, Fig. 5R). In oiher groups 
vuriwto degrees of fusion take place. The basal 
pontons may fuse but still retain a median sumre 
(Figs 50. 5P); the parandna may be greatly re- 
duced (Figs 5B-C) or completely eliminated 
(Figs 5E, 5U 5Q); the distal appendices may fuse 
into a single flap (Figs 5E. 50. 5K. 5L); separate 
mobile areas may be cut off by secondary sutures 
<Rgs 5A, 5K). A distinctive development is seen 
in some species of the related group comprising 
Neuroaeniis, Ctenoneurus and Chinessa where 
the lateral walls of the pygophore grow inwards, 
eliminating the basal portions of the p;u^afKlriri 

Parameres in this subfamily are generally flai- 
lened or conchoid and lack the complex hooks 
«ind processes which make them s*^ useful in 
many other groups of Hemiptera. A feature of 
potential taxonomic use is the band of shon ridges 
which occurs down the inner posterior margin of 
parameres oi Brachyrhynchus (Figs 37I-L). It has 
also been noted in the Neotropical Dysodius 
(Heiss, 1990). This structure has the appearance 
of a slridulatory mechanism but since no corre- 
spotiding plectrum can be located this seems un- 
likely. The inner face of each paramere bears 
against the valves of the female ovipositor w hich 
urc paniali) thrust into the pygophore dunng 
copulation; conceivably the band of ridges en- 
hances the grip between male and female. The 
same band of ridges occur^i on parameres of all 
members of the complex of fully apterous genera 
in Australia as well <is on the New Zealand 
Woodwardiessa and the New Caledonian 

Arlificial inflation of the acdcagus in the 
.Aradidae is very difilcult and opportunities for 
studying the inflated organ rely largely on col- 
lecting copulating pairs. Acdeagi of Me/.irinae 
have been figured by Usinger & Matsuda (1959) 
(oT Aricti4S, Mezira and Ctenoneurus, by Mon- 
leiih ( 1 969a), lor Caccicoris, by Lcc & Pcndcrgr- 
ast (1977) for Ctenoneurus and Woodwa/diessa, 
and herein (Fig. 5S-X)for Mesophloeohia, 
Drakiessa and Neurocienus. No patterns arc yet 
discernible in the subfamily due to the paucity of 
material. Neuroaenus agrees with its relative 
Ctenoneurus in having sderotii^J teeth on K>n>e 
lif the conjunctival processes. Similarly. 

Wood^f'ardiessa and Mesophhftfhia each have 
patches of spinules on the conjunctival processes. 

Female spenmathecae in the .Aradidac have 
been reviewed by Lee & Pendergrast (I9H:1) 
■hough Ihey saw only Ctenoneurus, Wood- 
wardie^sa and Mezira among the Mezirinac. 
Kumar (19fi7j examined the organ in Ncu- 
rocrenus. Drakiesm. A rictus, Neophheohia, 
hiesophioeobki ^nd Bnu^yrhynchus. A iurihcr 
40 species in 1 1 genera are figured herein T\^t 
spermatheca in this subfamily conforms to the 
conventional pcntatomoid type in having a sub- 
spherical t>ulb and a pump region with both distal 
and proximal pump flanges. These confirm the 
general uniformity of striKlure of ll»e bulb and 
pump region in the subfamily. The only majur 
deviation is m Artidmnus (Fig. 20E) whei\: the 
proximal pump flange has prominent teeth, llow- 
eveT, the duel connecting the bulb to the vaginal 
wall sbow^ a considerable range of modifiea- 
lions, some of which have classiiaciory valuc^ 
The sin^plest situation is where the duct is shon, 
membranous and not dilated (Figs47Et 58N); this 
type is found in moslapten^us genera and in some 
macroptcrous genera such as/^mrm (Fig. '^40]. 
Frequently the duct becomes dilated into a large 
or small sac (Figs 44g, 580) which may beci>nu; 
heavily scleroiised 'Figs 24R, 54Q) or nyjiic 
rarely have internal valve-like ridges (Fig. 44h). 
tn Us'mgerida the duct is dilated, sclerotised. and 
bent into a rigid U-shape (Fig 24R)- Often Ihe 
point where the duct enters the vagina is strengUi- 
encd by a short scleroiised ring around the duct 
(Fig. 44e.i and in Chinessa this sckrotiiation 
extends a considerable distance along the duct 

A remarkable siluatiun is seen in Gramdaptera 

where the spcnnathccal duct is ver:, long, thrn, 
coiled and enters the vagina via a large hollow, 
sclerotised bursa, formal from \hc vaginal wall 
lather than the duct itself (Figs 63G-L): the ovyl 
bursa rests ir^insvcri^ly iktoss the vagina with the 
spemTathecal duct entering it consistently fron) 
the riglu-tuuid suie. 

In NeuroctefjHs w^cw^Ai'^rd//, Kumar (1967), 
using the name iV. proxinms, reet^vrded a lateral, 
tnemhranous, sac-Iikc diverliculuni \o the sper- 
maihecal duct which he called an acccsswy 
gland. This is now seen to be characlensliv of 
Neuroctcnus (Fig. l2L-\). Lcc & Fcndcrgrasi 
(1977. 1983) noted a similar condition in all 3 
New Zealand species of related Ctenoneuntsr, 
however, the one Au.stralian species studied ficre 
{Ctenoneurus australis. Fig, 161) apparently 
lacks the divcniculum. The only other me/irijw 



where a diverticulum was noted is Caecicoris 
microcerus (Fig. 201) but in this case it is rigid 
and sclerotised. 


The genera of Mezirinae have increased from 
83 to 125 since Usinger & Matsuda's (1959) 
monograph. However there is no tribal classifi- 
cation to enable any subdivision of genera and the 
resolution of this problem is one of the outstand- 
ing needs among modem Hemiptera studies. The 
22 genera recorded from Australia herein (Figs 
8-10) are a small proportion of the world total 
comprising less than half the approximately 60 
genera from the Oriental -Pacific region. Further- 
more, the Australian genera by no means form a 
monophyletic group, but clearly have several or- 
igins in time and space. For these reasons a con- 
sideration of interrelationships among Australian 
genera must perforce be superficial. One group of 
Australian genera, however, do appear to have 
evolved on the continent as a single endemic unit. 
These are the 7 fully apterous genera which in- 
clude almost half the Australian species. 

GENERA. This category includes the tlrst 15 
genera in the systematic accounts which follow. 
The classification adopted here for them is essen- 
tially that of Usinger & Matsuda (1959) but the 
names of 4 generic taxa used by them have changed. 
Three of these involve the synonymy of generic 
names erected by Usinger & Matsuda with those 
of previously described genera of which species 
were unavailable to them during their review. 
These are Dimorphacantha, Zeugocoris and Pic- 
tinellus which have gone to synonymy oi Scir- 
onocoris, Caecicoris and Arbanatus, respectively. 
The fourth is Mezira which has been subdivided 
by Kormilev & Froeschner ( 1987) such that the 
Australian taxa attributed to it by Usinger & 
Matsuda are now placed in Brachyrhynchus. Two 
Australian genera have been described since 
Usinger & Matsuda, \\z. Aspisocoris Komiilev and 
Corytiophlveobia gen. nov., both monotypic en- 

All recognised Australian genera, with the ex- 
ception o{ Aspisocoris and Corynophloeobia, are 
included in the generic keys of Usinger & 
Matsuda (1959). Kormilev ( 1 97 1 ) gives a key to 
the Oriental-Pacific genera which also includes 
all the Australian winged taxa except Corynophloeo- 
bia although 5 ( Caecicoris, Scironocoris, 
Usingerida, Chinessa and Arbanatus) were not 

known from Australia at that stage. Kormilev's is 
basically the same key as that developed by Usin- 
ger & Matsuda, and the generic key in the present 
work follows the same pattern with inclusion of 
all taxa and slight modification. 

The 1 5 genera in this section can be divided into 
the following groups for discussion: 
Group A: Neuroctenus, Ctenoneurus, Chinessa. 
The first two genera are closely related, with 
some non-Australian intermediate forms. They 
share transverse ridges on the abdominal sterna 
and almost invariably a large lateral diverticulum 
to the spermathecal duct. Chinessa lacks both 
these features but is placed with these 2 genera 
because all 3 have a very characteristic form of 
inner tergal disc in which terga 11 and III are 
separated by a continuous suture. Non- Australian 
genera which belong here include Overlaetiella 
(Africa-S.E. Asia) and Hoberlandtiella (Africa). 
Group B: Aspisocoris. This unique, brachypter- 
ous genus is endemic to SW Australia. Its many 
modifications for termitophily obscure its rela- 
tionships but it may be allied to Ctenoneurus in 
Group A. 

Group C: Clavicornia, Chiastoplonia, 
Corynophloeobia, Glochocoris, Arbanatus. 
These genera form the Australian component of 
a large Oriental- Pacific group which has very 
small body size coupled with large wings which 
cover the mid-lateral portion of the tergal disc. 
Non-Australian genera allied to them include 
Aphelocoris, Dolichothyreus and Acoryphocoris 
from the Indo-Pacific, and the African Usingeria. 
Group D: Brachyrhynchus, Arictus, unspecial- 
ized genera which share reduction of tarsal 
pulvilli. Daulocoris and Kerna, both from S.E. 
Asia are related. The many species placed in 
Mezira are also allied though Mezira continues to 
be a taxonomic dumping ground. 
Group E: Artabanus, Caecicoris, Scironocoris 
and Usingerida. These genera are members of a 
loosely defined group of Indo-Pacific genera with 
strong tendencies to brachypterism and its asso- 
ciated modifications which obscure relation- 
ships. Most lack postocular tubercles and have 
teeth on fore margin of the scuiellum. Related 
genera include Mastigocoris and Phanocoris. 

APTEROUS GENERA. The generic classifica- 
tion of the apterous species has required consid- 
erable modification in the present work which 
treats 40 Ausu*alian species. Prior to the present 
study only 13 of these apterous species were 
known in 6 genera, 3 of them monotypic, placed 
by 4 different authors in 7 publications stretching 



over 26 years. This necessanlv fragmentary ap- 
proach 10 the discovery and classification of Aus- 
traJian species, and pajlicularly the fact thai only 
4 species were known to Usmger & Matsuda 
(1959) has meant that the generic classification 
hiis developed in an ad hoc manner with consc- 
quern lack ot definition and stability. 

ClassificaTion of apterous species is fraught 
■with many difficulties. The obviously polypby- 
Jetic nature of the apterous condition has been 
stressed (Usinger. 1950: Usinger & Matsuda, 
1959) but we are still unable to rccog(\iie mono- 
phyletic groups of genera with confidence in 
cither geographic or laxonomic terms. Funher- 
more, it is7aie that macropteious, ancestral laxa 
can be recognized for groups of apterous species 
The remarkable change m appearance which 
Accompanies loss of wing function, even in dif- 
ferent morphs of the same species (Monteith. 
1969) means that phenetic divergence from the 
winged ancestor is rapid once obligate aptery is 

The Australian species form a close knn group 
which is entirely absent from New Guinea and 
other northern land masses, but which is repre- 
vjnied in New Caledonia by monotypic Pfiloeo- 
/»w(Fig. lOD). and in New Zealand by the more 
primitive monotypic genus Woodwardiessa (Fig. 
lOD). Together, this group of 9 genera shares a 
number of characters which could delineate a 
tribal group These features, with exceptions 
shown mostly by Woodwardiessa, areas follows: 

DHead broad, with well -developed antennifer- 
ous tubercles, genal processes and. except 
Chelortodems, postocular tubercles, 

2) Antennae inserted closer to base than to apex 
of antenniferous tubercles. 

3) First amennal segment short, rarely surpass- 
ing apex of clypeus (except Woodwardiessa). 

4) Eyes small, globular, and usually cxserted 

5) Rostrum short, not exceeding length of ros- 
tral groove. 

6) Rostral auium closed topen in Woodward- 

7) Pronotum transverse, its width more than I ^ 
Unies length. 

8) Hind lobe of pronotum absent (narrow rem- 
nant present in Woodwardiessa vix\& Mesophlueo- 
hia kirrama). 

9) Margins of scutellum fused with adjacent 
sclentes (incomplete in Woodwardiessa). 

10) Pretarsal pulvilli spatulaie. 

11) Trochanters not fused with femora. 

12) Conncxiva II and III separate. 

1 3 ) Spiracles present on abdominal segrnent II. 

14) Spiracles of II-VII all venual (those of Vn 
lateral in Woodwardiessa and Mcsophloeobm 

15) Fused abdominal tergal disc incorporating 
segments II-Vl. 

16) Male pygophore with posterior parandria 
present as triangular lobes separated by a median 

1 7 ) Male paranieres w ilh a hand of short ridges 
runumg along the posterior edge of the inner face. 

Apterous genera from other southern land 
masses may be allied to these wingless Austruliun 
genera. For example, Ernydocons Usinger ffi^ii 
Bra?il is superficially similar to Drakiessa. and 
the Madagascan Robertiessa Hoberlanoi, 1%?, 
is remarkably like Granulopiera. Bui lack iif 
specimens for comparison precludes a decision in 
this mawcr. If there are close relatives in ihese 
other southern continents then this group of gcn- 
eia joins the growing list of mseci taxa shuwuig, 
disjunct trans-antarctic distributions Thisist^uilc 
in accord w iih the belief thai the Australian forms 
arose in the wet forests of the Tertiary which 
predate dismemberment of Gondwanaland, 

The macropteious ancestor or ancestors of \h\s 
complex of species appear to have been MiZifu- 
like. Sit^cc diis cndetnic apterous launa cie*irly 
evolved in The mesic forests which were wide- 
spread in the Tertiary before the Ausnralian plate 
made contact with the northern land masses its- 
ancestor T/ceds to be sought among those macmp- 
lerous taxa with similarly old, autochihonoas el- 
ements present Qt those genera present today 
only Brachyrhynchus, Neurociertus and 
Csenot\£Hnts are possible candidates, all other 
Australian genera appear to be recent northern 
immigrants. Of these 3 genera bo\y\ Neuroaeti'M 
and Ctenoneurus appear ineligible because of 
their tergal discs which do not include lerguni U. 
and their spemiaihecae with accessory glands, On 
the other hand. Bracfn'rhynchus. as exempliJkd 
by the scmthem endemics. Brachyrhynchas aui- 
fralit amJ B wilsoni. agrees with the aptero^i.s 
complex in most features listed above. In partic- 
ular the sharing of the band of ridges on the 
parameres, a distinctive character occurring 
rarely in the Mezmnae, provides a strtm^ link. 
The only .significant inconsistency is the lack ot 
spatulaie pretarsal pulvilli in Brachyrhynrhu\, 
and \( Brachyrhym'ht4s\s indeed the progenitor uf 
the apterous complex, tfien their absence in nf>i>d- 
em species must be a denved state 

The grouping of the 40 Ausualian species into 
the 7 genera recognized in this su»dy was caiTied 
oui bv intuitive assessment of their characters in 


FIG. 8. Range of Australian mezirine genera in Australia and adjacent land masses. A, Neuroctenus. B, 
Ctenoneurus and Aspisocoris. C, Artabanus. D, Chinessa. E, Clavicomia and Corynophloeobia. F, 



FIG. 9. Range of Australian mezirine genera in Australia and adjacent land masses. A, Chiastoplonia. B, 
Arbanatus. C, Aricms. D, Brachyrhynchus. E, Caecicoris. F, Usingerida. 




New ^ 

■ Norfulk Is 
Lord Howe la. 


VnnuHtii Qj 



' NDHoik Is. 
Lord Howo Is. 


FIG. 10. Range of Australian and flightless New Zealand and New Caledonian genera of Mezirinae in Australia 
and adjacent land masses. A, Scironocoris and Granulaptera. B, Drakiessa. C, Chelonoderus and 
Pseudoargocoris. D, Aegisocoris, Phloeobia and Woodwardiessa. E, Neophloeobia. F, Mesophloeobia. 

conjunction with study of Phloeobia sayi Woodwardiessa quadrata Usinger & Matsuda, 
Montrouzier, from New Caledonia, and from New Zealand. 



WoOihvardiessa, by virtue of its distinct scutcl- 
lum and large wing vestiges, stands out as the 
most primitive member of the group and its pres- 
ence in New Zealand must be regarded as 
rclictual. The remainder fall mro iwo discrete 
groups, the more generalized ones without dorsal 
opposable lubercles (Mesophloeohia, Granu- 
faptera), and those with thoracic and/or abdomi- 
nal tcrga variously elaborated into pairs of 
tubercles (Drakiessa, Neophloeobia, Aegisocoris, 
Pseudoargocoris. Chelonoderus-^n6 Phloeobia). 

The 3 species placed in Mesophloeohia share 
the retention of a complete suture between terga 
I and II, and this, coupled wuh their simple pro- 
thorax and their widespread but rel ictual distnbu- 
lion makes them closest to a winged ancestor of 
any Australian species. Granulaptem is a well 
defined group characterized largely by the dis- 
tinctive spermathecal bursa. 

The patterns of dorsal opposable tubercles are 
very constant, clearly homologous from species 
to species, and have proved extremely useful in 
defining the remaining 5 genera. Three basic 
configurations of tubercles occur (Fig. 4K-N). 

) ) Meophloeobia-p-d\iem (Fig. 4K). This is the 
simplest type with oppt^sable tubercles on ihe 
pronotal collar iot5) and on each side of the 
andominai terga I and 11 (oi4 and ol6) Tubercles 
homologous with the latter 2 pairs occur as part 
of the configuration of the remaining genera. 

pattern (Fig. 4L, 4N). This group imposes upon 
Ihe basic Ncophloeobui pattern an extra pair of 
tubercles on each side of ihe scutellar elevation 
(oil ). Collar tubercles may (Fig. 4N) or may not 
iFig. 4L) be present. In Chekmoderus a series of 
small tubercles occurs along the margin of the 
tergal disc(oi7). 

DDrakiessd'i^dXxcm (Fig. 4MK This type in- 
cludes collar tubercles <ot5) and the basic 
Neophloeobta tubercles (ol4 and olM. with the 
adthtion of an exU"a pair between the melanolal 
elevation amJ abdominal tergum I (Ot3) and an 
extra pair between the meso- and metanotal ele- 
vations (ot2). Drakiessa species show the greatest 
development of tubercles and some may have 
additional pairs developed between the pronotum 
^nd mesonoium. 

New Caledonian Phloeobia has only 2 insignif- 
icant pairs of tubercles between terga 1 and 11 
present iot6). However its extremely smooth, flat 
<k>rsal surface is atypical and may refiect differ- 
ent selective pressures which have caused virtual 
clfniination of its ongmal panem. Phloeobia is 
difficult to place m the context of the Australian 

genera: it has the facies of Drokiessa but is more 
allied with the other genera with a sulcatc midii nc 
to the pronotum. 

Phylogeny within the Australian genera is ob- 
scure. In this respect it needs to be stressed that 
even though they have the appearance of a monrK 
phyietic group they may not be so in the true sense 
of having arisen from a single ancestor. There is 
growing evidence that apterous aradid faunas- 
evolve by invasion of rainforests by numerous 
macroplerous species many of which lose their 
wings due to the strong selective pressures for 
apiery in the rainforest environment (Monicith. 
1969b). Til us the Australian apteaiu.s fauna, as we 
see it today, is probably the product of several 
instances of wing loss in several MeziraWUk** 
ancestors which invaded the wei Tertiary forests. 
However the genera with dorsal lubercles do 
seem to present a single line in which the wide- 
spread Neophloeobii'i'iype with its simple tuber- 
cle contlguralion has given rise to 2 separate 
stocks with more ornate tubercle pauems, vi/ 
Drakiessa, based in southern Queensland, nnd 
Cheionodt^'^ns-Aegtsocori^ ■ Pseudoargocoris^ 
b;)Scd in north Queensland. 



(.Including wingless genera from New 

Caledonia and New Zealand) 

I . Apterous or brachypierous; wing vestiges, when 
present, not exteamng posteriorly beyond himl 
border of third (second visible) abdoniinaj Icr- 


Mucropierous; wings with fully developed mem- 
branes, extending postenorly beyond hind bol- 
der of fourth (ihird vtsibk) abdominal tergum 14 

2(1 ). Scutellum distinct, triangular, separated from 

adjacent sclerites by complete sutures: posterior 
lobe of pronotum usuaJly separmed olTby a 
transverse deprc&bion, wing vcsliges often prcs 
em as free lobes, sometimes with reduced mem- 
branes 3 

Scutellum not triangular, usually completely 
fused with adjacent sclerites; if separated off hy 
posterior suture then scutellum is semi-circular; 
pronotum w ith posterior lobe absent or reduced 
to a narrow piosierior rim; wing vesiigcs absetii, 
or indistinct and immovable • 6 

3(2). Third and fourth antcnnal segments fused and 
rigid; meiaihoracic scent g;tand oTtfac ohsoleic. 
scuieJIum much longer than wide 

AspUocorix Korn)Ui^V 

TTiird and lourth anlennal segments free; 
niclalhoracic seem liitmd orifice present; SCUM:!- 
lum aboul as long as wide ....,...-. 4 



'1(5). Roslral airium widely open; proihora.\ with 
complex, forwardly-projecting. angular, amcro- 
tateral lobes .... Caecicoris Komulev (pan) 
Rostral airium closed and slil-like; anlero-latenAl 
angles of prothorax rounded 5 

5(4). A!l femora each with a prominent sub-apical 
ventral spine; wing vestiges obliquely truncate 

Scironocoris KonnWcy^ i^ciri) 

Never with such spmes on all femora; wing ves- 
tiges apically rounded 
Usmgerida Kormilev (pan) 

6(2). Rosiral atrium widely open; scutellum preseot 
as a semi-circular plaie separated off by a contin- 
uous posterior suture, small opposable tubercles 
projecting inwards from the inner end of each 
inter-connexival suture (New Zealand) 


Rostrai atrium closed and slit-like, scuielium fused, 
not piesent iis a discnrie scleritc; inler-connexival 
sutures without tubercles projecting inwards . . 7 

7(6). Pronotum with a median, longitudinal groove 
or I'unow. somciimes indistmct and bordered 
by two rows of granules; never with opposable 
lubervles present between meso- and melanotal 

elevations 8 

Pronotum without a median, longitudinal groove 
or furrow, opposable tubercles present between 
me.sonotai and metanotal elevations on each side 
of midline of thorax 

Drakiessii Usingcr <& Matsuda 

8(7). Opposable tubercles present between lateral el- 
evations of mesonotum iind the median scutellar 
ridge; submedian area* of pronotum inflated; 

legs never bicoloured .9 

Without opposable tubercles on mesonotum; pro- 
notum usually not inllaied in submedian areas; 
legs usually bicoloured 11 

9(8). Pronoium without sublateral elevations and 
with lobed antero-Iateral angles; pronoia! collar 
noi distinct and without dorsal and ventrul op*- 
po.sable tubercles; abdominal tergal disc without 
pairs of opposable tubercles along its Lateral mar- 
gins; body suri'ace with many smooth, shining 

granules Aegisocohs Kormilev 

Pronotum with sublateral elevations andwiihoul 
lobcd antero-lateraJ angles; pronotal collar disHncl 
and bearing dorsal and veniral opposable tuber- 
cles; three pairs of opposable tubercles present 
along lateral margins of abdominal tergal disc; 
body surface without shin mg granules - ... 10 

10(9). Head without posiocular tubercles; abdommal 
tergal disc not greally inflated; body form more 

or less elongate Chehnodems Usingcr 

Head with posiocular tubercles; abdominal tergiij 
disc doi^y uUlaicd; body form ovate 

... Psei4doarfiocortsKoxm\\z\ 

11(8). Postoculartubcrclcstrumgularand blunt; pro- 
notal ctOlar wiiJi dorsiil ami ventral opposable tu- 
bercles: iibdominal tergal disc with paliem of 

glabrous areas largely obhierated (New Caledo- 
nia) Phloeobia Monirouzier 

Postocular tubercles cylindrical and pointed, if 
pronotal collar has dorsal and ventral oppt^sahle 
tubercles then glabrous areas of abdominal ter- 
gal disc are distinct 12 

1 2(1 1 ). Pronotal collar not delimited by a distinct 
groove, surface of body with numerous smooth, 
shining granules; suture between abdominal 
lerga I and U obliterated in middle; junction of 
spermathecal duct and vagina of femiile forming 
a large sclerotised bursa Granulaptera gen. nov. 
Pronotal collar distinct, delimited by a funrow; bo- 
dy surface without numercius sma^fth granules; su- 
ture between abdominal lerga ( and 11 distinct in 
middle: spermathecal duct of female witlnml a 
sclerotised bursa - . . 13 

13(1 2 1 Suture between abdominal terga i and II 
complete for full width; pronotal collar wiihoul 
opposable tubercles; without oppiis;ible tubercles 
between tergum I and anterior margin of tergal 

disc . Mesophlotohia gen. nov. 

Suture between abdommal terga I and II obliterated 
laterally; prvmotal collar with dorsal iind ventral 
opposable tubercles; a pair of oppo.sable tuber- 
cles present between median plate of abdominal 
icrguni 1 and anterior edge of tergal disc 
Neophloeobia Usinger & Maiusda 

14(1). Hind tibiae each with astridulaiory file on 
postenor surface which rubs against a longitudi- 
nal carina on each side of abdominal sternum IV 

behind hind coxae Artabom^Svjil 

Hind tibiae and abdomen without such stridula- 
tory structures 15 

15(14). Sterna of segments IV, V and VI each with a 
transverse carina immediately posterior to the 
hind margin of the preceding segment and paral- 
lel to it 16 

Abdominal sterna without such transverse cannac 1 7 

16(15). Body usually very flattened; lateral margins 
of abdomen more or less convex; rostrum veo' 
short, not reaching hind margin of head 

. . , - , Neuroct€misV\QhcT 

Body not very flattened; lateral margin of abdomen 
straight; rostrum longer, neaching anterior mar- 
gin of prosiemum .... Of'/icifff wrw.v BergiDlh 

17(15). Each femur with a prominent sub-apical. 
veniral spine . . Sdronocoris Korrmkv (pan) 
Never with such spmes on all femora IK 

18( 17). Midlaieral glabrous areas included within 
the smooth glabrous lergal disc and norn»;*lly 
hidden by wings; carinae delimiting tergal disc 
situated along sutures separating connexivai 

plates, size small (3-5mm) 19 

Niidlatcrai glabrous areas located outside the carinae 
delimiting the smooth lerga! disc and not cnvemd 
by wings; size larger, rarely less than 6.{}min . . 23 



!9(18y Clypeus reduced, its apex not extending be- Neuroctenus Fieber, 1 860 
yond apices of antenntferous tubercles; first anten- 
na! segments sub-conUguous at from of head 20 Neurocienus Fieber. 1860: 34 (descr); Mayn 1866: 
Clypeus well developed, its apex surpassing level 365; Bergrolh, 18S7 (review of genus); U'singer & 
ofapicesofantenniferous tubercles: fust anten- Matsuda. 1959: 198,274 (incl in key; redescrip- 
nai segments not sub-contiguous 22 tion);Matsuda&Usinger, 1957: 146 (briel descrip- 
tion); Kormilev. 1971: 26, 62 (inci. in key; 
20(19). Rostral atrium widely open; antennae slen relationships); Kormilev & Froeschner. 1987: 163 
der Chiastoplonia China (catalogue of spp)- 

Rosirai airium closed and sUi-1 ike; antennae ^*,^^^„r-^^^,^ ., . ■.- - », .^^^ 

5lQm 21 T\PESPEC\ES. Neuroctenus hrasthensisMayu 1^66 

{= Neurocienus piincfulatu.-iB\irmcihitt,]^35). 
21(20). Spiracles of abdominal segment n present. 

located on lateral body margin and visible in dor- DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 8A). Cosraopolilan. 

sal view; spiracles of segments Hl-Vll situated 

venirally, well spaced from the body margin REMARKS. This genus is second only to Aradus 

Corynophioeobiagcix.nov. in number of desciibed species. Usinger & 

Spiracles ofabdommaJ segment II absent: spira- MalSuda (1959) listed 62 species worldwide. 

cles of segments lU-VII situated very close to Since then there has been a trebling to around 180 

body margin, those ofat least segments V and V 11 species, due largely to ihe work of N.A. 

visible in dorsal view Ctpvicornia Konnikv Kormilev. More than half occur in Ihe Orientul- 

22(191. Spiracles of abdominal segment [1 (first visi- Australian-Pacific region. 

ble) present, simated near lateral margin and usu- Neuroctenus has relationships with a group of 

ally visible from above . . A rbanants Kormilev genera which share the transverse abdominal C4i- 

Spiraclesofabdominal segment II absent "^ae. viz. Stelsidocoris Usinger & Malsuda, 

.... C/ocftocom Usinger &Matsuda Hoberhnduella Schouteden, Overlaetiella 

Schouteden and Ctenoneurus Bergrolh. T>»c 

23i 18). Rostral airium widely open amcnorly, head-quarters for this group appears to be the 

pi).su)culur processes absent African continent where all 5 genera are repre- 

C^mrons Kormilev (part) ^^^^^j. ^ stelgidocoris and Hoberlunduellu are 

Rostral atrium closed and slit-like; postocular pro- restricted lo Africa. Overiaetiella also has 2 spc- 

cesses in the form of lobes or tubercles ... 24 cies occurring in the Oriental-New Guinea area. 

24(23). Scutellum with a pair of ba->ad lobes at mid- ^'f^il« Oenoneunts\\^s^ 1 1 species in Afnca-Mal- 

dle of base extending forward over hind margin agasy and 21 in OrientaJ-Pacific. This sort of 

of pronotum: postocular tubercles of head sicn- disiribution pattern indicates an early origin for 

der, cylindrical Anc/«jSial the group. 

Scutellum without such lobes on base; postocular At the global level, species of Neuroctenus are 

tubercles usually not slender and cylindrical . - 25 rather diverse but most, including all tlie AasUa- 

^,,^. ^ n . *■ f I 1 J ■ . IJ^n species, share the flat form, shorl rostryni, 

25(24). Genae usual y m torm ol long, cyhndncal irisinuale sternum Vn of female and vcnU-ai ah- 

divergenlt usualy pomted processes; postocular , - i u » ■ +■ r .u «..^ 

ponion of head foVrmng large backward^^^^^^^ ^"^»"^ carinae characlenstic ol the genUS. 

lobes; connexiva VII withi prominent, angular There are a number of micrmediate species be- 

projections - . . C/uwes^a Usinger & Matsuda tween Neuroctenus and us near relative 

Genae short, blunt, barely surpassing cl>peal apex; Crenoneurus and these have causexl some auThoi^ 

postocular portions of head forming narrow, (^S;- Korrnilev, 197 i I lo consider synonymising 

sometimes angular, lobes behind eyes; con^ the latter. However for Uic vast raajonly ot Spc- 

nexivaV Oat most with weak angulations . 26 cies generic assignment is unambiguous and, for 

the sake of convenience, I retain Ctenoneurus for 

26<25). Apices ol second and third untennul seg- non-flattened species. 

ments not crenulate; parameres of males without wr-.u t t »r - „ ^^«.«^ ,«i.. .« 

stndulatory-ridEe on inner face; wing mem- ^^/.^^ ^^ Neuroctenus is second only lo 

branes roughened and wuhouc venaiion Drahessa among Australian Aradidae m nunihcr 

Ustngerida Knrmilcv (part) of species. Because several species are abundant 

Apices of second and third aniennal segniems »^ ^P^^ ^^^f^ ^^^ farmlands ihcv axe the c>ony 

crcnulate: inner tace of parameres of i^ales with ^^^^^^ ^f^^^^ '" collections They have a uni- 

a'striduiatory'ndge on inner lace; wing mem- tormuy of appearance xvhich has led to nrny 

branes usually smooth and with some veins evi- misidcntifications in the past and conseqiK'nlly 

dcn( ..-......- fimcAvr/ivwc/iu^Laporte the nomenclature of the Ausiralian species hav 



been in considerable confusion. The most I'amil- 
iar species in eastern Australia, which has long 
been known as N. proximus Walker, has proved 
to be an undescribed species since examination 
of Walker Vs types of prax/wwy reveals it lo be the 
Western Australian species which has tradition- 
ally been known as N. majusculus of Bergn^th. 
Several names which have been applied to Aus- 
tralian species {nihrescens, niiidulus, serrulatus 
and vicinus) by earlier writers arc now shown lo 
belong to taxa not occurring in Australia. 

Ei^^ht of the 9 species endemic to Australia are 
open forest species wilhuui close relatives to the 
north. Together they comprise one of the few 
recognizable autochthonous elements in the Aus- 
tralian Aradidac which presumably evolved in 
parallel with the typical Eucalypfm-Acacia veg- 
etation type in Australia. The 4 non-endemic 
•Species are all shared with Nevv Guinea, all are 
restricted to north Queensland and all are rainfor- 
est species. They represent a recent introgression 
of the wet-adapted New Guinea fauna into Cape 
York Peninsula. Neuroaenus is the only aradid 
genus to have diversified in SW Australia where 
3 endemic species occur. 

Descriptive taxonomy in the genus has concen- 
trated on size 3nd configuration of body struc- 
tures in dorsal view. But this has limited 
usefulness because of the great uniformity of 
body form imptjsed on Neuroitcnua species by 
liie pressures of their extremely con.stant subcor- 
tical habitat. The pre.sent study has examined the 
condition of some more cryptic characters includ- 
ing the rostral groove {Fig. 12J-K), the parameres 
(Fig. 120-W) and ihe pygophore (Fig. SA-G). 
Thesc all show a broad range of variability and 
offer valuable features for species recognition. 
The pygophore structure, in particular, vanes 
from the generalized condition (.V. eurycephalus. 
N, yorkensis) where the posicrior parandria are 
triangular, to partial fusion {N. grofuHs), to com- 
plete fusion (A^. crassicornish '^ni^ to the unusual 
condition (jV. woadwordi, N, hand5chini and N. 
occidernalis) where secondary sutures cut off 
mobile, apical scleritcs on the parandria. 
Paramere structure, often of limited usefulness in 
the Mczirinae, is very different in some closely 
related species pairs of Neuroaenus, e.g.. N. 
woodwardiJN. Iiandschmi. 

There is a considerable degree of sexual dimor- 
phism m the surface texture of the connexival 
plaics in most species oi Neuroaenus, Females 
generally have the surface more sirongly punctate 
and *>ublateral carinae more distinct. 


1 , Rostral groove in fomi of a weak depression with- 
out lateral carinae: Hrst antennal segment very 
short, its length about 1 .5 times width; margins 
of abdomen conspicuously double and grooved; 
fore femora very stout, with length about 1.7 
times maximum widtti (North Queensland) 

crassiconiis KormW&v 

Rostral groove with lateral carinae; firsi antennal 
segment with length at least twice width; mar- 
gins of abdomen not conspicuously double; fofe 
femora with length at least twice width ... 2 

2(1). Hemelytral membranes transparent; paraterg- 
ites of segment VIII of female short, transverse 
and truncate (North Queensland) 


Hemelytral membranes dark and opaque; 
paraiergites of segment VIII of female rounded 
or pointed, not truncate - 3 

3(2). Carinaie lateral margins of rosiral groove converg- 
ing siamgly posteriorly and coalescing or bccom- 
mg subconliguous behind apex ul rostrum . . 4 
Carinatc lateral margins of rostraJ groove not con- 
verging strongly posteriorly, separate for their 
full length 9 

4{3 ). Very small, less than 6.00mm: antennifer*ms tu- 
bercles very acute; femade with paratergilcN oj 
•segment VIII triangular: male with suture be- 
tween St VJ and VJ! straight in middle 


Rarely less than 6.00mm; if so then wiihoui ibc 
above combinalion of characters 5 

5(4). Postocukr processes of head distinctly pointed: 
mule with anterior border of St VII evenly 
rounded, female with paratcrgitcs of segment 
Vltf projecting beyond apex of segment IX . 6 
PostocuJar processes blunt, male wilh ■.mlcrior 
border of St VII straight rn middle and angled 
posteriorly a! sides; female wilh paratergiles of 
VUI shonerthan segment IX _ . _ . 7 

6(5). Pronoial collar disiinci; spiracles of segment 
Vlll venlral; posterior glabrous areas of Cx IV. 

V and VI circular, male witboui dorsal longitudi- 
nal carinae on Cx; length more than 7.0mm 


Pronuial collar mdistinci, spiracles of segmcm 
VIK lateral; posterior glabrous areas of Cx elon- 
gate, male with dorsal carinae present on Cx IV, 

V ;ind VI; length less than 7.0mm 
. Hundschini KoTvaiky 

7(5). PrortOtaT collar ifldj.«iiiet, not iiiCape York 

Peninsula S 

Pronotal collar dislinci: Cape York Peninsula only 

... , , , . /jfarBergrxUh 



K(7). Male wilh longiludinal cannae preseni on Cx 
IV. V wid VI; male wiih apices of paralergitcs of 
VIII symmetrically rounded; postocular tuber- 
cles usually moderately developed; genac not 
reaching beyond apex of first antenna! segment 
(Eastern Australia and Tasmania) 

- . - woodwardi sp.nov. 

Male without Longitudinal carinae on Cx FV. V 
and V! and with apices of VllI paratergites 
asymmetrically expanded on mesal side; 
postocular tubercles ver>' reduced; genae reach- 
ing beyond apex of first aniennal segment 
(NonJiem Territor)' ) kapalga sp.nov- 

^3). Spiracles of segment VII ventral (Western Aus- 
tralia) 10 

Spiracles of segmem VII lateral, visible from 
above (North Queensland) 12 

UH9). Antennae longer, more than 1 .5 times head 
length: male with posterolatcraJ angles of Cx VI 
protruding and margin of Cx VII sinuate . . 11 
Amennae shoner, less than ! 5 limes head length; 
male with posierolaieral angles of Cx Vi not pro- 
truding and margin of Cx Vlt simply curved 
occidenlalis sp. nov. 

1 1 ( 10). Fore femora slender, with lengtli more than 
three times width; hind femora slender, curved, 
reaching almost to hind margin of St IV; 
pygophore of male with a u-shaped impression 

on dorsal surface proximus (Walker) 

Fore femora stout, with length less than three 
times width; hind femora stout, not curved, 
reaching to only about half length of St IV; 
pygophore of male without a U-sbaped impres- 
sion nansimss^n- 

12(9). Size larger. c<6.00mm or more, 96.5mm or 
more; male with apical lobe of parameres long 

(Fig. 1 1T) eurycephahis Kormilev 

Size smaller. -5 less than 6.00mm, S'less than 
6.5mm; male with apical lobe of parameres short 
and broad (Fig. 12$) yorAemii sp, nov. 

Neuroctenus gracilis Korrhilev, 1965 


Nrurocierws gracilis Konnilev. 1965a: 29 (descr., 
fig.}; Kumar, 1967 (internal anatomy); Kormilev, 
J 971: 65 (incl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschner, 
1987: 168 (listed). 
TYPE. Holotype S. Nanango. S.E. Qld., 4.v,1964. G. 
Monteith. OMT6322. Examined. 
MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holoirype and 8 speci- 
mens; CENTRAL QUEENSLAND: Emerald, ex euca- 
Ivpt, 1 9. G.K. Waite, in QDPI, ! $. 
iii,l9l4, E-Allen, in BMNH; SOUTH QUEENS- 
LAND: Carnarvon Range. 1 6, 6.i.l940, N, Geary, in 
AM; Nanango, 9 allotype, 2 9 paralypes. 4.V.1964, 
GBM; Brisbane, I 9 paratype 6.iii 1949, Haseler, in 
QM. NEW SOUTH WALES: Warrumbungje NR via 

Coonabarabran. I 5 . 2Lx!!.i973, 1 Naumann, in QM, 
(Types: QMT26090- 26093). 

DESCRIPTION. Very stnall. 4.4-5.7mtT^ long. 
with very acute antenniferous tubercles, with 
paratergites of Vin annulate in female. Colour 
dark reddish brown. 

MALE- Head as wide a&long;^crle.i fuitrly gran- 
ulate, postocular lubeaies narrow, pointed, ex- 
tending beyond outer profile of eyes; 
aiiTennifcro'j.s tubercles with apices attenuate and 
acute; genaJ processes reaching apical 3^*'4 of ilrsi 
antenna! segment. Rostrum short, not reaching 
level of hind border of eyes; rostral groove deep, 
with lateral carinae which converge logether be- 
hind apex of rostrum. Antenncje 15 limes hciid 
length, segment III longest. 

Pronottim with width 23 limes IcngUv, suriacc 
uniformly at^d finely granulate; lateral margins 
suaight with a narrow explanate edge to antcfi<ir 
is^H? thirds: collar forming a narrow ridge set olt 
by a groove; a faint transverse depression divid- 
ing anterior and postenor lobes; sublaieral ;ueai> 
of fore lobe faintly inflated, remainder of surface 
tlat Scutcllum with width 1 .3 times length; pos- 
terior half with faint n>edian ridge; surface irieg- 
ulariy wrinkled on anterior halL transverwly 
wrinkled on posterior half. Hemeiyira with co 
rium reaching jusi beyond hind border of Cx II; 
membranes smoky, opaque, reaching just beyond 
hind border of segment VI. 

Abdomen with Cx punciau; and bearing faini 
sublateral carinae on III-VI; posterior glabnMis 
areas of IV, V and VI elongate; suture between 
Cx VI and VII cur\ed, lateral margms of Cx floi 
double. Carinae delimiting margms of inner ter- 
gal disc continuous posteriorly to hind border of 
segment VI. P^'gophore large, apically rounde<J. 
with width 1.6 times length and with a broad, 
median depression running full length; paraterg- 
ites of VIII slender, wiili apices symmetrically 

Thoracic and abdominal sterna finely punctate; 
spiracles of segment II-\T1 ventral; suture be- 
tween St VI and Vn straight in middle and angled 
posteriorly at sides. Legs with femora siencter, 
those of forelegs with length 2.8 limes width. 

FEMALE. As for cJ except: sublateral Cx carinae 
extending weakly on to segment VII; paratergites 
of Vni with apices sub-angulate, level with u^xvk 
of segment IX , carinae bordcn ng inner tergal di sc 
obsolete beyond apical two diirds of segmeni VI; 
apicesofwingsreachingjustbevond hind border 



MEASUREMENTS. Holotype S first, then 
range of 2 2 pajat>pes. L- 4.42, 5.67; W: 1.72, 
2.44-2.52: HL: 0J6, 0.90-0.92; lUS': 0.76, 0.86: 
PL: 0.58, 0.72-0.76; PW: 1,34. 1.72-1.76; AS: L 
0.30, 0.32-0.34; fl, 0.24. 0.30-0.32: in. 0.34, 
U.40-0.42: IV. 0.30. 0.32-0.38; SL: 0.68, 0.86- 
0.90; S\V. 0.90. 1 Ifi-1 .20; \\\.: 2.28, 2.96-3.08. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 14). This itii« species has 

been taken in open forest at several localities from 
Emerald in central Queensland to Co*inabarabran 
in New South Wales. The 9 trum Brisbane re- 
quires confirmaiion as ihtr species has not yei 
been verified ihere by Ihe writer despile years of 
collecting in the vicinity, 

REMARKS. This is tlK smaA\<£St Neuroctenus in 
Australia and one of the smallest in the world. 
Male genitalia have not been studied because of 
the rarity of male specimens. 

.Ncuroctenus gTBndis Knrmllcv, 1965 
(Figs5C.7E. 12H.N.P. I3H.W) 

Seurvctenus sra^tdis Kormilcv. 1965a: 28 ((kscr.. 
fig.); Komiiles, 197L64,7I (ihcl. m key. locality 

TYPE. Hoiotypc 9. Blackbuii, S.E Qld. 4. v. 1964, 
G.B. Monteith, QMT6323. E\smJnod- 

MATERIAL EXAMINED Type anti 169 specimens: 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: Forty Mile Scrub. 40 ml 
SW of Ml Garnet, in QM. SOUTH QUEENSLAND: 
Eidsvold. in ANIC, QM. .\M; Dan Dan Scrub, via 
Calliope: Eurirahula Creek, via Round Hill Head; 9km 
N. of Taroom; 30km E, of Taroom. in QM: Coongaia. 
via Biggenden, in ANIC; Tungi Creek, Jimna SF; 
Bunya Mountains, 1 $ paratype (QMT26094), Upper 
Canungra Creek. viaCanungra-inQM; SawpiiCk. 23 
km E.Woodenbong, in ANIC: Levers Plateau, via 
Rathdowney: B;ild Mountain area, 3-4.000', via Emu 
Vale, in QM; Macpherson Range, in QDPI; National 
Park. Macpherson Ra.. in AM. NEW SOUTH 
WALES: 63kni w Wauchopc. in QM: Ulong. 
E.Dorrigo, in AM; 5 km. SE of Dorrigo, in ANIC; 
Carrai Plateau, via Kcmpsey: Barrington House, via 
Salisbury: Woko NP, N Gloucester, in QM; Ourimbah, 
in BMNH; Mt Kiera; Jamberoo Mm, in BCRI; London 
R>nnaiion. Kiola. in wood of Acacia meanisiL in 
ANJC- VICTORIA: Ml Drummer, via Cann Riven 
Dandcncng Ranges, in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in 

DESCRIPTION. Large, broad, 7-8tnm long, with 
carinae o^ rostral groove coalescing posteriorly. 
Dark reddish brown, 

MALE. Head slightly longer than wide; vertex 
with dense, upright granules; lateral ol vertex 
ovate glabrous areas are separated from eyes by 
prominent supraocular ridges; postocular tuber- 
cles, blunt, barely reaching outer profile of eyes; 
anleoniferous tubercles apically acute, curved 
laterally; genae long, almost reaching apex of 
ftr^c antennal segment. Rostrum reaching beyond 
level of hind border of eyes: rostral groove with 
lateral carinae which meet behind rostral apex. 
Antennae 1 .7-1.8 times head length, segment Ul 

Pronotum with width 2.2-2.4 limes median 
length, surface sparsely granular; lateral niargms 
biconvex with wide explanate rims on anterior 
half; collar well-marked, separated off by a deep 
sulcus; transverse depression between fore and 
hind lobes distinct; submedian areas with promi- 
nent glabrous discs; sublaterat areas obliquely 
inllated. Scutellum with width ) 24-1.^ times 
length; surface coarsely granular with median 
ridge irregularly marked on posterior hall. 
Heinleytta extending to hind margin ot segment 
VI; corium reaching just beyond hinO margin of 
Cx D; membranes black, opaque 

Abdominal connexiva densely punctate; sub- 
laieral carinae t^bsoMe; glabrous areas sub-circu- 
lar; mcsal sutures of Cx IV and V sinuate; suture 
between Cx VI and VTI weakly curved; carinae 
delimiting inner tergal disc low and continuous 
posteriorly to hind margin of segment VI. 
Pyguphore with width 1.7 times length, with a 
deep, triangular, dorsal depression extending for 
almost full" length; paratergites of VlII narmw^ 
symmetrically rounded apically, and with spira- 
cles ventral. 

Thoracic sterna finely wrinkled; abdominal 
.stema finely punctate; spiracles of segment II- V II 
ventral; anterior margin of St VII evenly rounded- 
Legs with femora not strongly incra-ssaic, those 
of forelegs with length 2J> times width. 

Parameres as in Fig. 1 2P. 
FEMALE. As for male except- sublaieral carinae 
prominent of Cx III-VL obsolete tin VII; carinae 
delimiting inner tergal disc pf omineni but becom- 
ing obsolete just anterior to hind margin of VII; 
wings reaching to apical IG of Tg VI; paraterg- 
ites of VIII broad, apically rounded, exceeding 
length of segment IX; s-egment K without pro- 
jections. Spermatheca (Fig 12N). 

^1EASUREME^TS. Hololype 5 first, ihen 
ranges of additional 16 and 2?. L: 8.<XI, 7.17- 
7.50, 7.83-8.0O: W: 4.00. 3.16-3.67. 3.924.75; 
HL: 1.24, 1.12-1.22. 1.18-1.20; HW: 1.22, 11^ 



1.20,1.14-1.18; PL: 1.22,1.10. 1.14-1.18; PW: 
2.72,2.42-2-60.2,56-2.75: AS:1, 0.54. 0.50-0.52. 
0.50-0.56: D, 0.60, 0.52-0.54, 0.52-0.54; HI. 0.68. 
0.56-0.60, 0.56-0.60; IV, 0.48. 0.44-0.46, 0.40- 
0.46; SL: 1.44. 1.30: 1.34-K44; SW: 1.90. 1.60- 
1.68, 1.74-1.80; WL: 4.58. 4.17-4.58. 4.504.67. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 14). This species occurs 
in wcl sclcrophyll and poorer rainforests of 
mouniaios and lowlands over an extensive area 
of ihc eastern Australian seaboard from north 
Queensland xo Victoria. 

REMARKS. Ncurvctenus grandis is the la[rgesc 
species in eastern AiLstralia. It Ls similar in gen- 
eral facies to N, pwximus froui SW Australia but 
the 2 species differ in rostral atnum, parameres, 
yenai length, male sienaum V^II, etc. and are not 
closely related. On present collecting records 
there isagap in the range ofjV.^ranf/ii of lOOOkm 
between Round Hill Head and Mt Garnet. 

Neuroctenusproxinius (Walker. 1873) 
(Figs 12G.J.LA 13DJ.U, 160) 

Mi'zif'u proxima Walker, 1S73: 28 (descr) 
Nvurocienusmajusculus Bergroih. 1887: 181 (dcscr.); 
Lcthicrr>' & Severin, 1896; 45 (listed); Usinger & 
Matsuda, 1959: 273 (listed); Kormilev. 1965a; 28 
(locality records); Kormilev, 1965b: 5 (locality re- 
cords), Kormilev, 1967a; 532 (locality records); 
Kormilev, 1971; 63,71 (inci. in key; locality re- 
cords): Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 171 (listed) 
sm now 
iS'ruroctenus proximus Bergroth, 1887: 187 {cites 
Walker's descr.); Leihierry & Severin, 1896:45 
(listed); Distant, 1902: 362 (generic assignment); 
Kormilev, 1953: 344 (locality record; probably 
mhidcni. of handscbmi); Usinger & Malsuda, 1959: 
273 (listed); Kormilev. 1965a: 28 (locality records; 
raisidcnt. of Neumctemis woodwardi, sp. nov.); 
Kormilev, 1 965b: 5 (locality records: probably misi- 
dent. for N. woodwardi and A'. handschini)\ 
Kormilev, 1 967a: 532 (locality records; misident. of 
N. woodwardi); Kumar. 1967 (imemal anatomy; 
misident. of M woodwardi); Kormilev. 1971: 64 
(incl. in key; misident. of M woodwardi)\ Kormilev 
& Froeschner, 1987: ! 73 Oisted). 

TYPES. Lectotype Selection for Mezira proximo 


Walker ( 1 873) based his description of proxima 
on a series of 8 specimens Ca-h*) with the data 
'King George's Sound, Australia. Presented by 
Sir G. Grey'. 1 have examined 7 specimens (3S 
4 ? ) of tliis series in the British Museum. Six bear 
white printed labels with the words 'Mezira prox- 
irna Walker's Catal.': one bean; a printed label, 

•^25. Mezira proxima*, which is a piece cut from 
the title of Walker's description of the species 
from a copy of his original publication; the last 
specimen bears a printed labels 'Mvztrti 
ieucoxehts Walker's Caial* This last label is ob- 
vioiisly in error because Itucotelus was described 
immediately Alxcrproxitna in Walker's caialiiguc 
and belongs u> a quite different species now 
placed in Aradus. Each specimen also bears a 
circular, white label wjih u handwriuen nuii^bcr 
referring to Uie Accession Register of the British 
Museum The numbers arc prefixed wiih 
'40/12.26' and end with specimen numbers; 271, 
272, 273, 274. 275. 277. 278. Obviously the miss- 
ing specimen bears the number 276. These Reg- 
ister entries refer to a batch of insects from 'New 
Holland, King George*s Sound. Pncsctucd by 
Capt. Grey' and of this batch nine *Aradu/ were 
numbered 27 1-279. These data, apart Irotn Capt. 
Grey's, transition to knighthood, are identical to 
ihoi&e of the aeries cited by Walkei. The speci- 
mens are con&pecific andnnounted identically on 
short- headless pins. 

I have selected the male numbered 273 as fccio- 
Type It is in good condition and has all append- 
ages intact; the wings are slightly displaced by 
growth of verdigris around the pin. The specimen 
now bears the following labels: (!) Circular, 
white, handwriltcn. '40 12.16 271'; (2) Rectan- 
gular, while, printed, Mezira proximo Walker's 
Catiil.'; (3) Rectangular, red. handwritien, 
'LECTOTYPE Mtfzirapmnmrt Walker, JS^T; 
(4) Rectangular, while, printed, 'Neuroctenus 
proximus (Walker. 1873) Oct. G.B. Monteith. 
1978'. The remaining six specimens have iKcn 
labelled paralectotypes 

Synonyviy of majusculus Bergroth. Bergroih 
(1887) described niajuacuius in his rcvisum «j( 
Neuroctenus. At that time he was not familittr 
with "^'alkcr' a Mezi fa proxima in life alihough Ik: 
noted that WL Distant liad drawn his aticnUnn 
to the fact that it belonged in Neuractaius, 
Bergroth merely listed ;?nt?.vimuj ai ihe cr>d of hi* 
paper with Walker's description reprcxiuccd ver- 
batim. Bergroth apparently did nut realize thai 
Walker's species also came from Western Aus- 
tralia since he refered to his majusculus as the 
only west-australian species'. The only original 
BergiTOlh specimen 1 have bee?i able lo trace and 
exiiimne is a male in the Humboldt University, 
Berlin. It hears a label ^N'euroaenus nmjtisculus 
Bergf* in the same handwriting as thai on 
Befgroth's type of Brachyrhynchus scrupt-dosus 
in the same collection, lis locaJity label rcatU 



'Swan River, Thorey' and it is conspecific with 
Walker's Mezira proxima. 

MATER [AL EXAMINED. Types and 274 specimens: 
Mundarmg. Greystones, ex Eucalyptus cahphylla 
logs; Mundaring. ex Eucalyptus calophylla: 
Manjimup. ex Karri; Donnybrook. in WADA; 7 ml. S 
ol Pemberton, m ANlC and QM: Manjimup. on newly 
fallen trees, in ANIC and QM; Nomalup. m ANIC. in 
UQIC: 50km SW Nannup; BeedeJup NP; Molgnup 
Springs. Stirling Ranges; Boranup Drive. 4km N"W 
KarridaJe; YalHngup: Pemberton, in ANIC; Boranup. 
in WAM A: QM. Walpole Dist. m QM, Glenaram, 
1 0ml. W. Manjimup; South of W. Ausi.. in SAM; 
Walpole. The KnoU'; Buranup; Dingup: Manjimup: 
5ml N Augusta; in WAM; Wilga, in AM 

DESCRIPTION Large, broad, 7.6-9.O0mm long. 
with cannaeot rostra! groove not coalescing pos- 
teriorly, posterolateral angles of male Cx VI pro- 
truding and legs very slender. Dark reddish 

MALE. Head slightly longer than wide; vertex 
with dense granules, laierad of \cxicx large gla- 
brous areas are separated from eyes b>" raised 
supraocular ridges; posiocular tubercles ver>' nar- 
row . apically acute, extending beyond ourer pt»- 
file of eyes; amenniferous tubercles pointed, with 
apices slightly divergent; genal processes api- 
cally roundcd'and separate, distinctly longer than 
apex of fir^i antenna! segment. Rostrum cKtend* 
ing posteriorly beyond bind border of eyes; ros- 
tral groove with lateral carinae which are separate 
for full length. Antennae 1.5-1.6 times head 
length, segment HI longest 

ProiKjtum with width 2.2-2,3 times median 
length: surface sparsely granular; lateral margins 
slightly in<3entevl at antentK third, with an expla- 
natc margin on anterior half; collar distinct and 
$epaTdied by a groove; transverse depressiot^ ev- 
ident at sides but no; niedlally; submedian areas 
with large glabrous discs; sublateral areas faintly 
inflated- Scutellum with width 1.39-1.9 times 
length: surface longitudinally wrinkled on ante- 
rior half ar/d transversely wrinkled on posterior 
half- Hemelytra reiu:hing hind border of segment 
\T; curia reaching to almost half length of Cx III; 
roembrajies black, opaqt»e. 

Connexival surface finely punctate, without 
trace of sublateral carinae; glabrous areas of C\ 
lll-Vl circular, mesal sutures of Cx IV and V 
sinuate; suture between Cx VI and VIl curved: 
e-\iemal Cx margins not double, posterolateral 
angles of Cx VI protruding; margins of segment 
VU sinuate and with a narrow, flattened margin 
differentiated by stnalioiis from remainder of 

punctate surface of VTl; carinae delimiting inner 
tergal disc faint, becoming obsolete posterior to 
segment V. Pygophore with width 1.6-1.7 limes 
length, uniformly rounded behind; dorsum wilh 
an Impressed U-shaped area on anterior half; 
paratergites of VIII narrow, with apices symmet- 
rically rounded and spiracles ventral. 

Thoracic sterna faintly wrinkled, abdominal 
sterna finely punctate; suture between Si VI and 
VII straight in middle and angled poslerioriy at 
sides. Legs with femora very slender, those of 
forelegs with length 3.1-3.2 limes width; hind 
femora with inner margin curved giving a curved 
appearance and apex reaching almost to hind 
margin of St rv. 

Parameres as in Fig. 120. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: sublateral carinae 
well developed on Cx Hl-Vn, surface of Cx 
coarsely punctate; wing apices reaching to 1/2 
length of segment VI; paratergites of Vni large, 
broad, apLcally rounded, reacliing beyond apex of 
segment IX; segment IX with a pair of widely 
spaced projections, giving its apex a irilobed ap- 
pearance; ventral, sublateral. connexival carinae 
very prominent on segments lU-VU. Sperma- 
tlieca as in Fig. 1 2L. 

MEASUREMENTS. Lectotype 6 o\ proximus 
fir^t syniype 6 of rnajuscuhts second, then 
ranees of additional 2S and 29. L: 8.17. 8.17, 
7.67-S.OO. 8.67-8.83: W 3 75, 3.83. 3.75-3.58, 
408-4.17; HL: 1.4t'. 1.32, 1.32-L34. 1.4(^1.44; 
H^^: 1.34, 1.2H. 1.26-1.32, 1.2&-L38; PL; 1.22. 
1.24, 1.20. 1.30-1.40; PW: 2.84, 2 80, 2.68-2.72, 
2.90-3 08. SL: 1.41 1 40, 1.36, 1.46-1.52; SW: 
1.92, 1.S4. 1.82-; WL: 4,67.4.75. 
4.50-4.58. 4.92-5 33. corium length: 1.80. 1.72. 
1.68-1.80, 1.72-2.00; pygophore length: 0.6K, 
0.68. 0.68-0.70. pygophore width: 1.10. 1.14, 
1.10-1.16; AS: 1, 0.46, 0.46. 0.48. 51V0.54. 11. 
0.50, 0.52, 0.50-0.52. 0.54-0.58, IIL 0.64. 0.60. 
0.60, 0.62-0.64, IV, 0.54 0.52, 0.50-0,52, 0.52- 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig 14). This is a comraOH 
eucalypt forest species in the SW of Wesienl 
Australia trom Perth to Albany. It overlaps 
broadly with the distribution of its very close 
relative A^. transitiis. 

REMARKS. Bergroth ( 1887) suggested close re- 
lationship between this and Madagascan species 
but this cannot be evaluated at present. 



Neuroctwius transitus sp.nov. 

(Fig. 16P) 

1 VPE. Hoiol>pe d. Floreat Park, W. Australia. 
21 .ii. 1966, R.Humphries, WAM78/637. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Hoioiype and 87 
paratypes; SW AUSTRALIA: Deep Dene, Karridale. 
1 9. 19.xii.196Z L.M. O'Halloran, in WAM;Kings 
Park. Penh. I d 5 9, 24.xiu.I959. Armstrong & 
Woodward, in QM; Floreat Park. !! c5 15 9, 
21 ii. 1966, R. Humphries. 4 d 16 9. 4.13.1967, 
R. Humphries; Wanneroo, 3 d 2 9. 2.iv.l971. 
SM.Wade; West Midland, 4 c^ 3 9. 28.ii.1954, 
A.M.Douglas; Midland, I 9. viii.!936, L.GIauen; 
Rotlnesl hland, I 9. xii.1934. L.GIauert. in WAM: 
WaJpole. 2 9. 26.X.1984. J.& N.Lawrence: Prevelly 
Furk,\V Margaret R. I 6 7 9.31 x I9S4.J &N.Uw. 
nmce; Crawley J d 2 9, 16.ii,l934.K.R.Norris, I d. 
19.ii.l935, K.R. Norris, i 9 . 30.xii. 1935. K.R. Norris: 
Pipehead Dam, 15 ml SSE of Armadale. ] 9, 
26.i.l967. MS. Upton, in ANIC; BremwcKJd, I 9. 
JLii.1969, K. Richards. Busseiton. I 9. 2.iii.l97L 
rore.stsDep!,;Donnybfook. 3 6 1 9,ApnI. L.J. New- 
man, m WADA. (Paratypes: QMT2968S-29700). 

DESCRIPTION. Large, broad, 6.7-8.4mm long, 
wilhcarinae of rostral groove not coalescing pos- 
icriorly, posterolateral angles of male Cx VI pro- 
iruding and legs short and stout. Dark, reddish 

This species is very similar to N. proximus and 
is described only where different from that spe- 
cies: legs shorter, stouter and mih surface of 
femora granulate; fore femora with length <3 
limes ma^vimum width; hind femora straight, with 
inner margin not sinuate and with distal apex 
reaching to about half length of St fV . Pygophore 
of 6 without horseshoe-shaped impression. 5 
with apex of segment IX not Irilobed. 

MEASUREMEISTS. Holotype S first, then 
range of 2c? and 22 paratypes. L; 7.36, 6.88- 
K.(X). 6 72-8.37; W: 3.20. 3.1-3.60, 3.00-4 00. 
HL: 1.10,1.10-1.15. 1.10-1.25; HW: LIO. 1.10- 
LI5, L00-L20;PL; 1.00. 1.00-1.10, 1.00-1.15: 
PW: 2.30, 2.25-2.50, 2.20-2.60; AS: 1 0.38, 0.35- 
0.38,0.33-0.40: I1."0.48:1H. 
0.46, 0.42-0.48, 0.44-0.42; IV, 0.38, 0.33-0.38, 
0.36-0.40; SL; 1.25. 1.15-1.35. 1.15-1.50; SW" 
1.60, 1.70-!. 85, 1.50-1.85; WX: 4.00, 4.00-4.50. 
3.75-4.75; corium length: L35, 1.35-L50. 1.35- 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. \4). Neuroctenus rransi- 
fwj is an open forest, subcortical species which 
occurs from suburban Penh south throughout the 
miiist SW corner of Western Australia, 

REMARKS. This species is almost completely 
sympatric with its very close relative Neu- 
rodenus proximus. Both species occur in large 
colonies under bark but are never taken in mixed 
colonies. No apparent ecological difference be- 
tween these co-existing species is evident. Al- 
though praccicaiiy identical in dorsal view they 
are readily separated by their very different Icgs- 

Neurocrenusoccidtntalissp. nov. 
(Figs 58. 12B,R, 13L) 

TYPE. Holotype d\3351 S 123 tK)li,Thomii.sRi^>cr. 
23 km NW hy W of Mt .\rid, W.A.,4-7.Ai.l977J.F. 
Lawa'ncc. under bark In ANIC 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Type plus 6 nymphs col- 
tecud with ii, in ANIC. 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-Sized, 7-OOmm lon^, 
with rostral carinae not coalescing posteriorly 
and with genal processes surpassing apexof fir&i 
antenna! segment. 

MALE. Head with length 1.16 times width; ver- 
tex densely granular; supraocular carinae weak: 
postocularprocesses rather blunt, reaching a Utile 
beyondouter profile of eyes; antcnnifen.">us tuber- 
cles slightly divergent, apically sub-acute, reach- 
ing a little beyond one third length of firsi 
antenna! segment. Genal processes long, parallel- 
stded, apically cleft, reaching well beyond apex 
of first antennal segment. Rostrum reaching 
slightly beyond hind margin of eyes; lateral cari- 
nae of rostral groove present and not contiguutri 
behind rostral apex. Antennae stout, length 1.3 
limes head length; segments I, II and IV subequal 
in length, segment III slightly longer. 

Pronotum with width 2.2 times median length. 
iis surface granular; lateral margins straight; col- 
lar distinct. Scutellum with widih L22 times 
length; Surface rugose-granulate; median ridge 
weakly developed on posterior half. Hcmclytra 
reaching behind hind margin of segment VI; apex 
of corium reaching a little beyond hind margin of 
Cx II; membranes black, opaque, shining 

Dorsal Cx surfaces punctate, sublateral carinae 
very weakly developed on Cx III-V. becoming 
obsolete on VI and absent on VIl; posterior gla- 
brous ares of Cx HI- VI subcircular; mesal sutures 
of Cx rv and V sinuate; suture between Cx VI 
and Vn curved; lateral Cx margins not double. 
Carinae delimuing inner tergal disc present, lx^• 
coming obsolete on segment VI. Pygophore with 
widUi 1.5 times length; its surface granular and 
with a median, longitudinal impression on poste- 
rior half; hind margin evenly rounded; paniicrig- 



ites of scgnicn! Vil! short. st'gMIy curved me- 
saiJv and wiih spiracles ventral. 

Thoracic sterna finely wrinkled; abdominal 
sterna finely punctate; suture between St VI and 
VU evenly rounded: spiracles of U-Vll ventral. 
Legs with femora r^odJera^ely stout, those of fore 
legs with length 2.3 times width. 

Parameres as in Fig. 1 2R. 
FEMALE. Unknown, 

MEASUREMENTS- Hololyjie <J. L: 7.00; W: 
3.0S; HL: 1.16; HW: 1. 00; PL: LOO; PW: 2.22; 
AS: L 0.36. U. 0.38. Ill 0.40. IV. 0.36; SL: 1 .20; 
SW: L46; WL: 4.25; corium lcn£ih: 1.50; 
pygophore length: 0.56; pygophore wldlh: 0.86. 

DISTRIBLTION (Fig. 14). Known frornasingte 
series collected under bark in semi-arid country 
NE of Esperancc in SW Wesseni Au-Mralia 

REMARKS- Althoiigh only ^i single ^dult is 
available it is suftlcienily distinct to justify de- 
scripijon. Ii resembles the other t\Hi species in 
SW Australia, iV. proximus and iV. transitus, in 
some respects but differs markedly in panunere 
shape and in Lacking live charsKrtcrislic prt?truding 
posterolateral angle of Cx VI seen m the other 
jipecies. M occidentalis seems ecologically sepa- 
rated from the others it> S W Australia in occurring 
fiu- outside the 800uun rainfall isohyet which 
approximately defines the distribution of the lat- 
ter species 3n the wettest part of the southwest. 

Neurocteniis Mx»odHardi 5p. nov. 

Vrimia nihrrsrrnr Wdlk<?n 1873: 14 (mikidcnl of 

Australian specimens). 
NcunH-U'nux proximus: K^Tinilcv, 1965a: 2H (rnisi 

dent.); Kormilev. !965b; 5 (miwdeni.); Komiilcv. 

1967a: 532 (misident); Kumar, 1967 (raisidcni..); 

Kormilev, 1971 (misident). 

TYI*E. HohHype d. Forest Station. 600m. Bulburin 
State Forest, via Many Peaks. Qld. 12-15.iv.l974, 1. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotvpe and 566 
p;<raivpes NORTH QUEENSLAND: Hann Tbld 
Radar Sm. 8OO-9O0m. Ic^. S.ii.l996, GBM. Ml Fox 
Crater, Scaview Range. 25 J 19V. 15.xii. 1986. GBM. 
Harbour, 5o^ 79. 24,vJ908. GBM, Springcliffc. via 
Mackav. 1-^ 35. I2.i.l965, J.E. Dunwo-xlv. Cape 
Hillshomugln 3cT 3$, 15-l6.ivJ979, GBM, in QM; 
M;ickitVv Id, in flCRI. SOirTH QUEENSLAND: 
Kroombn Tops, Beauty Spot 98. 45km SSW Calliope, 
9.5 4 9. 29.ix 1985. GBM. in QM ; Kroombil Tops. 

Upper Kronmbit Tk, 26 :59, y-19..ui.l9a5, 
GBM.GIT: Knx>inbil Tops. Upper TA47 CTc, I 9. 9- 
I9.xii.l983. GBM.GIT; Krcximbil Tops. TA47 CX 
Xing. l7o* 199, 30.ix.l985. GBM; Bundabcrg. \9, 
5.V 1928. R.W Mungomery. in QM, 1^ 59, in 
BMNH . Forest Staiiun, 2tXX)' , Bulburin SR 4d 1! $ » 
12-15 iv.l974, GBM. 4^5 5^, 12-15. iv.J974. I. 
Naumann.inQM;Rosedaic. I ■:?. 27.x. 1974.11 Fmuca: 
Hervey Bay, 26 25, xii.1972, P.Turncr; Bluff Range, 
Western Sect., via Biggendcn. 2J 3V. ISA'iii 1972. 
H.Frauca; Mt Walsh NP. h:? 1 ?, vtii.l972,H.FraueA; 
Boat Mtn, via Murgon. 580m, 3cJ 19. I4x.l994. 
GBM : Maroochydore, 1 c5 1 5 , 21.xlL 1 972, S.AIicn. m 
ANIC: Toorbul Point, 19, 4.vii.l97L G Gram; 
Caboolture. 17J971.L.Hill.inUQlC,Caloandra, I V, 
14.viii.l960. R.D. Cameron, in QM. 19, m ODPI; 
H)ghvale.7r:? 109, 20.ix.!964.GBM. in ANIC; Miles, 
56 2»\ 10.i.l939. N.Geary, m AM; Mos.s's Well, 
Spiccr's Gap. 17d 17 v. i3-14.x,l984. R.dc Kcy/cr, 
in UQIC; Bunya Mountains, 26 I 9. 2-4.V.I9M: 
GBM; Ml Glorious, 66 69, Acacia bark, l0.i.l9K2, 
A.HiUlt. 19. I0.xi.l978. A.Hiller. 7r5 59.ATliller; 
MtNcbo. 1 2, !5.xi.]979; Cedar Creek, Samford, 1 9. 
2U.V.1964, R. Woolcock. in QM, 19. IO.x.1970. 
T.Lennon: Moggill, 19. I H.X.I9SI. T.Johnson. 3cf, 
21. .\. 1984. Key^e^. in UQIC; Binders Peak, 2 V> 1982, D.Sinclaif ^ A.Ro/xfclda. Cabbage Tree 
Point. 6d 1 9 . 17. iv. 1979. A.RozcfcIds; Brisbane, 1 6 
29,vii.l9S6.R.Ravcn, lc5, I9.viii.l959, KIrkpatrick. 
1 9, 12.X.1957. Fonunado, l<?.2aix.l959.L Martin. 
I J, 7.1x1964, BKC. 19. I.ix.l975. RIS, l<5 19, 
20.11.1963. B.Ross. Id 12, I6.vii 1 956. G. Gram, 2 5 
19. 14.xii.l979- FR.Wylie. in QM. I?, 2iv.l969, 
P Twine, in VQiC, 1 9. 14.xii.l907, in ANIC, Is5, 
6.xi.l973. 26 3 9. 5 ii.l9I9. H Jarvis. in QDPL lo 
3,vii.l972, I. Naumann; Mt Glorious, 1 <-^ 19, 
15J.I963. GBM;Acacta Ridge. 1963. R. Kumar. 
L<r. 10.Ti.l962. E.C. Dahms; Dunwich, \6 1?, 
27.iv.J963, GBM, 1 :f 29. 9.v,19b4, GBM. in QM; 
Stradbroke Island, 19. 9.iii 1974. P Samson, 19, 
9.1(1.1974. DSmtih. Brookfield. M. 15. iv. 1982. 
R.OnrTclKinUQIC;MlNerang, 2d 1 9,22.viu.l972, 
I. Naumann; Bald Mountain area. 3-4000'. vi;» Tmu 
Vale, 19, 17-22.V.I969, GBM, Ii, 27-31.1.1972, 
GBM, 3(? 19. 26-30, i 1975, 1. Naumann, in QM; 
Blunder. 3.^ 59. 16.viii.i959. in ANIC; Hampton, 
4rf,24.ii,l957.J.H BarTetl;Tambonnc, Ic;,3.v.l9l9, 
H. Ttyon. in QDPl. 1 d I 9 . Mjobcrg, in NRS. NEW 
SOUTH WALES: WalgeU, }6 IV. I 3. vi. 1970. 
P.J.Waltcrs, in QM Middle Brother Sf', nrKcndall. 1 6. 
16.xi.1983, D.C.F.Rcnu & M.S.Harvcy. 4o 3?, 
lLviii.1990. T. Gush; Prospect, 22c5 22V.5.viij. 1990. 
I. GuNh; Kioloa, in Acacia wood, I 9, 19.Xh.l980. 
J.ConraJi; Myall Lakes, id: 29.viii.I934.DF. Watcr- 
huUHC, 1 9.viii.I934, M.F. Day, ui ANIC. Baniu^non 
House. viM Salisbury. \6. 17-20 xii. 1963, A. 
Macqucen. in QM: Homsby. 26, C.Gibbons. in AM; 
Svdney, 16 69, I9(K)- l903..1..I.Walket; Wcddcfbum. 
3.5 39, I8.X.1960, M.fNikiiin in BMNH, 9 J 9'?, 



FIG. 1 1 . Dorsal view of cf Neuroctenux wQOdwQrdi 

JR.V.1959. C.E.Chadwick; Cowan, \26 159. 
5.iu.l96l. CE.Chadwick; Wogamia. nr Nowra, 19, 
20.ix.l970. C.E.Chadwick. Me Kembla. 3.5 39. 
I5.viii.l970. C.E.Chadwick. i J, 12. vi. 1965. 
C-E,Chudwick; Grose Wold, W of Richmond, 1(5 1. 
IS.ii.l967X.E.Chadwick;Katonmh.i. Id. 15.iv 1968. 
B White, m BCRI; Cabramatta, iS 49. 2.Vii.l960. 
M.l.Nikilin, in BMNH; Blackhcaih. 19, 29.iXJ936, 
n.F. Wilicrhouse; Tuross Head. I! ml S of Momya. 
3o. 21. ix. 1909, S. Mi.Nko. in ANIC. \6 J^. 
2Kix.l969, S Misko, in QM; Marlev, Id 39. 
23.xi 1949. RElIcry, in AM; Unandem. 2d -s9. 
3.X.1955, C.E.Chadwurk, in BMNH & BCRI. AUS- 


4 9. 11. i. 1964. D.F. Walerhouse. in ANIC, 1(5 1^. 
11.1.1964, D.F. Waterhouse. in QM. TASMANIA: 
West Tamar, 19. in SAM: Launccston. 3d .i?. 
2.11.1928, V.V,Hickman. in AM: Hobart. Id 19, 
8.vii.I9S7. G.Borncmi.ssza, 7d 5 9, 2.vii.I9H7, 
G.Bornemissza. 4d 29,,J9S7. G-Bomemissza, 
in QM, Id. JJ.Walker, in BMNH, 1 9, 3-l2,xii.n>S6. 
Burckhardl, in MNHG. NO STATE SPEC1F[E.D: 
Australia, 19. 58.124. 6d 4 9, 1958-59, M.LNikilin. 
in BMNH. (QM duplicates lodged in DJ, EH. NMNH, 
HNHM. UZMH. NMB) (QM Paratypes: QMT14&86- 
14929. QMT25524, QMT26095-26299. QMT29705- 

DESCRIPTION Mcdiurd-sized. 6-7.4mm long, 
wiih rosiral carinae meeiiiig posteriorlv and wiih 
symmetrically nmndcd paratcrgites of Mil in 
male- Dark reddish brown. 
MALE. Head with length 1 . 1 limes width; vertex 
transversely rugose; supraocular carinac weak; 
postocular processes narrow, rather blunt. rea;.h- 
ing outer profile of eyes: antennlferous tubercles 
shon. reaching basal Ihinl of first antcjinal scg- 
meni. Rostrum reaching level of hind margin of 
eyes; lateral carinae of rostral groove appmxi- 
mated behiiKl rostral apex. Aniennal length 1 35- 
1.55 times bead length; segment li, HI and IV 

Pronovun) with width 2.2-2.4 times median 
length, its surface granular; lateral margins 
faintly sinuate and ed^ed with a narrow carina on 
anterior half; pronoial surface largely flat wiih 
transverse inipiession ^puraung fore and hind 
lobes marked at sides only; collar forming a nar- 
row ndge indistinctly separated from pronotal 
disc. Scutellum with width 1. 2-1.25 times length; 
surface longitudinally rugose on anterior ha! f and 
transversely rugose on posterior half; median 
ridge weakly marked on posterior half. 
Hemelytra reaching hind margin of Tg VI; apex 
of corium reaclnng hind mafgin of Tg H; iT>env 
hranes blacky opaque, shining. 

Dorsal connexival surfaces punctaje;siiblatcral 
carinac preiieni on Cx III-V\ becoming obsolete 
on W, absent on VII; posterior glabrous areas of 
C\ HI-VI strongly elongate; m^aJ sutures of Cx 
IV and V smuate; suture between Cx VI aiul VII 
weakly curved; lateral Cx margins not double; 
carinae delimiting inner tergal disc present, be- 
coming obsolete posterior to segment VI. 
Pygophore with width 1.7 times length; its ?>ur- 
face granular and with abroad, triangular impres- 
sion on midline of basal three quarters; hind 
margin evenly rounded; paralergitcs of segnK'nl 
Vin ^hviri, symmetrically rx^umied apically; spi- 
r;*cies vewlral. 



Thoracis Sterna finely ^tinktedi abdominal 
stenia finely puncialc; hind margin ol' Si VI 
straight in middle and angled posleriorly at sides; 
St with a short, longiuidinaJ sulcus on each side 
of midline behind anienor edge; spiracles of seg- 
ment Il-Vn ventral. Legs with femora rather 
stout, those of forelegs with length 2.1 times 

Parameres as in Fig. 12Q. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: abdominal dorsum 
more coarsely punctate; wings reaching to basal 
Uiird of Tg VI; carinae delimiting inner tergal disc 
obsolete on Tg VII; paratergites of VIII short, 
rounded, reaching apex of segment DC, widi spi- 
racles sub-lateral; segment IX without projec- 

MEASUREMENTS. Holoiype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 2o and 29 paralypes. L; 
6.33. 6.00-6.50. 6.17-7.33; W: 2.80, 2,52-2.83, 
2.5^3 25; HL: 1.02. LOO-LIO. 1.00-1.12; JW: 
0.94. 0.94-1.00, 0.92- 1.0«; PL: 0.80, 0.78-0.90. 
0.80-0.90; PW: L90 J .86-2.06, 1.82-2.20; AS: I, 
0.34. 0.32-0.36. 034-0.36; U, 0.40, 0.36-0.38. 
0.38-0.46; 111. 0.42. 0.40. 0.38-0.48; IV. 0-40, 
0.36-0.38, 0.38-0.44; SL: 1.06, 1.00-1.14. LOO- 
1.20: SW: 1.28. 1.26-1.36. L21-L50; WL:3.75. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 14). TTiis species is 
known from open cucalypt forests of a narrow 
coastal bell of ca.stcra AusU'alia from the Hann 
Tableland in north Queensland to southern New 
South Wales. It also occurs in Tasmania but has 
not yet been taken in Victoria. Kormiiev (1965a; 
105) recorded a single ? from Atherton, in the 
wel tropical part of north Queensland. I have 
examined this specimen and it !S woodwardi but 
1 believe it is a mislabelled member of the series 
from Tamborine also mentioned by Kormiiev. In 
the northern part of its range it ii occasionally 
taken in dry rainforest. 

REJvL\RKS. It is a great pleasure to give the 
name of the late Dr T.E. Woodward, hemiptcrisi, 
formerly of the Unive4"siiy of Queensland, to this 
species which is so common in eastern Au-slralia. 
This species bai» been env:»oeously known in the 
literature and in most collections as iV. proximus 
(Walker), a name which is c^orrecily applied to an 
unrelated species from SW Australia., when 
Walker (1873) described Crimia rubrescens, 
now placed in Ovetlaetiella (Kormiiev, 1977), he 
listed 5 specimens from Australia as belonging to 
ihis species as follows: * J Australia, presented by 

the Haslar Hospital; 4 Australia, from Mr 
Darnel 's Collection ' . I have examined the Walker 
material of * Crimia rubrescens' in the British 
Museum and it now includes only one Australian 
specimen. ITiis specimen in not oinspecific with 
the rest of the series of Overlaetiella rubrescens 
but belongs lo -V. woodwardi. It is 58.124 which 
refers to a Register entry as follows: 'Australia, 
Sydney <fe Moreton Bay. Collected hy Edward 
Dapxel & brought of Samuel Stevens. Localiues 
are Maitiand, Moreion Bay, Wollangong, 
Parramana, Sydney\ All these localities lie 
within the known range of N. Moodwardi. 
Walker's species. O. rxtbrescens, docs not occur 
in Australia 

Netifocienus woodwardi is superficially :sinv 
ilar to /v. handschini but can be readily separated 
by its blunter postocular processes, symmetric^ 
paiulergites of the male, and the shorter paraterg- 
ites of the female. Both species arc abundant 
under bark of dead cucalypts and acacias. Al- 
Ihoiigh essentially allopauic their respective 
ranges overlap a little in north Queensland. 

Neuroctenus handschini Kormiiev, 1 953 
(Figsl2DJ.U, 13B,K0) 

Seuraciemts handschini Komiilev. 1953: 342 (dc&cr.. 

Hg). Usinger & Malsuda, 1959: 273 (listed); 

Komulev. 1967a; 532 (locality records); Kormiiev, 

1971: 65 (incl. in key); Kormiiev i!fc Frueschncr, 

19R7- 168 (listed). 
Nei4roaenus vkinus: Kormiiev. 1953: 342 (misident.) 

TYPE, Holotj-pe 5 . Marrakai, N.T., May, 1934. Hand- 
schin. in NMB Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Hoiotype and 324 speci- 
mens: NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA: Montaiivel Is., 
Melville Is, in NTM; Adelaide R; in BMNH, Mimakai, 
I 2 allotype: Bumside, in NMB; Hom Islcl. Pcllcw 
Group; West Alligator R. mouth; North Point, 
Kapalga; South Alligator Inn: Katherine Gorge, in QM; 
Fogg Dam, 53kni SE Darwin; Danvin, ex nest of 
Masfotefmes: 2ml ENE Victoria River Downs; Magclii 
Creek, 12 km N of Mudgjubairy. in .-XNIC; Darwin. 
Stapleton, in SAM & BMNH. NORTH QUEENS- 
LAND; Moa Island. Torres Strait: Somerset, in SAM; 
Yorke Island, Torres Stnai. in AM; Lockerbie; 
Mapocn; Weipa, in QM; 18km NE Mt To/t?r. Hkm 
ENE Mt Tozer, in ANIC; Rocky River, via Cocn; 
Homestead. Silver Plains, viaCoen; Mn^gravc, inQM: 
Mt Cook NP, Via Cookiown. in ANIC; Simit-m Ck , via 
Ml Carbine; Cwpcr Creek, IS ml N ol D-.nnuee: 
Hartley's Creek; Ellis Beach, in QM; Bungalow. 2ml 
S Caims. in ANIC; Cape Pallarcnda. Townsville: Mag- 
netic Island, in QM. CENTRAL QUEENSAND. Gicta 



Creek, 20mi N of Proserpine, in QM; Bluff (?), in 
SAM. (QM duplicates lodged in DJ, EH, NRS, UQIC) 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 4.5-6.5mm long, with 
acute postocular tubercles and asymmetrical api- 
ces to male paratergites. Colour dark reddish 

MALE. Head slightly longer than wide; vertex 
rugose; supraocular carinae not prominent; 
postocular tubercles long, apically acute, extend- 
ing beyond profile of eyes; antenniferous tuber- 
cles apically pointed, divergent, reaching basal 
third of first antennal segment; genal processes 
reaching apex of first antennal segment. Rostral 
apex level with hind margin of eyes; rostral 
groove with lateral carinae which coalesce be- 
hind rostral apex. Antennal length 1.4-1.5 times 
head length; all segments subequal. 

Pronotum with width 2.45-2.7 times median 
length; surface granular and lightly rugose; lat- 
eral margins slightly sinuate at anterior third, with 
a narrow marginal rim becoming somewhat ex- 
planate at anterolateral angles; collar very nar- 
row, indistinctly separated from pronotal disc; 
pronotal surface largely flat with transverse de- 
pression weakly marked at sides. Scutellum with 
width 1.25-L35 times length; surface rugose, 
more or less transversely so on posterior half. 
Hemelytra reaching to just beyond half length of 
Tg VI; coria reaching posterior margin of Tg II; 
membranes opaque, with basal quarter pale and 
apical 3/4 dark. 

Abdominal connexiva punctate; sublateral ca- 
rinae on segments III- VI; posterior glabrous areas 
of Cx II- VI elongate; inner margins of Cx IV and 
V sinuate; suture between Cx VI and VII straight; 
lateral margins of Cx not double; carinae delim- 
iting inner tergal disc prominent, becoming obso- 
lete on segment VI. Pygophore with width 1.6 
times length; its dorsum with a broad depression 
on basal half; its apex uniformly rounded; 
paratergites of VIII broad, with lateral margins 
straight and mesal side of apices produced; spira- 
cles sublateral. 

Thoracic sterna finely wrinkled; abdominal 
sterna finely punctate; suture between St VI and 
VII uniformly rounded; spiracles of II- VII ven- 
tral. Legs with femora rather slender, those of 
forelegs with length 2.35 times width. 

Parameres as in Fig. 12U. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: abdominal surface 
more coarsely punctate; sublateral connexival ca- 
rinae present on II- VI and sub-obsolete on VII; 
hemelytra reaching just beyond posterior margin 
of Tg VI; paratergites of VIII sub-rectangular, 

with sides parallel and apices truncate; spiracles 
of Vin lateral; segment IX with two blunt ventral 


MEASUREMENTS. Holotype cJ first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 2$. L: 5.67, 4.67- 
5.67, 6.00-6.50; W: 2.78, 2.12-2.75, 2.92-3.08; 
H: 0.94, 0.80-0.94, 0.94-0.98; HW: 0.88, 0.86- 
0.90, 0.90-0.96; PL: 0.64, 0.61-0.70, 0.66-0.84; 
PW: 1.76, 1.50-1.80, 1.80-2.04; AS: 1,0.34, 0.30- 
0.32, 0.32-0.36; II, 0.32, 0.26-0.30, 0.32-0.34; in, 
0.34, 0.30-0.36, 0.42; IV, 0.36, 0.32-0.34, 0.36; 
SL: 0,96, 0.78-0.88, 0.96-1.02; SW: L20, 1.00- 
1.20, 1.28-1,36; WL: 3.25, 2.72-3.33, 3.50-3.67. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 14). Neuroctenus hand- 
schini is a common, open forest species occurring 
in a coastal strip of north Australia from the 
northwest of Western Australiaeast across the top 
half of the Northern Territory, the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, Cape York Peninsula, the Torres Su-ait 
islands and south on the Queensland coast to 
Prosperine. The only WA record is from the 
offshore Montalivet Island but it would be sur- 
prising if the species did not occur on the main- 
land in the adjacent, poorly-collected Kimberley 
region. The single old specimen in the South 
Austrahan Museum apparently labelled 'Bluff 
may refer to the township of Bluff west of Rock- 
hampton somewhat further south than Proser- 

REMARKS. I examined the NT specimens in the 
Naturhistorisches Museum, Basle, identified by 
Kormilev (1953) as N. vicinus and find that they 
are typical handschini. 

Neuroctenus handschini is similar to N. 
woodwardi in habits and appearance; it seems to 
be the ecological complement of N. woodwardi 
in north Australia. Like N. woodwardi, it some- 
times occurs in monsoon rainforest patches. The 
parameres of the two species are very different. 
A^. kapalga sp. nov., described below, is taxonom- 
ically much closer to N. handschini and occurs 
sypatrically with it in the NT. 

Neuroctenus kapalga sp.nov. 
(Fig. 12 A) 

TYPE. Holotype d, Channel Island, 12.33S 130.52E, 
5 Jul 1982, M.B.Malipatil, under bark Melaleuca. In 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 11 
paralypes: NORTHERN TERRITORY: Channel Is- 
land, 12.338 X 130.52E, under Melaleuca bark, 3d 



59. 5.vii.I982, MB Malipaiil. in NTM; WilOmiin 
River Smiion. 3cJ 55. 2O.V.1980. L.Radunz, in NTM 
andQM; Nonh Point, Kapalga, 1 5. l9.vii.iy7<>,GBM 
& DJC. QMT2970O-29703. 

DRSCRIPTION Small, 54-69mm lopg, with 
roslral carinae converging posteriorly, with nriale 
Vm paiatergites asymmetncai and with reduced 
posloctilar processes. Colour dark reddish brown, 
MALE, Head slightly longer (ban wide; vertex 
rugose; supraocular carinae weak; postocular tu- 
bercles shorty narrow^ blunt, barely reaching outer 
profile of eyes; antcnniferous tubercles pointed, 
divergent, reaching basal third of first antenna! 
segment. Lateral carinae of rostral groove pre^ 
eni» converging closely behind rostral apex. An- 
Icnnal length 1.4-1.5 limes head length; fust 3 
segments subequal, last slightly longer. 

Pronotum with width 2.5-2.8 times median 
length, Its surface granular; lateral margins al- 
most straight, not explanate; collar a narrow rira 
only. Sculellum with width 1.3- 1 .45 times length; 
surface longitudinally rugose on anterior half and 
transversely rugose on posterior half. Hemelytra 
reaching hind raargm of Tg VT; coria reaching 
hind margm of Tg II; membranes black, opaque, 
with basal quarter pale. 

Abdominal connexiva punctate, their sublate- 
ral carinae obsolete; posterior glabrous are^is of 
Cx ni-VI weakly elongate: inner margins of Cx 
rv and V weakly curved; lateral comiexival mar- 
gins not double; carinae delimiting inner tergal 
diskdistinci but low. Pygophore with width 1.62 
tin>es length, its surface grantilar, w ith a broad 
depression in middle of dorsum and with hind 
margin evenly rounded. Paratergites of segemt 
VIII broad, flattened, with inner m.argins as- 
symeirically, spiravles siiblateral. 

Thoracic sterna finely wrinWed; abdominal 
sterna finely punctate; hind margin of Si VI 
straight in middle and angled forward at sides. 
Spiracles of segments Il-Vn ventral. Legs with 
femora stout, those of ibrelegs with length 2.3 
times maximum width 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: abdomma! dorsum 
more coarsely punctate; sublateral carinae on Cx 
lil-VI present but faint; hemelytra reaching to 
two thirds length of Tg VI; paratergites of Vni 
reacliing to level with apex of segment IX, their 
apices subtruncate. their spiracles sublateral; seg- 
ment IX with two small blunt ventral projections. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
range of 2d and 2$ paraivpes. L; 6.00. 5.41- 
6.00. 6.08-6.91: W: 2.81, 2.34-2.44, 2.56-2.96: 
HL: 1.00. 0.85-^.95, 1.0O-1.O6; H\V: l.OO, 0.83- 

0.84, 0.91-0.96; PL: 0.67. 0.58-0.65, 0.62-0.S3; 
PW: L83J .54-1 72,l.74-2.03;AS:L0.3l. 0.28- 
038, 0,334].35. 0.35-0.40; IV. 0.38, 0.44-0.36. 
0.38-0.40: SL: 0.86, 0.78-0.81, 0.87-1. 00; SW: 
1.25. LOO-1.03. 1.16^1-37; WL: 3.50, 2.96-3.12. 
3.4-4.00; coriura length: I.IO. 1.00-1.08, LOO^ 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 14). This species is 
known fTom only 3 collcciioni in Ibc nonhcm 

REMARKS. Neuroctenus kapalga ts very similar 
to ihe widt;spread tropical species A', hatulsihini 
and its range occupies a small area 'v^iliiin the 
range of Ihie latter. 

Neuroctenus hvalinipennk austraHcust 

Kormilcv" 1965 (Fig. 13G,R) 

Neuroctenus sernUatus: Koninlcv. 1965b'.5 (nusi- 
dem.l; Kormilev, 1967a: 532 (misidem.). 

Neuroctenus hyalinipennis austraitcus Kormllev, 
1971: 77 (descr.); Koraiilev & Froeschncr. 1987: 
169 (listed) 

TVTE Holotype '3". Australia. Queensland, Cairns, 
Mjobcrg coll.. in NMNH (Drake Collecnon). Not ex- 
amined but checked on my behalf by Dr R.C. Froesch- 

NEW GUINEA. Muma River, \9, 21.xu.I964. L 
SedlaceJc in Malaise trap, in QM: Mis^ma Island. 2v^ 
1 9. H.R. Banleti. in SAM. NORTH QUEENSLAND: 
Somerset, 2 2. C.T. McNam;ua. in SAM; Lake 
Bofonio. Newcastle Bay. Id 19, 30.i--4 ii 1975, 
GBM: Ctaudie Raver. 26.V.1974, M. Walford-Hug- 
gins, in QM; I4km NW Hopevaie. Id. 8-l0.x.]9«t). 
TAW; 3km NE Mt Webb, Id, l-3,xJ9S0. TAW; 
Julatten. 3d 55, 18-22. viii.1982; Green Island. 26 
29,8-I5.vui 1982.mANIC;Caims,ld 19;Kuranda, 
Id I9.5.xij.l920.RP.Dodd.inQM;Cdims/2d 29, 
MjOberg. m NRS; Etty Bay. nr Innisfail, Id, 

DESCRIPTION. Small 5.1-5.5mm long, with 
Transparent wing membranes and truncate 
paratergites Colour pale to reddish brown. 
M.'VLE. Head with length 1 .05-1 .15 times width; 
vertex transversely rugose; supra-ocular ridges 
low; postocular tubercles pomted. extending be- 
jxind outer profde of eyes, anlcnniferous tuber- 
cles blunt, very short reaching basal 1/4 ol first 
aniennal segment; genal processes short, reach- 
ing 3/4 of first aniennal segment Rostrum short, 
not reachms level of hind border of eves; rosiral 



groove with carinae which are well separated for 
whole length. Antennae with length 1.35-i 34 
limes head length; first 2 segments subequal, 
shorter than segments III and IV which are also 

Pronotum with width 2.5-2.75 limes median 
length; surface rather finely rugo&e; lateral mar- 
gins straight; collar present as a faint rim not 
scparatcil from pronotal disc by a groove; trans- 
verse depression separating fore and hind lobes 
present at sides, absent in middle, submedian 
sublateral areas flat Scutellum with width 1.3-1.4 
limes length; surface longitudinally rugose on 
anterior half, transversely so on posterior half; 
niodian canna obsolete. Hemelytra usually reach- 
ing or slightly surpassing hind margin of Tg VI; 
corium reaching a little beyond hind bonder of Tg 
n, poorly sclerotised; mernbianes completely 
transparent and without visible venation. 

Connexival surfaces coarsely rugose-punctate; 
sublateral carinae weakly present on Cx HI-VI 
and obsolete on VII; posiericr glabrous areas of 
C.\ IV-VI elongate, inner margins of Cx IV and 
V straight; >uture between Cx VI and VII curved; 
Cx margins not conspicuously double except on 
segment VII; carinae debmiting inner tergal disc 
cuntinuous to hind border of segment VII. 
Pygophore with width 1 .5 limes length; basal half 
impressed on each side of middle: paratergites of 
VIII broad. apicaJIy Uimcate, with spiracles sub- 

Tlioracic sterna very smooch, minuiely wrin- 
kled; abdominal sterna finely putwtate; suture 
Iteiween St VI and \1I straight in middle then 
angled sharply backwards at sides before running 
obliquely to margins. Legs with sioul femur, 
those of forelegs with length tw ice width. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: sublateral carinae 
prominentonCxin-VII; carinae delimiting inner 
tergal disc complete and continuous posteriorly 
to immediately anterior to hind margin of seg- 
ment VI; hemelytra reaching to ab^iui 3/4 length 
ol segment VI; paratergites of segment Vm .short, 
uansverse, apical I y truncate and wiiJi se^^al 
denticles along margin; segment DC without ven- 
tral projections. 

MEASUREMENTS. Ranges of 2(J and2?-L; 
5.17-5.50. 5.17-5.33; W: 2.20-2.32. 2.14-2.16; 
HL: 0.«H-0.yO, 0.86-0.94; HW: 0.80-0.84, 0.80, 
PL: 0.60-0.66. 0.60; 1^^: 1.6O-L70. 1.60-1.64; 
AS: L 0.28. 0.26-0.28, H, 0.26^.28. 0.28, HI. O.M. 
0.;H-0.36. I\', 0,32-0.36,0.36; SL: 0800.86. 08U 
0.S6; SW: 1.10-1.14, 142-144, WL: 2,96-3.25. 

DISTRIBUTION CFig 14). From die tip of Cape 
York to Innisfail, north Queensland. Sri Lanka, 
the Philippines, Java and New Guinea. 

REMARKS The transparent wing membran<;s 
make this species very distinctive among Austra- 
lian species. Kormilev (1971) recognized two 
subspecies; the nominoiypical hyalinipermh, 
from the Philippines (type locality) and Java, 
which has both coria and membranes transparent; 
and australicus. from Queensland, which has the 
coria partly sclerotised. He mentioned an inter- 
mediate specimen trom Misima Ishuid and 3 
companion specimens to those are in BPBM now 
in addition to a New Guinea mainland specimen 
identified as subsp. axmralicus by Kormilev sub- 
sequent to his publication. These specimens show 
cofi a Jess sclerotised than those of typical Atislrii- 
lian specimens but are otherwise identical. 

Neurocteimscrassicornis Kormilev, 1971 
(Figs4B. 5E,SX 12F,K,W, 13C,LS, 16N) 

Neuroaenus crasstcornis Kormilev. 1971: 79(dcscr., 
fig.); Komvilev & Froeschner, 1987: 166 (listed). 

Nemvctenus vicmuy. Koraiilcv, 1971: 96 (misideM. of 
Aust. specimen). 

TYPE. Holotype 5. New Guinea. Papua, W. District, 
Oriomo Govt. Sta.. 26-28. x. I960. J.L.GTessilt, IN 
BPBM Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 135 speci- 
mens: PAPl'A NEW GUINEA: Oriomo Govt. Sla.. \V. 
Pfov., 'i allotype. \^ 19 paraiypcs. in BPBM. 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: Ect HilK Moa (Banks) b- 
land, Torres Strait, jn QM: Somerset^ Cape Yorfc. in 
QM UZMH and MCC; I-ockcrbic; Dividing Range. 
1 5km W of Capi Billy Creek; Iron Range; West 
Claudie R. Iron Range:, in QM. (QM duplicates Uxlged 

DESCRIPTION (bused On type malenul). Me- 
dium-sized, 6 "mm long, witlwut rostral groin'c 
carinae. with truncate paratergites and with blac'lL. 
opaqi>e wing membraac. 
MALE. Head with length about II umes width; 
vertex transversely rugose; iiupra-ocular carinae 
low; posiocular tubercles not acute, reaching 
cmler profile of eyes; an lenni femus tubercles with 
otiter margins suVparallel and with apices drawn 
Dut into small points; genal processes not sepa- 
rated, reaching apex of first aniennal segnicni. 
Rostrum extending to hind margin of eyes; rostral 
groove shallow and without lateral carinae. An- 
tennae with l^tgth f.4" 1 ,5 rimes head length; ail 
segtiients thick, equal to era tittle less in diameter 



ihan segment I; ^egmeni I with length about twice 
width; segment in longest, segment 11 and HI 

Pionomm with width 2.5-2.7 limes median 
length; surface finely granuJar and rugose; lateral 
margins slightly sinuate at anterior third, with a 
narrow explanaie margin giving anterolateral an- 
gles a somewhat angular appeaiance, collar very 
reduced, barely differentiated from disc; trans- 
verse depression we^ at sides and absent medi- 
iilly; pronoiaJ surface virtually flat- 

Sculellum with width 1.15-1.3 times length; its 
surface weakly rugose, longitudioally so on ante- 
rior half and transversely so on posterior half. 
Hemelyira reaching wing margin of Tg VII; ce- 
rium reaching just beyond hind margm of Tg 11: 
membranes black, opaque, rather shining. 

Connexival surfaces purA:tale; lateral margins 
conspicuously double, fmely denticulate andlon- 
gitudiaally grooved; sublateral carinae weakly 
present on Cx IIl-V, becoming obsolete on M, 
absent on VII; posterior glabrous areas of Cx 
ni-Vl strongly elongate: inner margins of Cx TV 
and V virtually straight; suture between Cx VI 
and Vn weakly curved; carinae delimiting inner 
tergal continuous to hind border of segment VI, 
Pygophore with width 1 .7 limes length; its sur- 
face granular and with a depression on each side 
of middle of base; paratergites of Vin broad, with 
apices sub-truncalc and with outer margins 
straighi and contiguous with margin of Cx VII; 
spiracles lateral. 

Thoracic sterna smooth, very fmely wrinkled; 
abdominal sterna \'ery llnely punctate; suture be- 
tween St VI and Vn straight in middle then 
angled sharply posteriorly before extending ob- 
liquely to margin; spiracles of segments 11- Vn 
venual. Legs with femora very stout, those of 
forelegs with length less than twice width; tibiae 
with double tow of small tubercles along doreal 

Parameres as in Fig. 12W. 
FEMALE. As for o except: sublateral carinae 
distinct on Cx HI- VI. weaken VII; carinae delim- 
iting inner tergal disc reaching to about 3^4 length 
of Tg VI; hemelytra extei>ding to half length of 
Tg VI; piaratergites of segment VIII short^ trans- 
verse, truncate, with apices denticulate; spiracles 
lateral; segment IX without ventral projections. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
paratype 2. then ranges of additional 2 Austra- 
lian dcJ and 9 ?.L: 6.17. 7.00. 6.00-6.17. 6.17- 
6.5U; W: 2.80. 3.25. 2.75-2.83, 2.92-3.00: HL: 
J. 10. 1.20. LOO-L02, 1.10;H\V 1.02. 1.04,0.96- 
0.98, 0.94- LOO; PL: 0.72, 0.80, 0.6&-0.72. 0.70- 

0.72; PW: 1.80. I 96. 1.82-1.96. 1.82-1.86; AS: 
L 0-36, 0.40, 034, 032-038; n. 0.40, 44. 034- 
0.36, 038-0.40; HI, 0.50. 0.52. 0.44. 0.48-0.50; 
IV. 0.36. 0.36. 034, 038; SL: LOO. I 10. 094- 
096, LO0-L10;SW: 1.24, 1.28. 1.20-1.30. L26. 
I3(h WL: 4.00,4.17. 3.67-3.7S» 3.92. 

DISTRIBLTION (Fig. 14). This rainforest spe- 
cies occurs in northern Cape York Peninsula and 
on Moa Island in Torres Suuit. Il is also known 
from New Guinea and the Philippines. 

REMARKS. This is the species' lirsi record from 
Australia although a series of specimens col- 
lected at Somerset in 1875 by L.M. D'Albcrlis 
have been sighted by several authors (Bergroth, 
1887; Kormilev. 1971) and referred to as Neu- 
rocrenasvicinus. This senes was collected on the 
same expedition as was the lyps material of TV. 
xicinus (from New Guinea) and although it was 
presumably before Signoret when he described A/. 
vtcinus (Signoret, 1880} he, himself, did not in- 
clude it as .V. vkinns. However, the Somerset 
specimens are similar superficially to TV. vidnus 
and appear to have been distributed as that spe- 
cies. 1 have located 2 of these D'Albertis speci- 
mens, a «5 in the Genoa collection standing 
beside the Holotype of M vtcinus, and a 9 in the 
Helsinki collection. The latter is named Nei^ 
roctemn vicimis in Bergrolh's hand and is pre- 
sumably the specimen on which he biiscd his 
redescription of A', vicinus and his inclusion of 
'Austrahan borealem (Cape York)' in its distri- 
bution (Bergroth. 1887); ihe same specimen is 
cited by Kormilev (1971) as /V. vicinus. However 
these old Somerset specimens belong to the same 
species of which 1 have a long, modem series, 
from the vicinity of Somerset and which arc 
identical with the type series otcrassicornis fmm 
southern New Guinea. Heiss (1989b) .selected 
and illusu^ted a lectoiype for M vicinus. thus 
stabilising its identity. 

Neuroctenus par Bergroth. 1887 
(Figs 5D, 12C,V, 13A,V) 

Neuroctenus par ^tzgroWx. 1^87. 180 (dcscr.); 
Lethierry & Severin. 18%: 45 (listed); Kormilev, 
1953: 342 (locality records); Usinger & Maisuda, 
1959: 273 (listed); Bmic. 1965: 21 (jocalily re- 
cords); Kormilev, 1971 : 70 (included in key; locality 
records); Kormilev 8l Frocschncr, 1987; 172 

TYPE. 'Java, Mus. Berol.ColI. SIgnorciV Not located. 



NEW GUINEA: Buloio-Watut, iS. l-7.viJ968, J. 
Sedlacek: Wau. Hospital Creek. 19, 27.i.l966, J. 
Lockerbie, Cape York, 4c 69. L^-27.iv.l973, GBM, 
2o'25,28jv,-4.v.1968.GBM. Ic? 1 9, 11-I7.V.1968. 
GBM; West Claudie R., Iron Range, 96 59. 3- 
]0.xii.I986, GBM &. DJC, iii QM, Ukm NW 
Hopevale. \06 42v 8.10.X.I980. TAW. in ANIC & 
QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH. UQIC). 

DESCRIPTION Otased on Australian material). 
Medium sized, 6.1-7.2mm lot)g, with rostral 
groove closed behind and a di&iincl prcaioial col- 
lar. Dark yellowish brown. 

MALE. Head with length II times width: vertex 
txiarsely rugose- granular; supra-ocular carinae 
pronounced; postocular tubercles short, not 
rcijching outer profile of eyes, apically blunt, with 
several granules; antenniferous tubercles almost 
parallel sided, apically with a small point; ante- 
rior process of head long, reaching almost to apex 
of tlrst antennal segment. Rostrum short, not 
reaching level of {xisierior border of eyes, rostral 
groove deep, with marginal carinae meeting be- 
hind rostral apex . Antennae with length 1 .45- 1 .55 
times head length; segments I and III subequal. 
lofiger than segments II and W which are also 

Pronotum with width 2. 1-2.3 times median 
length; its surface sparsely granular; lateral mar- 
gins slightly sinuate, anterior Vi with a deniicu- 
laie, explanaie rim; collar large, smooth, set off 
from disc by a distinct gnxtve: pronotal surface 
Hat with transverse depression present laterally; 
anterior lobe with a faint median sulcus. Scutel- 
lum with width 1.15-1.25 times length; surface 
with a tri-radiaie, faint pattern of ndges on disc; 
surface with some longitudinal rugae in middle 
of anterior half and with faint transverse rugae on 
fK^sterior half. Hcmelytra reaching to hind margin 
of Tg VI; coria reaching to hind margin of Tg III; 
membranes opaque, black, shining. 

Conne\ival surfaces finely punctate; sublateral 
carinae obsolete on all connexiva, inner margins 
of Cx IV and V slightly sinuate; suture between 
C\ VI and VII suaighl; carinae deiimiiing \r\mx 
tergal disc complete posteriorly to hind margin of 
VI: posterior glabrous areas of Cx somewhat 
elongate or subcircular; lateral margins not con- 
spicuously double and grooved. Pygophore with 
width 1 .6 times length; dorsum wiih a triangular 
impression; paratergites of VlII flat, apically ex- 

Panded on mesal side; spiracles sublateral. 
axameres (Fig. 12V). 

Thoracic sterna smooth, tmcly wrinkled; ab- 
dominal sterna smooth; spiracles of IT-Vn ven- 
tral; suture between St VI and VII straight in 
middle then extending obliquely to margins. 
Legs with femora rather stout, those of forelegs 
W3th length 2.1 times width. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: sublateral carinae 
weak, on Cx IJI-VI4 obsolete on VII; henvclytra 
reaching apical 3/4 of Tg VI; carinae delimiting 
inner tergal disc reaching hind margin of VI; 
paratergites of VU apically rounded, not reaching 
apex of segment IX: segment IX long, with 2 
short, subcontiguous, ventral pTOJcctions. 

MEASUREMENTS. Ranges of 2d and 2?. L: 
6.17-6.33. 7.17-7.50; W: 2.75-3.0O. 3.08-3.16; 
HL: I.OO-l.lO, Ll4-i.l6; HW: 0.9(V0.98, 1.00- 
1.02: PL: 0.88-0.92, 0.98-1.00; PW: L90-2.06, 
2.10-2.16; AS I. 0.42-0.44, 0.42-0.44; U. 0.36- 
0.38. 0.40, 111 0.42-0.46. 0,44-0.48. IV. 0.38- 
0.40. 0.40-0.42; SL: 1.06-1.12. 1.20; SW: 
1.22-1.34,1.40-1,48; WT.:3.5&'3.92,4.0(M-I7. 

DISTRIBirnON(Fig. 14). The species is knowit 
from die rainforests of Iron Range and Lockerbie 
in the far north of Cape York Peninsula with one 
record from justN of Cooklown. The species a].so 
occurs in SE Asia. Java (type locality), Borneo, 
Philippines, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelagii 
and the Solomons. 

REMARKS. This widespread species is herene- 
corded ibr the first time from Australia. Austra- 
lian material runs directly to par in Komiilcv's 
( 1 97 1 ) key and agrees with New Guinea material 
determined by Kormilev. Neuroctenuspar is Sim - 
iiar in size and colour to A*, crassicornis with 
which it occurs at both Lockerbie and Iron Rangc. 
The two species are readily separated by the 
truncate paratergites and lack of rostral carintie in 
jV. crassicorms. 

Neuroctenuseurvcephalus Kormilev, 1971 
(Figs5G. 12E,T) 

J^eurocsenus €uryc€phalus Kormi lev, 1 97 1 : 86 (de»cr„ 
ftg.L Konnilev & Froe^jchncr, 1987. 167 (listed). 

TYPE. Holoiype c? . New Guinea, Brown River, E of 
Port Moresby. 100m. June 8. 1955, Ji^ Gressltt. JO 
BPBM. Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 50 sp^l- 
raens: NEW GUJNEA; Brown River. E of PofI 
Moref^bv, lOOni. 5>iti,»n 
BPBMrOriomo Govt. Sia., W Di.smu. 12. 26- 
28.x. 1 960, J.L- Gressiu, in ANIC. NORTH QUEKNS- 



FIG. 12. Neuroctenus spp.. A, N, kapalga 9; B, M occidentalis 6\ C, N. par. D, N. fumdschini; E, M 
eurycephalus\ F, N. crassicomis; G, M proximus\ H, M grandis; I-K, rostral region of head; I, A', handschinl; 
J, M proximus\ K, M crassicomis\ L-N, spermathecae; L, M proximus; M, M yorkensis; N, M grandis; O-W, 
left parameres, inner view; O, N. proximus\ P, M grandis; Q, M woodwardi; R, N. occidentalis; S, M yorkensis', 
T, M eurycephalus', U, M handschini; V, M /?«r, W, /V. crassicomis 



LAND: Morcion Telegraph Station. 5S 29.;IronRange. n-17.vl96S,GBM,19, 
l.v.l975,M.S. Moulds, 1$, 12-18. ii.l976. GBM; 
Shipton's Flat. 250m, 35kin S Cooktown. lid 169, 
22.iv.]982. GBM. DKY & DJC; Port Douglas, M 1 9, 
iS-x. J987. G. Hughes, in QM; Station Creek. 11 ml N of 
MlMoUoy,3d 79, 18.xi.l969, J.G. BiDcAcSsinANIC. 

DESCRIPTION (based on types and Australian 
maicrial). Coarsely-textured, medium-sized, 
dark, 6. 1-6. 9min long, wilii spiracles of segments 
VIJ aDd Vni lateral. Body not strongl> flattened. 
MALE. Head usually a little longer than wide: 
vertex coarsely granulate; supra-ocular ridge 
prominent and denticulate; postocular tubercles 
lung, straight, apically pointed, extending beyond 
outer profile of eyes; antennifcrous tubercles 
granular, divergent, bluni; genul processes sub- 
coniiguous, widened apically^ surpassing apex of 
first antennal segment. Rostrum long, extending 
a little beyond hind margin of rostral groove; rostral 
groove with prominent lateral carinae which do 
tiot meet posteriorly. Antennae 1.3-L45 times 
head length; first two segments subequaK shorter 
than segments 111 and [V which are also subequaJ. 

Pronotum with width 2.2-2.35 limes median 
length; surface granular; lateral margins dis- 
unctly sinuate at anterior third; angles produced 
into small, rounded, explanaie lobes; collar dis- 
tinct and separated off by a sulcus; transverse 
depression separating fore and hind lobes more 
or less complete; submcdian areas of forelobe 
with cresceniic glabrous calh present on eu^'h side 
t>f an indistinct median sulcus; sublaleral areas 
slightly intlaied. Sculellum with width 1.34- 1 .43 
imies length; surtacc granular; a median ridge 
present for whole length. Hemelylra extending to 
a little beyond hind border of Tg VI; coria ncach- 
ing to a]mi>sl half length of Tg III; membranes 
with basal fifth 'Aliite and remainder opaque and 

Conncxival s*urfaces coarsely punctate; sub- 
lateral cannae obsolete on all connexiva; poste- 
rior glabrous areas of CxIII-\Tsubcircular;intter 
margins of Cx TV and V straight; suture between 
Cx VI and VIl straight; lateral margins of abdom- 
inal Cx not conspicuously double; carinae deJim- 
iring inner tergal disc continuous posteriorly to 
hind margin of segment VL Pygophone with 
width about 1 .5 iirncs length, its apex narrowed;^l half with u narrow, median, triangular im- 
pression: paratcrgJtes of VIII with spiracles 
clearly lateral and with mesal side of apices 
strongly produced into a rounded lobe. 

Prosiernum coarsely piinclale; meso- and 
iiieta&tema rugose; abdotninal siema coarsely 

punctate at sides and more finely so medially; 
suture between St VI and Vn suaight across 
middle and angled posteriorly at sides; spir;icles 
of segments ll-VI ventral, those of VII lateral and 
visible from above. Legs with femora stout, those 
of fore legs with length a little ovet twice widllu 

Parameres as m Fig. 12T. 
reVlALE. As for c except: sublaleral carinae 
irregularly developed on Cx ID-VL usually only 
on postenoT half of segment, absent on Vli; 
hemelylra reaching just beyoiuJ tudi kng&i uJ Tg 
VI; carinae delimiting inner tergal disc mixc or 
less complete around margin of wings; parutcrg- 
ites of vni with angulate apices and lateral spi- 
racles; segment IX with a pair of short, 
widely-spaced ventral projections. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype S first, then allo- 
type 9 . then ranees of additional 2 Australian ^ 
and 5. L: 6.17.^83, 6.00-6.33, 6.67-6.83; W: 
2.75, 3.25, 2.58-2.75. 2.83-2.92; HL; LI6, 1.34. 
1.06-1.12. 1.19-1.26; IW: 1.14. 1.26. 1.12-1.14. 
1.22-1.24; PL; 0.90, 1.06. 0.&8-0.90. 0.90-0.94; 
PW: 2-10.2.3^. 196-2.06,2.18-2.36: AS: 1. 0.38» 
0.42. 0304}.34, 0.36-038: U. 038. 0.42, 0..34-0.3fi, 
0.40-0.42; ID, 0.46. absent. 0.44-0.46. 0.46-0.50; 
IV. 0.44, absent. 0.38-0.42. 0.44-0.46; SL: LCX). 
1,16.09-2-1 0O.I.00-l.C4;SW 1.34, X 
1 .40- 1 .42; \\1: 3.50. 4.08, 333-3.58, 3.67-3.91 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 14). C&pc York Peninsula 
as far south as Mount Molloy and P<irt DiiDglas. 
New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and the 
Solomon Islaivtis. 

REMARKS. This species has not been reported 
from Australia previously. It has been taken in 
rainforest with the exception of the series frnni 
Station Creek. It is closely related to M yorien^fis 
sp. nov.. and the two are the only Australian 
representatives of the section of Neitroaenus 
with lateral spiracles on segment VII and body 
tK)t strongly iiattcncd. 

Neuroclenus vorkensis sp nov. 
(Figs4A,5F.'l2M.S. 13F,M,P) 

TYPE. Holotype d . ncrlh Queensland, Cooper Cavi. 
ISml N of Dainircc River. 1969, G.B. Moiw 

M.\TER[AL EXAMINED. Holotype and 72 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: 1 ml NE Ml 
Lamond, Iron Range. 19* 26.xii.l97I. McAlpine* 
Hollowflv & Sands, in AM; West ClaMdic R.> Iron 
Range, i a 3?, J0.xU.1985. GBM. DKY Sl DJC; 



FIG. 13. Neuroctenus spp., abdominal apices, dorsal (d) and ventral (v). A, N. par d d; B, A^. handschini S d, 
C, N. crassicomis 6 d; D. N. proximus 6 ,&,E, N. gracilis 6 d; F, N. yorkensis, S d; G, N. hyalinipennis 6 
d; H. N. grandis 6 d; I, N. crassicomis 6 v; J, N. proximusS v; K, N. woodwardi S v; L, N. occidentalis 6 
v; M, N. yorkensis 6 v; N. N. handschini 9 v; O. N. Ixandschini 9 d; P, N. yorkensis 9 d; Q, M gracilis 9 d; 
R, N. hyalinipennis 9 d; S, N. crassicomis 9 d; T, N. woodwardi 9 d; U, N. proximus 9 d; V, A', par 9 d; W, 
N. grandis 9 d. 




.,. grandis 
( i ^N. kapalga 

i , ' '\ * ^' yorkensis 
I i ^N. par 



\ • N. proximus 

■ N. transftus 
♦ N. occidentalis 

A A. termitophiius 


♦/|{] ♦ N. crassicornis 
■ W. hyalinipennis 
*L A W. eurycephalus 

' m 





FIG. 1 4. Records for species of Neuroctenus and Aspisocoris in Australia. 

Portland Roads. 9c? 99. 6.xii.l985. GBM & DJC 
Coen. Cape York Pen., 6c? 109, 10.xii.l964, GBM; 
Cooper Creek, IS nil N of Daintree River. 16<5 79,, GBM; Upper Daintree River, via 
Daintree, 4<5, 27.xii.]964. GBM; Ellis Beach, via 
Caims, 1 d 49. 28.xii.1964, GBM; Crystal Cascades, 
viaRedIynch,2d,29.xi.I965,GBM;Gordonvale, ](?,, A. Macqueen, in QM. (QM duplicates 
lodged in BMNH, ANIC, SAM, NRS, UQIC) (QM 
paratypes: QMT14930- 14963, 26308-26337). 

DESCRIPTION. Small, coarsely textured, dark, 
5, 1 -6.2mm long, with spiracles of segments VII 
and Vm lateral and body not strongly flattened. 
This species is very closely related to N. eu- 
rycephalus and the following description is re- 
stricted to differences from that species. 
MALE. Smaller, 5.1 -5.8mm long; postocular tu- 
bercles narrower and slightly shorter; pronotum 
shorter and broader, width equalling 2.4-2.7 
times median length; anterolateral pronotal an- 
gles less expanded; pygophore with dorsal im- 

pression shallow and broader; parameres (Fig. 
12S) with apices much shorter and broader. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: size smaller than N. 
eun'cephalus, 5.7-6,2mm long. Spermatheca as 
in Fig. 12M. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 3 first, then 
ranges of additional 2 paratype 6 and 9 . L; 5.42, 
5.17-5.83, 5.83-6.17; W: 2.33, 2.20-2.50, 2.67- 
2.92; HL: 0.94, 0.90-1.06, 1.04-1.12; HW: 0.96, 
0.92-1.14. 1,00-1.08; PL: 0.74. 0.70-0.86, 0,82- 
0.90; PW: 1 .96. 1 .90- 1 .96, 1 .96-2. 1 6; AS: 1, 0.30, 
0.28-0.30, 0,30-0.34; II, 0.30. 0.30-0.36, 0.34- 
0.36; III, 0.38, 0.36-0.42, 0.40-0.44; IV, 
0.36,0.36,0.38-0.40; SL: 0.82, 0.82-1.00, 0.94- 
1.00; SW: 1.14. 1.12-1.24. 1.34-1.40; WL: 3.00, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 14). Cairns to Iron Range 
in the southern half of Cape York Peninsula in 
both rainforest and open forest. 


REMvUlKS. The range ofihis species overlaps 
with that of its close relative. N, euryceptialus^ in 
the southern portion of the range of the latter. The 
two are easily separable only by structural fea- 
tures of the male, especially the shape of the 
parameres. Overall size seems to be quite a reli- 
able tJiffercntiation as each species is known 
from quite long series with little size variation in 
each. Isolated females may be difficuh to place 
and 3 in QM cannot be assigned at present 
(Lockerbie; 4km E of Lockerbie. Qjpiain Billy 

Ctenoneurus Bergf oth, 1887 

Cmwneurus ^crgioih, 1887: 188 Idescr); llsinger& 
Maisada. 1959. 198.266 (incl. in key; redesct.i; 
Kormilcv. 1971: 4.8.49 (relationships; incl. in key; 
key to spp.); Lee & Pendergrasi, 1977; 167 (brief 
dcscr.j; Komiilev & Froeschner, 1987: 130 (cata- 
logue of spp.). 

TYPE SPECIES, Neurocienus hochnmeri Mayr, 
1866 (New Zealand), designated by Usingcr & 
Malsuda, 1959. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig 8B), Ctm<meuruii\i^%V^(^ 
centres of diversity: the Afiica^'Maiagasy region 
with a minor radiation of 1 1 species, and the 
Indo-Pacific region w iih a major radiation of 34 
species, particularly in the eastern sector. 

tus for the group in the Melanesian arc region. In 
Australia the genus has 3 rare species 2 of which 
occur in wet tropical Queensland and 1 in the wet 
subtropics of south Queensland/northern NSW 
These are the regions where numerous other links 
with the Melanesia^ arc fauna occur, 


I , Head distinctly longer than, width across the eyes; 
abdominal terga wiihout a prominent ridge bor- 
dering the hemelytral membranes; pygophore of 
male with a narrow, elongate dorsal impression 

(North Queensland) 2 

Head about as long as width across eyes; ab- 
dominal terga raised into a prominent, rugose 
ridge bordering the hemelytral membranes; 
pygophore of male with a sub-circular dorsal 
impression (South Queensland. NSW) 

, meridionalis, sp.nov. 

2(1). Body narrow and elongate, with total length 
toui times maximum body length; apex of scutcl- 
ium with thj"ee prominent teeth; margins ol Cx 
VI tubercular ...... robertsi,' 

Body broader, total length less than four times 
maximum width: apex of scutellum with two 
weak teeth; margins of Cx VI smooth 
ausrralis K<jrm\ky 

CtenoneumsaustralisKarmilev, 1965 
(Figs 4D. 5H, 7D, 16B, 16F-J) 

REMARKS. Neuroctenus and Cfenoneurus affC 
closely related with sorae mremiediate types oc- 
curring. The two genera show contrasting pat- 
terns of distribution. WlKreas Neuroctemts is 
cosmopolitan with the principal proliferations of 
species occurring on the continental land trasses, 
Ctenoneurus does not extend to eith^sr the Pal- 
ae-arctic or the New World and has its species 
prolifcraiions on the insular land masses of the 
Indo-Pacific where its overall distribution ex- 
ceed^s greatly thai oi Neuroctenus. For exa.nip!e, 
some of these insular faunas are: Fiji, 5 spp.: New 
Caledonia, 5 >pp.; New Guinea* 6 spp.; New 
Zealand. 3 spp. 

Neuroctenus, by contrast, does iiot extend into 
the Pacific east of die Solomons exrepl for an 
isolated occurrence on Samoa. The question 
arises as to whe'iier Creno?ieuriiSor\ these islands 
nepresents overseas colonization or relicts from 
former more exieosive land masses. The minor 
radiaiioTvs cm such Xonlinentar islands as Fiji, 
New Caledonia and New Zealand, with few or no 
species on many of the younger islands such as 
Ihe SolonKins and Vanuatu, indicates a relict star 

Ctenomurusaussndis Kcrmilev 1 965b: 3 (descr.. Iig.); 
Kormflev, 1971: 51 (incl. in keyl; Kormilcv & 
Froeschncr. 1987: 130 (listed). 

TYPE. Hololype i', Malnnda, Queens!., Mjobcrg, in 
NRS. Exanuncd. The type lacks the apical 2 segments 
of the right antenna and the tarsi of all legs e.\cepl the 
left rear. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotypc and 36 speci- 
mens: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Gap Creek. Skm N 
of Bloomfteld River, 100% 1 ?, 8-9.V.WO. GBM.ia 
QM: 6km S Kuranda. intercept Inip. Id l2v 
l0.xiLl984'l5.j.l985, RIS Hi K.Haifpapp. in MDPI; 
Tolga. Ic?, 10.V.1970.GBM; Davics Creek Rd. KOOm. 
4<3, 25.xii-t9fiJi, H.& A.Howden. 19. pyrcihmm, 
I7.xii-I98(A GBM.GIT-. 21 km S Atherton. ltW<) 
1 iOQm. 1 9 . .Vxi.l9S3. DKY & GFT: North Bell Peak. 
10 km E Gordonvalc. 900-lOOOm. 19. 13a.I»JR^ 
GBM, DKY & GIT. to QM; Bellenden Kcr. I iJ a]lo- 
type, Mjobcrgv in NRS: Upper Mu!gra\'e River* 2^ 
19, 30.iv.!97a, GBM: Millaa Millaa Falls, 3c?. 
ll.viii.l968,TAW; Baldy Mountain road. SkuiSWot 
AlhertoTi. 4000\ Id 1$. Il.v.l97a GBM, 16 K?, 
1 2, 9-lIxii !986, GBM, GIT & S.Hamlci, m QM. 
(QM duplicates lodged in B^LNH, SAM, EH, UQIC). 



DESCRIPTION. SrnalK elongate, 5.2-6.2nim 
Jong, with head longer than wide, with a narrow 
dorsal impression on the d pygophore 

MALE. Head with length 1.15-1.25 tinoes width 
across eyes; vertex densely and finely granular, 
jtostocular processes broad, obtuse-angled and 
not reaching outer profile of eyes; supra-ocular 
carinac low and continuous: anienniferous tuber- 
cles slightly divergent, apically blunt and reach- 
ing basal 1/3 of first antenna] segment; clypeus 
elongate with genae short, subcontiguous, barely 
exceeding clypeal apex and bent downwards 
suraewhai- Rostrum reaching on to fore bordcrof 
prosiemum; rostral groove broad, %vith lateral 
carijiac convex and not enclosing groove pos.le- 
riody. Antennae 1 .24-1.33 tinws length of head; 
segment I inflated basally on mesal side; seg- 
ments I-in subequal but progressively increasing 
slightly m length; segment r\' longest, about 1 .3 
tjmeskngthof in. 

Pronoium with maximum width twice median 
tength; surface rugose-punctate on anterior lobe, 
granular at tiansverse depression and smooth on 
posterior lobe; anterior lobe usually with median, 
longitudinal groove and with 2 crescentic smooth 
tidb on each side or middle; collar narrow and 
separated by a distinct furrow; lateral margins 
slightly carinatc on anicnor hah'; posterior mar- 
gin almost straight. Scutellum with width 1.23- 
1 .32 times length; surface raised and punctate on 
anienor half, depressed and irregularly, trans- 
versely rugose on posterior hah*; \s«ak median 
ridge on posterior half: anterior aiigle;S each with 
a tooth projecting forward over hind margin of 
pronotum; lateral margins carinate; apex sub- 
truncate. Hcmelytra with coria reaching to half 
length of Cx III, membrane smooth, dark with 
pale basal strip, reaching to middle of Tg VU. 

Abdomen with sides subparallel: dorsal con- 
nexival plates sparsely punctured; Cx 11 and HI 
I'used; suture between Cx lliyiV angled posteri- 
orly, sutures between IV/V and V/VI angled an- 
leriorly; margin of segment VII conspicuously 
split into two; inner tergal disc delimited by an 
indistinct ridge on segments I\' and V becoming 
obsc>lete pocsterioriy- Pygophore with width 1.25- 
1-50 times length, its dorsum with a narrow, deep 
depression on anterior half Parameres as in Fig. 
I6J. Paratejgites of segment VIII short, cylindri- 
cal, obliquely truncate apically and with spiracles 

Thoracic sterna finely rugose with median, lon- 
gitudinal smooth bands on meso- and meiastema; 
abdominal St III-VI coarsely pimctate; St U-VIl 
^ch with 9 smooih, m^ian^ longitudinal callus; 

sutut^e between St VI and VII straight in middle 
and angled posterioriy al sides; spiracles of seg- 
ments H-Vn all ventral and equidistant from lat- 
eral margin. 

FEMALE. As for <J except: dorsal connexival 
plates more coarsely punctate and with faint sub- 
lateral ridges present on segments IV -VI; 
hemelytra reaching to hind margin of Tg VI; 
paratergUes of VlII broad and truncate with spi- 
racles apical; hind m^argin of St VI not trisinuatc, 
with lateral portions noore or less straight. Spcr- 
maflieca (Fig. 1611 with duci long, thin walled, 
enlarged over basal two thirds. 

MEASUREMENTS, Holotype S Hr^i, then 
runge&of additjonal 3d (including Allotype) aiKJ 
2 9. L: 6.00, 5.33-5.83. 6.00-6.17; W; 2.08. 1.72- 
2.04, 2.06-2.15; HL: 1.14. I.M-I.IO, 1.10-!. 14; 
HW: 0.%. 84-0.94. 0.92-0.96; PL: 0.98. 0.80- 
0.90. 0.92-0.98; PW: 1.96, 3.66-1.^ 1.86-L96; 
AS: I, OJO. 0.26-0.28, 0.30; U. 0.32. 0.26-0 32, 
0.30-0 32; HI. 0J6, 0.34, 0.34-0.36: J\\ 0.48, 
0.44-0.46, 0.44-^.46; SL: 0.94. 0.78-0.90. 0.90- 
0.96; SW: 1.24.0.%-1J2, 1 10-L20;WL: 3.50, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 17). Under bark in low- 
land and highland rainforests of the wet tropics 
from a hille south of Cooktown to the the Kirr ama 

REMARKS. Although of normal subconi<u»l 
habits. C australis is rarely encountered. More 
than 50 years elapsed between the collection of 
the types by Eric Mjoberg m 1910-1913 and 
subsequent coileciion by specialist aradid collec- 
tors in recent times. The species has been take4t 
in numbers only at higher ele\aTion.s. 

Ctenoneurus meridionalis sp. twV. 
(Figs 15, 16C-E,K:i 

TYPE. Holotype 6. Bunya Mountains, SE QUI., 17- 
18.ix.!966. G. Monieiih,QMT11655- 

paratypes: SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Forest Station. 
Bulbufin SF, 2000\ I?, i2-15.iv.l974, 1.0- 
Naumann; Ml Fori William, 6 km E Kalpowar. 700m, 
12. 18.ix.l989. GBM. in QM; Imbil, !J. A.R. 
Brimblecombe, m QDPi; MomvUle, 1^, 17 x 1^66, 
GBM: Bunya Mts.. 56 2$, 17-18.ix.l966, GBM; 
Tomewin Rangc^ Upper Currumbin, I 9. pyrcihruTO. 
J9.X.1989. GBM, in QM. NEW SOUTH WALES: 
Wilson Park, 3 km SE Lismore. 50m, 1 9 . 25-viii. 1 9S2, 
in QM; Bruxner Park. Coffs Harbour, 20(3 m, niintv>re.«i 




^--* -j" \' -r _ i'>T-V,' j,-T J ' r 

■A •>. .- 

,.-■■ JjlJj^,-' ';*0'-^'^ i 


1 *■-■ 

, 1 r, 


' '.^ 

■VVfsV: ^^ 

'^"M/ i 


'' ■■ i^K*' / 

?k._. :y.K.M: :■ 

'^:. -^ 



F1G. 15. Dot^al vkw of ? paraiypc Ctenoneurus 

Breakneck LcKtkout, Kiwarrak SF, S Taree. I 9 . ex 
Heniieraactinophylhim,29,x\A9ii9, G.A.W>/ii\v4mii,in 
QM; Tweed River, 1 6\ Lea; Oiford. 19, 8.xii.I957, 
C.E.Chadwick, in BCRI; Mountain Lagoon. Blue Mis. 
19. 22.iv.1984. R. de Keyzer. in UQIC. (QM dupli- 
cates lodged in BMNH. SAM. EH) (paratypes: 

DESCRIPTION. Small, elongate. 5.0-5.8mra 
long, with head about as long as wide, and with a 
broad dorsal impression on the 6 pygophorc- 
MALE. Head width equal to. or slightly greater 
than length; vertex coarsely granulate; supraocu- 
lar carinae well-developed and crenulate; 
postocular processes bluntly pomlcd, u-sually 
reaching outer profile of eyes; antenniferous tu- 
bercles parallel-sided, blunt, extending to almost 
half length of first antennal segment; senae 
slightly expanded, blunt, re^hing beyond apex 
of first antennal segment. Rostrum just reaching 
anterior margin of prosiemum, rostral groove 
broad with lateral carinae convex, not meeting 
posteriorly. Antennae 1.15-1.25 limes head 
length; segments T-III subequal, segment IV longest 

Pronotum with maximum width 1 .7- 1 .H5 times 
median length, surface fairly uniformly granular; 
transverse depression between tore and bind 
lobes almost complete; fore lobe without median 
longitudinal groove and usually with 2 crescentic 
glabrous calli on each side of middle; collar very 
narrow but separated off by a distinct groove. 
Scmellum with width M5-1.25 times length; its 
surface coarsely granulate and with weak median 
ndge on posterior half; anterior angles each with 
an acute tooth projectmg over pronotal tnurgin; 
lateral margins carinate. apex subtruncaic. 
Henoelylra with coria reaching to half length ol* 
segment 111; membranes dark with paJc b^s^, 
reaching to middle of Tg Vn. 

.•Vbdoraen with dorsal conncxival plates, punc- 
tured; Cx II and 111 rused; margin of Cx vn 
weakly split adjacent to paratergites of Vni; 
bounditry of inner tergal disc of segments rV^-VF 
marked by a raised ridge which terminates poste- 
riorly ai hand border of VI. Pygophorc width ! 75 
times length; its oorsum with a broad, circular 
impression on ba&al half. Parameres as in Fig. 
I6K. Paratergites of segment VUD short, cylindri- 
cal, with sptracles terminal and with mesaJ side 
of apices slightly produced. 

Thoracic sterna finely rugose with median 
smooth bands on meso- and metasterna; abdom- 
inal St 111-VI finely rugose; St II- VI with median, 
longitudinal STnooth bands; suture between St VI 
and VII uniformly rounded; all spiracles ventral 
and equidistant from lateral margins. 



FEMALE. As for cJ except: dorsal cormexival 
plates more coarsely rugose and with irregular 
sublateral carinae present on segments TV and V; 
hemelyira reaching to half length of segment VI; 
ridge surrounding inner tergal disc hvpertrophied 
into a strongly raised, rugose carina surrounding 
hemelyual membranes but interrupted in the mid- 
line of Tg VI; paratergites of VIII broad, angu- 
larly truncate with terminal spiracles; hmd 
margin of St VI uisinuate, with lateral portions 

MEASUREMENTS. Holorype o first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 2?. L: 5.00, 5.17. 
5.33-5.83; W: 1.70. 1.74-1.76, 1.82-2.00; HL; 

86. 0.86-0.90. 0.86-0,98; HV^':, 
0.90-1,00; PL: 0.88. 0.88-0 94, 0.96-1.Q6; 
PW:1.60, L6Q-1-62. ! 70-1.86; AS: 1, 
U-24, 0.24-0.26; U, 0.22. 0,22-0.24. 0.22-0.26;m. 
0.22, 0.20-0.22, 0.22. 0.24: IV, 0.38. 0.36, 0.38- 
0-40; SL: 0.80. 0.80, 0.84-0.88; SW: 0.90, 0.96- 

1 00. L00-LO6: WX: 2.83. 2.92-3.00, 3.08-3.33. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 17). Subcortically m 
rainforest, pnncipally on plateaus, from a little 
s(juth of Gladstone, S Queensland to the Blue 
Mountains west of Sydney . It occurs almost down 
to sea level in such places as Wilson Park and 

REMARKS. Although widespread in the most 
intensively collected pan of Australia this species 
has been rarely encountered It is superficially 
Similar to C australis but differs particularly in 
the development of the high tergal ridge sur- 
rounding the hemclyiral membranes in the 9 
which is striking and not «!cn in any othcf mem- 
ber of the genus. 

Ctenoneurus robtriJi! sp.nOv. 
(Fig. I6A) 

TYPE. Holotype d, Mossman Bluff Track, 5-IOkin W 
Mossman. N.Qld. 20 Dec 1989 - 15 Jan 1990. Mon- 
uSih, Thompson, ANZSES, Site 10. 1300m, fllinter- 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 7 paratypes: 
NORTH QUEENSLAND. Ml Miscrv Summit, via 

RS. LR. 3kra S M\ Spurgeon. 1 1 00m. 1 9 . m. imercepi. 
2I.xii.l9S8-4.iJ989. GBM, GIT, ANZSES; WesicoU 
Rood, Topaz. CiSOm. \9, fit. intercept. 6.\ii.l993- 
25.ii.1994, GBM.DJCHJ; Mt Fisher {Kjeltbcrg Rd), 
llOOm, 19. pvrethnim on lugs, 17.V.1995, GBM; 
GBM. JH; Maalao Rd. 2km S Palmersion Hwy. 730nu 

I 9 . pyrethnam on tree bases, 18.v. 1995, GBM; Moss- 
man Bluff Track. Site 10. 1300m, holotype <f IV, 
nt.iniercepl, 20.\ii.l99O-l5.i.I991. GBM, GJT. AN- 
ZSES, in QM. (paratypes QMT15653.54.QMT 15656, 

DESCRIPTION. Small, very narrow, 5.7-7.0mm 
long, with suiellum ap^x 3 toothed and external 
margins of Cx VT and VII tubercular. 
MALE. Head length 1 ,07-1 .20 limes width across 
eyes; vertex densely granular; postocular pro- 
cesses rounded, not reaching outer profile of 
eyes; supra-ocular carinae low and continuous; 
antenniferous tubercles small, blunt, not diver- 
gent, reaching basal quarter of tlrst antenna] seg- 
ment; clypeus just exceeding apex of first 
aniennal segment in length; genal lobes small flat 
plates, not exceeding apex of cl>peus. Rostrum 
reaching front border of prosternum; rosual 
groove broad, with lateral carinae distinct, paral- 
lel, notconvergingorcontiguous posteriorly. An- 
tennae 1 .25-1.30 times length of head; segment I 
to 111 subequal in length, segment IV aboul 1.5 
times length of others. 

Pronotum maximum width 1.6-l.S times 
)ength; surface rugose-granular on antcnor lobe 
and granular on remainder; anterior lobe with 
faint nwdian groove sometimes evident and with 
two cnesceotic. smooth calli on each side of mid- 
dle; collar narrow and separated off by a disiinci 
furrow; sides of pronotum straight and un- 
margined. Scutellura width 11-13 limes lengthy 
flat, utiifomily granulate; lateral margins cari- 
nate. each carina ending posteriorly in a promi- 
nent tooth: midline of scutellura with an incipient 
longitudinal carina on posterior third which also 
encb in a tooth; anterior angles of scutellum c^ich 
with a tooth pn;>jecting ovcrre^ pronoiaJ margin. 
Hemelyira reaching to rear of segment VI and 
coria reaching rear of segment U; membraites 
dark with basal sixth pale. 

Abdomen with lateral margins concave giving 
in5€ct a 'waisted' appearance; dorsM connexivaJ 
plates smooth; Cx d and III fused; oik? or Iwo 
looth-Iike sublateral projections at each intcf- 
connexival suture; margins of Cx VI ai>d VU 
strongly toothe^i: inner tergal disk not delimited 
by ridges. Pygophore length equal to width, with 
a circular impression on its basal half. Paraterg- 
ites of segment VIIl short, cylindrical, obhqucly 
truncate and wjth .spiracle tenmnal. 

Thoracic siema and abdominal St II finely 
rugose; abdominal St III-V coarsely rugose- 
punctate and Si Vl-Vll >mot'rth; St II with a con- 
cave impression medially; St 111- VI with smooth, 
elongate, median calli; suture bci^^'ccn Si VI and 



FIG. 1 6. A-K, Ctenoneurus spp. ; A, C. robertsi <? ; B, C. australis\ C-H, abdominal apices, dorsal (d) and ventral 
(v); C-E, C. meridionalis; C, <? v; D, <? d; E. 9 v; F-H, C. australis; F, 9 v; G, 6 d; H, 9 d; I, C aiistralis, 
spermalheca; J, C. australis, paramere; K, C. meridionalis, paramere; L-M, Anabanits hind legs; L,A. simatus; 
M, A. bilobiceps; N-P, Neuroctenus; N, N. crassicomis fore leg; O. A', proximiis hind leg; P, N. transinis hind leg. 




Townsville (^Towrtsville 

20" S 

A C. australis 
■ C. meridionalis 
♦ C. fobertsl 

■ ■ 1 Brisoant 



FIG. 17. Records for species of Ctenoneurus in eastern 

VII evenly curved; Spiracles of segmenis Il-VII 
alJ ventral, equidistant from body margin and 
mounted on tubercles. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: Cx IV and V with 
incipient sublateral carinae present; paratcrgites 
of segment VIII broad, truncate with spiracles 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype S first, then para- 
lype 6 and range of 2 paralype 9 . L: 5.82, 6.66, 
5.76-6.97; W: 1.64. 1.83, 1.57-1.90 ; HL: 1.00, 
1.01, 0.95-1.14; HW; 0.86, 0.92. 0.88-0.95; PL 
0.95, 1. 00. 0.90- 1. 1 4: PW: 1,57, 1.81,1.52-1.90: 
AS: I, 0.26, 0.28,0.24-0.33; H, 0.26. 0.28. 0.24- 
0.31; m, 0.31, 0.28, 0.26-0.35; IV, 0.45. 0.47, 
0.45-0.50; SL: 0.88, 0.95. 0.90-1.07; SW: 0.95, 
L09, 0.90-1 21; WL: 3.33,3-94, 3.330.94; co- 
rium length: 1.24,1.43. 1.31-1.50. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 17). High altitude rainfor- 
est from Mt Misery, just north of the Bloomfield 

River to the southern margin of the Alhcrton 
Tableland in N Queensland 

REMARKS. Named for Mr Lewis Roberts, 
skilled naturalist of Shiplons Flat, who has given 
great assistance to our field work, as his late father 
did for earlier biologists working in lliis remote 
region. Most specimens have been taken in flight 
intercept traps. 

AspisocorisKorrailev, 1967 

Aspisocons Kormiiev, 1967a:515 (descr.); Kormilev, 
1971: 6 (incl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschncr, 
1987: 1 ] (catalogue of spp.). 

TY?E'S?EC\ES.Aspisocons fenmtophiiiis Komiilev, 
1967a, by original designation. Monolypic- 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 8B). South west Aus- 

DESCRIPTION. Tcrmxtophilous. Brachypler- 
ous Body form elongate, cylindrical, covered 
with setigerous granules. 

Head longer than wide; postocular tubercles 
absent; eyes very reduced; anlennd'erous tuber- 
cles shon. blunt. Rostrum reaching to fore margin 
of prostemum; rostral atrium open; rostral groove 
open posteriorly. Antennae with first segment 
strongly mcrassaie; segments HI and fV immova- 
bly fused and with suture between them becom- 
ing obsolete. 

Pronolum indistinctly separated into fore and 
hind lobes; collar not distinct; lore lobe broadly 
inflated in middle, depressed sublaterally. its an- 
terolateral angles produced forward as triangular 
lobes which fit closely against post-ocular por- 
tion of head, Scutellum very long and narrow, 
raised into a high ridge for entire length. 
Hemelylra with corium heavily scicroliscd but 
reaching only to half length of scutellum; mem- 
branes abbreviated, reaching a little beyond apex 
of scutellum 

Abdomen with connexival margms straight; 
tergal disc flat, covered with short, erect bristles; 
a longitudinal ridge runs for full length of tergal 
disc on each side just mesad of suture separating 
off the connexiva. St III-V with hind margins 
membranous, overlapping segment posterior to 
them. All spiracles present and located ventrally. 
MALE. Pygophore very large, rounded lipically; 
paratcrgites of VIII shoit, fiat, adpressed against 
sides of pygophore; Tg VII bearing a pair o\' 
pointed processes which project posteriorly and 
engage with anterior margin of pygophore. 



FEMALE. Paratergites of VIH very ^hort and 
broad; valves of St Vli large, with their mesai 
margins cannate. 

Aspisocoris termitophilus Kormilev. 1967 

Aspisocoris terynitophilm Kormilev, 1967a: 517 
(descr.); Koimilcv. 1982: 25 (icraitiophll>); 
Kormilev AFrcwschncf, 1987:4, ( IO(icnnitophily; 


TYPE. Holoiypc 6. Mundaring. WA, J CJnrk, 
whiteants, in SAM 120.332. Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and the Follow- 
ing 14 specimens: WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 

Mundaring, 9 allotype. \S 59 paratypcs, 7 nymphs. 
J. Clark, in SAM. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype c? and allotype 
9. L: 4.17. 4.58: W: L50, 1.54: HL: 0.90, 0.84. 
HVk': 0.84. 84; PL 0.64. 0.70; PW: 1 ,24, I 26. 
AS: 1, 0.30. 0.30, U, 0.20, 0. 1 S, lU. 0.28. 0.22. IV. 
0.32. 0.26; SL: 1.00. 1.04; SW: 0.80. 0.80; WL: 
1 .00; Dorium length: 0.64, 0.80. 

DISTRTBUnoX (Fig. 1 4). Kttoxvn only ftx>m the 
type senes collected in a termites' nest a few 
kilometres east of Perth, Western Ausiralia. 

REMARKS Kormilev (1967a) descnhed this 
unique genus virtually without comment on its 
extiaordioary modifications for a lermitophilous 
mode of life. Records of Aradidae in galleries of 
termites are rare and are summarized by 
Kormilev & Froeschner (1987). Usinger (1936) 
and Usinger & Maisuda (1959) mentioned 
Mezira reducta Van Duzee. 1927. as occurring in 
galleries ofZootermopsis nevmlensis Hagen and 
ReiicuUrermeshesperus beneath bark of pine log.s 
in Califouiia. Alihough the period of residency 
with the termites may be long enough forihe bugs 
to become covered with termite excreta the asso- 
ciation of A/. reJucm with termites does not seem 
to be obligatory because the species is also found 
q>ari from term»ies and ii shows no modifications 
for termitophily. Other possible termite associa- 
tions noted in the literature include those by 
Kormilev (1976) of Seuroctenus taiwarucus 
Kormilev, 1955 and Mezira tennitophila 
Kormilev, 1976a bctih with singletons from S 
China labelled *m the nesi {^INasuntennes . Once 
again the association may not be close because 
both species are nornial membei^of their respec- 
tive genera and N. taiwimicm is widespread on 
Taiwan and H;un«in in normal situations. The 

siluaiion is similar forihe records of unique spec- 
imens oiPseiidomezira termitophilus (Kormilev) 
from a nest of termites in Pakistan (Kormilev, 
1982) and for Daulotoris sitmatrensis ftxMn ter- 
mites in Sumatra (Kormilev. 1980). 

However, the association of Aspisocoris rer- 
miwphiliis. on circumstantial evidence, is as- 
sumed to be of a more intimate nature. On the 
only occasion it has been collected, a long sencs 
of both sexes of adults plus immature forms of 
vanous ages were taken which indicates that 
breeding was taking place inside the termite col- 
ony. In addition the species shows a number of 
adaptations which clearly equip it for an inquilinc 
life. Some of these are: 

1) Cylindrical form. Aradidae are, almost by 
definition, flattened in form. The cylindrical body 
form oi Aspisocoris is therefore quite striking and 
presumably enables n to traverse the termite gal- 
Icncs more easily. As there is also probably some 
mimicry involved the cylindrical form thus moce 
closely resembles that of the termite hosts. 

2 ) Mimetic nymphs. The nymphs preserved as 
carded specimens with the adults show a remark- 
able superficial resemblance to termite workers. 
They are short, stout, eyeless, depigmented and 
have head withdrawn into fore margin of protho- 

3) fvy? redm'fion. This accords with permanent 
life in a termite colony and is u common feature 
ofinquiline: insects. 

4) Fusion ofantennal segments. The fusion of 
the last two antenna! segments is unique in the 
Aradidae and resembles the condition seen in 
many other inquilines, e.g. the beetle genus. 

5) Prolongation of prothorax lobes. The pn> 
tecuon of the neck region of the head by devel- 
opment of close-fitting prothorax lobes may be a 
protection from attack. Such protections of vul- 
nerable body regions are seen in other inquibncs. 

61 Wing reduction. The loss of powers of flight 
is a common symptom of inquiliny. 

7) Reduction of scent gland. The loss of this 
defensive mechanism may he associated with the 
protected environment of a termite colony. 

One can only speculate at the precise type of 
relationship which Aspisocoris enjoys with the 
termites. The type series is mounted with a num- 
ber of the original termites, including one nasule 
soldier. This was kindly idcnlilicd lor mc by I>r 
J.,-\,L. Watson as Occasitermes occasas 
(Silvciiri). the only species of iut endemic Aus- 
iralian genus vvhtch occurs in South Australia and 
Western Ausiralia. Oav (1974) staled that it is a 



FIG. 18. Dorsal view of S holotype Aspisocvris ter- 

Subterranean species which feeds on rotten or 
weathered wood. Usinger ( 1 936), with respect to 
Mezira reducta, noted that both the termite spe- 
cies with which it associates are ones which ha- 
bitually have fungi in their colonies in old wood 
(Hendee, 1 933) and suggests that this fungus may 
provide the food of the aradid. Since the host 
iermile o{ Aspisocoris termirophilus is associated 

also with decayed wood a similar relationship 
may pertain. 

The systematic position o( Aspisocoris in the 
Mezirinae is difficuh to determine, and especially 
so because of the remarkable morphological 
modifications for temiitophily. Its isolated dislri- 
bution in SW Australia, far from al! other 
Mezirinae except Neuroctenus, and its associa- 
tion with an endemic termite genus similarly 
confined to the SW, both indicate an early origin. 
There are certain similarities with Cienoneurus, 
including the long rostrum, the subcyiindrical 
form and the sublateral ridges on the tergal plate. 
Although Ctenoneurus does not occur today in 
Western Australia it has an archaic distribution 
pattern including Africa. Madagascar and the 
Indo-Pacilic which suggests that it may have had 
a representative in Western Australia al a more 
favourable climatic period in the past. Such an 
ancestral Cienoneurus may have been the pro- 
genitor of AspisocoriSy 

ArtabanusSt^l. 1865 

AmbamisSx^X. 1865:31 tdescr.r.Si^. 1873: 139, 141 
(incl. in key): Matsuda &. Usinger. 1957: 145 
(descT.); Usinger & Malsuda, 1959: 197. 261 (incl. 
in key; redescripiioni; Komiilcv. 1971: 7, 13 lind. 
in key; key to spp.); Kormilev & Froeschner. 1 987; 
106 (caiaiogue of spp.). 

T^TE SPECIES. Artabattus geniculatua Stfil. 
(Philippines), by monoiypy. 


DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 8C). From South China 
and Burma across the Indo-Pacific archipelago a:i 
far as the Philippines, Fiji, Micronesia. New Cal- 
edonia, and northern Australia. 

REMARKS. Armbanus is characten/cd by a 
stridulatory mechanism unique in the Aradidae 
first noted by Bcrgroih ( I S92b} and described by 
Usinger ( 1 954) The structures are extremely uni- 
form throughout the many species and consist of 
a curved row of file-like teeth (stridulitrum) on 
the distal portion of the posterior surface of the 
hind tibiae (Pigs 6A-B. J 6L-M) which rub against 
knife-like, longitudinal carinae (plectrum) on 
each side of the 4ih abdominal sternite (Fig. 2(JD ). 
There is no record of audible sound being pro- 
duced. I have handled a number of species in the 
field but have never noted any leg movement of 
the type to be expected during siridulation. Scan- 
ning electron micrographs of the struclurcs stww 
them to be stridulatory. 



Artabanus has been a successful group in colo- 
nizing the island groups within itj range and of 
ihe 43 species about 25 occur east of Wallace's 
line. Many of these eastern species are local cn- 
Uemics confined to individual islands, and on 
some islands there has been a moderate prolifer- 
ation of species, e.g., New Guinea (9 spp). Solo- 
mons (8 spp), Fiji (2 spp). There is a tendency to 
wing loss with 7 species exhibiting brachyptcry 
or microptery; 4 of these occur in New Guinea 
y^hcvQ Artabanus is contnbuling markedly to the 
rapid evolution of a flightless aradid fauna (Mon- 
leilh. 1982). 

Two macropterous species arc particularly 
widespreatl in the Indo-Pacific and have special 
dispersal abilities. These are the only 2 species 
that have reached Australia, both are confined to 
north Queensland. 


1. Proihorax with prommciHly projecting, liiminaie. 
antcfolaieral angles; dorsum wtih cnucfa curled 
vcsliiure; size larger, more than 9.00mm 


ProihoraA wiihout luminalc iinlcrotaterul angles. 
dorsum largely gliiba'^us; size smaller, less than 
8.00mm . hilobtceps Lcihicrty 

Artabanus sinuatus St^t, 


Artabanus sinuasus SiM, 1873: 141 (descr); Lcihicrry 
Sl Severin. 18%: 39 (listed); Usingcr & Matsuda, 
1959: 262 (listed); Kormilcv, iy67c: 2% (JocaJil> 
record); Kormilev, 1971: 14 one), in key; locality 
records); Kormilev &. Froescluiet, J987: 109. 
(listed; discussion of synonymy) 

Crimiadoreica Walker. 1 873: 17 (descr.); Leihierry & 
Severin. 1896:47Uistcd>. 

Citwphus furcoiusSi^oxti, 1880: 541 (descr). 

Artabanus do re ica' Distant, 1902: 359 (generic iratis- 
ferl; Usingcr & Maisuda, 1939: 262 (listed); 
Kormilev. 1967a 530 (locality records) 

TYPES. Artabanus smuarus: Hololype i5, New 
Guinea, in NRS. Not examined 

Crimia dortka. Type series from New Guinea, Aru, 
Ccram. Wagiou, in BMNH. Not exarmned. 

QUEENSLAND: iron Range, York Pen., I 6 29,, GBM: EuM Claudie R . Iron Range. 
M 19, 6.xii.l985- GBM ^ DJC: West Claudie R„ 
ton Range. 4c^ 5 9, 3-lO.jiii.I985. GBM & DJC. in 
QM; II km ENE Ml Tozer. Iron Ranee, Id 29. 
I6.vii.l986. TAW. In ANIC. NEW GUINEA: 

Karimui, 1080 m. 19 H I2vii.l963. i. Sedlacek; 
Kiunga. Ry R.. \6, l5-2].viLI957. W.W. Brandt; 
Popondctta, 2r? 29, 27.ii.1966, GBM: Brown River. 
I ?. 2.iii.l966, GBM. in QM. (QM duplicates lodged 

DESCRIPTION. Large, macropterous, pilose. 
ir>l 1 mm long, with bilobcd, laminate, anlero- 
laieral angle.*; of the pronotum. Colour brown 
with pale connexiva V and VI and abdominal 

MALE. Head length 1 I - 1 .2 times width, its dor- 
sum pilose on vertex, clypeus and antcnnifcaais 
tubercles; postocular processes absent; an- 
tenniferous tubercles long, apicaJly subacute, 
reaching to half length of first anicnnal segment; 
clypeus narrow, bearing cyhndrical genal pro- 
cesses almost reaching apex of Rrsl antennal 
segment Rostral groove open posteriorly. Anten- 
nae 1 35-1.40 limes head lengtli; segment III 

Pronotum width 2.1-2.3 times median lengdi; 
anterior lobe almost a.s wide as posterior lobe. 
wilh anterolateral angles laminalely produced 
into bilobaie extensions; a small tooth present on 
each side lateral of the indistinctly dotlncd collar; 
disc of anterior lobe with a pair of setose submed- 
ian elevations and a pair of weak sublateral 
ridges. Scutcllum with a pair of blunl median 
lobesandapairofsmaller lateral lobes projecting 
forwards over hmd pronoial margin; surface 
transversely wrinkled with a median setose ridge. 
Hemelytra fully developed, reaching to ant^or 
Qd^Q. of tergum Vll; veins of corium setcxse. 

Abdomen widest across segments 11 and til, 
then narrowing at segmenl V before llaring 
across segmenl VI which has. protruding con- 
nexiva; margin of Cx VII with posteriorly-di- 
rected angulations; Tg VII inflated above 
pygophore. Pygophorc short, wide, large, with a 
dorsal tubercle 

Paxatergiies of VIII short, truncate, wilh apical 
spiracles . Spiracles of II- VI ventral, far from mar- 
gin, those of VII lateral, visible from above. 
Femoral spines present only on hind legs. 
FEMALE. As for i except: abdomen not nar- 
rowed at segmenl V; margins of Cx VI not no- 
ticeably protruding. 

MEASUREMENTS. One d and ranee of 2? 
from Australia. L: 10.83. 10.50-10,67; W: 4.75, 
4.75-5 IX); HL: 2.30. 2.25-2.32; HW: 1 .92. 2.0Q; 
PL: 1.80. 1.60-1.72: PW: 3.75. 375-3.92; AS: L 
0.84, 0.88-0.98; H, 0.66. 0.60-0.64; III, 1.04. 
1.00: IV. 0.58. 0.60-0.62; SL: 1.84. 1.72-1.76; 



SW: 2.08, 2.20-2.33; WL: 6.00, 6.00; corium 
length: 3.00, 3. 16-3. 30- 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig 21). In Australia this spe- 
cies IS known only from rainforest at Iron Range 
in Cape York Peninsula where it occurs under 
hark of large logs. Elsewhere it is widespread 
frora the Moluccas through New Guinea to the 
Bi.smarcks, the Solomons and Vanuatu. 

REMARKS. Kormilev (1967c) noted the synon- 
ymy of Artabanus simiauis Stal and Crimia 
doreica Walker but since both names were pub- 
lished in 1 873 he was noi able to establish which 
has priority. He has used kith names on different 
Otxasions (Kormilev 1967a, 1971). Sherborn 
( 1934) gives the date of issue of Walker's volume 
as May 10. 1873. Regarding SlaPs paper, DrPer 
Inge Persson, of the Naturhisioriska Riksmuseel. 
Stockholm informed me in 1978 that, according 
10 their records. Stal's manuscript was submitted 
to (he Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 
January 10. 1872 and was accepted for publica- 
tion on February 14 of the same year. Later it is 
recorded that on March 31.1 873 'the printing of 
the Proceedings of 1872 has not inconsiderably 
advanced' However the actual date of issue is 
.sljll unobtainable and therefore 1 use Stal ' s name . 
sinuatus, which has been most frequently used in 
the past and which was originally proposed in the 
Correct genus. Kormilev & Froeschner (1987) 
came to the same conclusion. 

This large species is rather common in New 
Guinea but has been taken only occasionally rn 
Australia despite many weeks of specialist col- 
lecting at Iron Range. 

Artabanus bilobiceps (Leihierry, I8R8> 

HravhyrhynchiiS biiobictps Lethierry, IHK8 4h4 


Anabanus atkinsoni^^r^cAh, 1889; 734(descr). 

A*wbanusbihhiceps:'Qzi^ToX\\. 1892a: 7]5:Lelhierry 
fit Severin. 1896: 39 (listed); Usinger & Matsuda, 
1959: 262 Oisted); Blote, 1965: 16 (localiiy re- 
cords); Kormilev, 1965b; 2 (localiiy recorUj, 
Kormilev, 1967a; 522 (locality records,!; Kormilev, 
1967c. 296 (locality records). Kormilev, 1971: 
14,22 (incJ. in key; locality records); Kormilev &. 
Froeschner, 1987: 106 (listed). 

Artabanus aiistraifs Kormilev, ]95Sa: 91; Kormilev. 
1971: 14 lincl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschner. 
1987: \06(Uiilcd)\\. 

TYPES Brackyrhynchus bilobiceps Lcibicrry 
{Burma). Not located. 

Artabanus ausnvlis Kormilev. Holotypc 9 , Queens- 
land, in HNHM Type not examined but specimens 
compared with it on my behalf by Dt Tamis^ 

REMARKS. Artabanus bilobiceps is ihc mosl 
widespread member of its genus and occurs from 
Burma across the Indonesian islands to the Phil- 
ippines, New Guinea, the Bismarcks and north 
Queensland. It penetrates into die more remote 
islands of Micronesia in the fonn of A. lartveniris 
Esaki & Matsuda, 1951, which seems to be only 
a poorly differentiated version of bilohweps. The 
synonymy of A. at4Stralis Kormilev recorded here 
is straightforward. There is only one bilobiceps- 
like taxon in north Queensland and Kormilev 
sighted 2 9 specimens of it. The first he made the 
unique holotype of A australis in 1958; the sec- 
ond he determined 7 years later as A. bilobiceps 
(Kormilev, I965b). I have ocamined the latter 
specimen and Dr Vasirhclyi has examined the 
former on my behalf. The 2 are con specific and 
agree well wilh typical A. bilobiceps from Borneo 
and New Guinea. In his later key to Artabamts 
species Kormilev ( 1 97 1 ) omitcd reference to hi.s 
prior Australian record of A bilobiceps and sep- 
arated A. aiistralis from it by lack of the femoral 
spine on the hind leg. The spine is nomuilly 
present in Australian material hut is occasionally 
reduced and inconspicuous. 

Kormilev {1967a) separaied/l. bilobiceps inlo 
2 sub-species. 

Artabanus bilobictps pc^ipuasicus Konmilev; 1%7 
(F3g$ 4E. 51, 6A-B. 7C. i6M. 20C.F) 

Armbmt4S bilobiceps papuasicus Konnilev, I967.M; 
522 (descr.); Kormilev, 1971: 14.22 (mcl. in key: 
locality records): Kormilev & Froeschner. I9H7- 

T^'PE. Holotype d. MtLamingion. 1.3U0-I,500\ Nb 
Papua. C.T McNamara. in SAM 1 20,357 Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 42 speci- 
mens: NEW GUINEA: Popondetia, I 9. 27 28-ii. 1966, 
GBM; Wau, Id, 3-4.ii.l966. GBM. Lae. IV, 
28,iii 1971 . R. Parron, in QM BJSMARCK ARCHI- 
PELAGO: Kcrevat, New Bnlain. 2 9. I0.u.l9ft6, 
Ciaudie R., Iron Range, 7o 2?. 3-Ui.\ii.l985. GBM 
& DJC. in QM; Shiplons Flat, via Helen vale, I 9, 
in NRS: Cooper Ck.. 12 ml N of Daintrcc R.. I P, 
26.iii. 1 976, 1.D. Galloway, in QDPL 9 ml N ofDaintncc 
R.Ferry, I 9,2.ix.l969,J.G. &J.A. Brooke, in ANIC: 
Upper Dttimrcc R, 1^. 27 xii 1964, GBM; Mossnian 
Gorge, ItJ, 25-26.XU.I964, GBM; Upper Mulgrave 



River. \6 1?, (5.vii!.l%6, GBM, lOo 89. 26- 
27.xii.1967. GBM: Rying Fisti Point. 29. 21.i.l965, 
E.G. Dahms. in QM . (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH. 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized macropterous, 
glabrous, bicoloured, 6.3-7. 2mrT] long» without 
laiTfiellate anterolateral angles of pronotum and 
with pmnounccd se.\ual dimorphism an body 
shape. Colour black wiihconncxiva checkered in 
black and ^vhiie ai. follosv"^: Cx 11 and IV wholly 
black. Cx HL V, VI and MI with anienor half 
white and posterior half black 

MALE. Body elongate, subrectangular. widest 
across hind lobe of pronotum; abdomen with 
sides straight, narrowing slightly towards poste- 
rior. Head usually slightly longer than wide; 
postexoventraJ angles each with a polished poste- 
rior projection; antenniferous tubercles short, 
blunt; genal processes widely separated, sub- 
cylindrical, reaching apical 2/3 of first aniennal 
segment Rostral groove open posteriorly. Anten- 
nae 1 .73- 1 .83 times head length; segment II long- 
est, more than twice length of II. 

Rronotum with maximum widih about 1 .9 limes 
median lengtli; anterior lobe narrowed, about 3/4 
width of hind lobes, us lateral margins forming 2 
bluni teeth on each side, disc of anterior lobe with 
2 conical submedian tubercles. ScuteUum width 
1.3-1.4 limes length, its surface granulate and 
with an ill-defmed median ridge: antcnor margin 
with a pair of acute median (eeih and a pair of 
blunt lateral teeth overlapping pronotum. 
Hcmclyira with apices reaching to hasal 1/3 of Tg 
VI. Hind femora each with a small ventral spine. 

Abdomen with dorsal connexivai plates 
smooth; marginsofCxII*\l straight, dioseof VU 
each produced into a prominent, acute, bock- 
wardly-direcled spine; Tg VII strongly convex 
above pygophorc and bearing an acute, postero- 
laierally directed spine on each side near hind 
margin. Paratergites of VIII short, blunt, with 
spiracles apical. Spiracles of segment II-IV ven- 
tral, far from ti^argin; those of V and VI ventral, 
close to margin; those of Vn .situated on die 
margin and visible from above. St V. VI and vn 
with polished, itiedian ornamentation; suture be- 
tween VI and VII arched forward so that median 
length of St Vn exceeds that of V and VI com- 
bined. Parameres as in Fig. 20F. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except; abdomen broad, with 
$i(fccs convex, widest across segment IV; dorsal 
cuimc.Vj val plates rough, those of segments 111- V^I 
with weak submarginal ridges; Tg VII without 
Jif>ia«t; margins of Cx VII without acute spines; 

sterna without polished omamcntatjon. Spcrma- 
!heca as in Fig. 20E. 

MEASURENfENTS. Ranges of 2c? Uicti 29. L: 
6.33-6.67, 6.50-7.17; W: 2.28-2.46, 3.08-3.58: 
HL: 1.20-126, 1.26-1 .36: HW: !. 16-1.22. 1.26- 
1.34: PL: 120-1,30, 1.26-1.40; PW: 2.28-2.46, 
2.48-2.68: AS: I. 0.52-0.54. 0.5243.60; II 0.36. 
0.36-0.40; m, 0.80-0.88. 080-0.88; I\^ 0.50- 
0.52, 0.48-0.50; SL: 0.96-1. iXi, 1.06-1.14; SW: 
1.34-1.36, 1.40^130; WL: 3.58^3.75,3.92^.25. 

DlSTRIBUnON (Fig. 2 1 ). In Australia this sub- 
species is confinwi to low altitude rainforests 
from near Innisfail north to Cooktown and at Iron 
Range, Also k-nown from New Guinea, New Brit- 
ain, New Ireland and Falau Island (Micn:>ncsia) 
(Kormilev, 1971). A, hilobiceps bilobueps^ 
ranges from SE Asiatlirough the western islands 
oflndonesia to the Philippines (Kormjiev, 1967a. 
1967c, 1971; Blote, 1965). 

REMARKS. Kormilev (1967a) separated this 
subspecies from the nominotypical form on the 
basis of reduced lateral spines of (he fore lobe of 
the proihorax; in his key to Anabanus species of 
197 ! he utilised the lack of shining tubercles on 
head venter and meiastema in A. b. papuasicus to 
distinguish the 2 taxa. ."VastniHan material agrees 
with New Guinea material in boih these Icalurcs. 
The two subspecies also differ in the omaincnia- 
Uon of sterna V, VI and VII in the 6 ; in Sarawak 
spcciti>eas the smooth areas coalesce into a single 
circular disc whereas in A. b. papuasicus the 
segmental portions are more discrete. 

Caedeoris Kormilev, ] 957 

Caeclcohs Kormilev. 1957a: 398 (descr.; fig.); Usin- 
ger & Matsuda, 1959: 193 (listed only); Montcilh. 
1969: 87 (dimorphism); Kormilev, 1971: 2, 9, 12 
(incl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschncr, 1987: 120 

Anubanellus Matsuda & l^singer. 1957: 141 (descr., 
fig ); Usinger& Matsuda. 1959: 222 (dcscr.; incl. in 
key); Kormilev. 1971: 26 (incl in key); Kormilev &^ 
Froeschner, 1987; 106 (catalogue of spp.).i>'/i.M<n'. 

Zeugocoris Usinger& Matsuda, 1959: 2(30. 310 (iiici. 
in key; descr.); Monteiih. 1969: 87 (synonymy; 

Parartabanus Kormilev, 1 972: 573 (descr.); Kormilev, 
!974: 60 (synonymy). 

TYPE SPECIES Caeckoris aviventris Kormilev, 
1957. by original designation (= Crimia microcera 

Walker, 1873). 



DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 9E). New Guinea. Bis- 
marck .Archipelago. Palau, Cape York Peninsula. 

REMARKS. This small genus of 3 species \va> 
informally recorded from Australia by Monieith 
I9H2. The syTion>'my of Zeugocoris Usinger & 
Marsuda with Caecicoris was established by 
Munteiih (1969) on discovering thai ihe respec- 
tive type species of the two genera were, in fact, 
macropterous and microplerous forms of the 
same species. This w as the first documenlation of 
Iruc alary dimorphism in ihe Mezirinae. a phe- 
nomenon now also known in Usingerida (q.v.) 
and Masiigocoris (Hetss & Hoberlandt, 1985), 
and which is believed to be even more wide- 
spread in the Indo-Pacific region. 

The type species oi Artabanelhts {A, in- 
fiiscatus) is a junior synonym of the type species 
of Caecicoris (C. microcerus - see below) and 
hence Artabanellus is a synonym of Caecicoris. 
The only other valid species of the former genus 
Anahanellus i s Caecicoris mcnamarai 
(Kormilev, 1967) comhMov. It is an obhgately 
wingless species widespread on the New Guinea 
mainland and has been figured by Montcith 
(1982) who commented on its apparent close 
affiliation with Caecicoris. It is much more spc- 
ciah/ed for apterous life than other species of 
Caecicoris- Should further study determine that 
il warrants separate generic rank then the name 
Parartabamis. under which Kormilev (1972) 
mistakenly redescribed il would be available 
The third known membcrof C<7f r/com is C latus 
Monteilh, 1969, from New Britain and is repre- 
sented to dale by macropters alone. This latter 
species was overlooked by Konnilev ( 197 1 ) and 
is omitted from the world catalogue of Kormilev 

Caecicoris is related to Mastigocoris Matsuda 
& Usmger (widespread in the Indo-Pacific) and 
P/ifi/ioron.v Usinger & Matsuda (endemic to Fiji ). 
shanng with them its open rostral atrium and form 
of scutcllum. The group has been very successful 
in colonizing the island masses of the region and 
Ihi^i has been achieved by the dispersal ability of 
wmged raorphs currently present or in their re- 
cent evolutioT^ary past. 

Caecicoris microcerus (Walker, 1873) 

Crimiamirmctra Walker, 1 873: 21 (descr.); Lethierry 

& Scvcrin. 1896: 47 (incerti generis). 
PiCfiftus mtcrocen4y. Distant. 1902 360(ltsiedJ. 
Artabanux inermis Kormilev, 1955b: 2t)l liit;3«:r.); 

KofrtiiJcv, 1971 : 12 (synonymy). 

Caecicoris oviventris Kormilev, J957a: 399 (dcscr,): 
Usinger i Matsuda, 1959: 193 (listed); Montcith, 
1969: 87 (synonymy). 

AriabaneJlusinfiiscatusMaiHuda&U&inger, 1957- 141 
(descr.. fig.); Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 222 
(listed); Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 106 (lisiedj 
syn. nov. 

ZcM9^oc(fris mictvcerus: U singer & Matsuda. 1959: 

Caecicoris microcerus. Monteith, 1969:8 7 (locality 
iccords), Kormilev, 1971. 1 2; Monteilh. 1982:655 
(He); Kumiilev & Froeschner. 1987: 120 (listed); 
Hclss. 1988.73 tfig.K 

TYPES. Holoiype of Crimia mtcrocera: Dorcy, N 
coast of New Guinea, A.R. Wallace, tn BMNH. Not 
examined: figured Usinger & Matsuda (1959). Holo- 
type 9 of Artabanellus infitscams: Pclcliu J, Palau 
Islands. E coast. 29 Jan 1948. Pacific Sci Board. 
Ent.Surv. of Micronesia. H.S.Dybas. leg., in NMNR 
Washington. Examined 

mens NORTH QUEENSLAND: West Claudie Ri%«r. 
hon Range, ramforesr, I micropt. 9, 29-30.i\.1974, 
GBM, 3 macropl. 6. 2 micropt. (5, 2 micropt. ?, 
3-]0..\ii.l985.GBM & DJC. in QM. 

DISTRIBimON (Fi^. 21). Widespread on Ihc 
mainland of New Guin<ra, bemg recorded from 
both Irian Java and PNG. All records id date arc 
fron) m>rlb of the central muunlain Cordillera, il 
has also been recorded from the Bismarck Archi- 
pelago (Deslacs Is), as Artahatius incrmis, <md 
from the Palau islands, as Anabanellus in- 
fuscaiiis. The specimens noitxi here from Iron 
Range establish the species on Cape York Pcnio- 
sula in Australia. All have been taken ai the Wcil 
Claudie River where the richest rajnfo£>;sis of ihe- 
Iron Range region occur. 

REMARKS. The unique holoiype of Artahonetlus 
if\fi4sca!us Matsuda & Usingor pn^vod iuo be a 
micmpterous 9 of C. microcerm. The specimen is 
slightly teratological with the right antenna hav- 
ing only 3 segments (shown as 4 in Matsuda &i 
Usinger's illustration) and wuh the left side of the 
pronotum lacking much of its angulate-explaaaic 
tnargm (explaining the curious asymmetry of ijwir 
illusiralion). In other respects it falls well within 
the known range of variability for microplcmus "5 . 
Usinger & Matsuda ( 1959) illustrate the mac- 
ix)pterous 2 holoiype while Monteilh ( 1969) de- 
scribed the microplerous cJ and discussed 
implications of the sinking alary dimorphism ol>- 
served in the species in New Guinea. The 
microplerous 6 was illustrated wiih further dis- 
cussion bv Montcith (J 982) and Hcis.<v ( 1988). 


MEMOIRS OFTIIE QUEENSLAND MliSEUM inaierial studied now includes 3 of 
Ihe 4 inoTphs, wilh only muffropeennis ? not 
present. They agree in all essential features wjth 
New Guinea material. One 2 differs in the sur- 
face of the abdominal tergal plate which is rela- 
tively flat, finely punctured and lacking the 
scattered setae of normal micropters. The lergaJ 
dorsum is one of the regions which show strong 
secondary modification associated wilh loss of 
wings in New Guinea micropterous morphs. 
being smcxMh and glabrous beneath the wings of 
macropters and coarsely punctate and setose 
when exposed in micropters- The tergal plate of 
the Iron Range specimen is intermediate between 
the normal macropterous and micropterous con- 

Since the nucropterous 2 nKJiphof C micwcents 
has not been fully described 1 give a brief descrip- 
tion of ilic Iron Range specimens below. 

DESCRIPTION (Micropterous 9). SmalK 
4.67mm long, with broad abdomen (2.52mm) and 
narrow prothorax (1.46mm). Bicoioured with 
ground colour reddish brown and legs, antennae, 
parts of pronotum, and connexiva 11 and III pale. 

Head a little longer (J. 10) than wide (0.92); 
with long curled setae on vertex, clypeus and 
antenniferous tubercles: postocular processes ab- 
sent; eyes globular, existed; antenniferous tu- 
bercles slightly divergent, apically sub-acute; 
gcnal pnLx:csses narrow, cylindrical, separate, 
reaching to two thirds length of first antennal 
segment. Antennae twice length of head wilh 
lengths of segments (MV) 0.52. 0.32, 0,74. 0.46. 
Rostral atrium broadly open anteriorly; rostral 
groove shallow, closed posterkirly; rocsljuiii not 
exceeding length of its groove, 

Pronolum wilh maximum width 2.2 times me- 
dian length, its hind lobe reduced to a narrow strip 
half the length of anterior lobe; pronotal surface 
wilh erect curled setae; anterolateral angles pro- 
duced into flattened, complex lobes which proj- 
ect atilcriorly on each side of neck: lateral 
margins with a median, laterally directed spine; 
posterolateral angles angulate: dorsum of anterior 
lobe with a pair of setose tubercles lateral of 
midline, Hemelytra reduced to very sinall circular 
lobes lateral of base of scuiellum: hind wings 
absent; scutellum large, distinct, triangular, with 
midline forming a convex, s€;ose elevation. 

Alidnnien flat, with lateral margins convex; 
long **«iae present along postenor edge of each 
dorsal conncxival plate; posterolateral angle of 
C\ VI slighlly produced; margin of Cx VD wilh 
an angulate projection bearing the laterally 

placed spiracle; paratergites of VIII long with 
lateral spiracles. 

Spermalheca of New Guinea specimen (Fig. 
201): with duct short, sclerotiscd. with a 
sclerotised lateral diverticulum at half iis length. 

Scironocoris Konnilcv^ 1957 

Sciwnocotis Kormilcv. 1957ii: 401 (*iescT ); Usingcr 
&Mai.siidal959: 193Clisicdonly);Komiilev. 1971: 
7. 8, 26 (incl. in key; key to spp.): Komiilev ^ 
Froesclmer. 1987: \9\ (catalogue of spp. )- 

Dimnrphocantha Usinircr Sl Malsuda, 1959: 255 
(descr.); Kormilcv. T97I: 7, H, 2ft (mcl. in key); 
Kormilcv & Froeschnex, 1987: 135 (catalogue of 
5pp )5m now 

TYPE SPECIES. Scirvnocorta armi^cnm Kumiifev. 
1 957, by original dcsignatiort. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig lOA). From northern India 
through the Indonesian Archipelago and the Phil- 
ippines to New Guinea and (o Cape York Penin- 

REMARKS. The synonymy of Dimorphacmtha 
wilh Sc ironocoris TQcorded here is oneof ^'vcral 
synonymies which have arisen because some au- 
thors described new genera while Usin^er & 
Matsuda's (1959) world revision was in prvpara- 
tion. Where Usinger ik Maisuda could not |^cl 
access to specimens of these genera for compar- 
ison it sometimes happened that they madver- 
Icntly redcscribed them, as in this instance. This 
particular synonymy has remained undetected 
because some errors have crept into subsequent 
literature on the two nominal genera and because 
there has been some failure to appreciate the 
implications of alary dimorphism in the 
Me/irinae as noted by Monieith (1969, 1982). 

In his key to Oriental-Pacific genera Konmlev 
(1971) distinguished Dtmomhucaniha and 
Scironocoris on the basis of (i) Jaierally directed 
pronotal processes, and (ii) strong 6 metaplcural 
spines in the former but not the latter. Although 
both these features occur in L>. dnlincto. the type 
species oi Dirnorphacanrfia, ihcy are not present 
in all species (Usinger & Matsuda. 1959: 256), 

The loss of lateral processes on the pronorum is 
concurrent with the great reduction of pronotal 
si^e associated with brachyptcry in the 
Mc/irinac. Kormilcv (197 1: 26) in noting llial no 
brachyptcrous species were described in 
Dimorpnacantha, was obviously unaware of bcu- 
chypterous D usmgen, which is illustrated as 
lacking pnmolal processes (Blotc, 1965). Liu 



(1980) described brachypterous D. brachyptera, 
from S China without pronotal processes. An- 
other undescribed brachypterous species before 
me from Sarawak (Kapit) also lacks these pro- 

Regarding the metapleural spines of the 6, 
Kormilev's key assumed that Scironocoris 6 did 
not possess such spines. But since all 3 species 
then known had been described by Kormilev 
from unique $ this could only have been an 
assumption. Since the $ of brachypterous 
Scironocoris {sensu Kormilev) recorded below 
from Australia do have short metapleural spines 
homologous with those of Dimorphacantha dis- 
tincta it is obvious that this was a false assump- 
tion and there are no longer valid grounds for 
recognising 2 separate genera. Attention is drawn 
also to Rustem Kormilev, 1957b, which was de- 
scribed from a single 9 from Iran; this genus 
appears to be another generic synonym of 
Scironocoris but I have not the opportunity to 
pursue this at present. Pseudartabanus Esaki & 
Matsuda, 1952, with one brachypterous and one 
macropterous species from Taiwan also appears 
to belong to this group but authentic material 
needs to be examined. P. armatus from Assam 
(Heiss, 1982b) is a Scironocoris because of its 
spined femora and details of head and pronotal 

Although Usinger & Matsuda' s Dimorph- 
acantha is a junior synonym their description is 
more valid for the taxon now to be known as 
Scironocorisi\i3in is Kormilev' s since it embraces 
macropterous and brachypterous forms. How- 
ever a brief diagnosis is given here also: 

DIAGNOSIS. Small, 5-8mm long, related to 
Artabanus but lacking the stridulatory structures 
on the hind legs and on abdominal stemites of that 
genus, macropterous, brachypterous or 

Head about as long as wide; postocular pro- 
cesses absent; antenniferous tubercles short, 
barely reaching 1/3 length of first antennal seg- 
ment, never apically pointed; clypeus short with 
genal processes small or absent. Antennae long, 
more than 1 .5 times head length, with segments I 
and III longer than II and TV. Rostral atrium 
closed and slit-like; rostrum not reaching beyond 
hind margin of head; rostral groove open or 
closed behind. 

Pronotum variable depending on wing devel- 
opment, but always with fore lobe divided from 
hind lobe by a distinct transverse depression; fore 
lobe with anterolateral angles more or less pro- 

duced, and its disc with sublateral elevations, 
which are usually pronounced in brachypterous 
species, and sometimes also with submedian ele- 
vations; midline of fore lobe with a median 
groove; hind lobe large and overlapping meso- 
thorax in macropters, reduced to a narrow, trans- 
verse, non-overlapping band in brachypters; hind 
lobe of macropters sometimes with laterally di- 
rected processes which are variously reduced in 
brachypters and may become merely slight hu- 
meral elevations. Scutellum in macropters with a 
pair of basal teeth overlapping hind margin of 
pronotum and with a median longitudinal ridge; 
in brachypters scutellum has lost basal teeth, me- 
dian ridge is indistinct and centre is humped. 
Hemelytra fully developed {distinctus, luchti, 
sexspinosus, papuasicus, arrnatus, borneensis, 
obscurus), brachypterous and consisting only of 
corium {usingeri, baliensis, brachypterus, aus- 
tralis, malayensis) or micropterous (armigerus). 
Legs with all femora bearing subapical, ventral 
spines, sometimes reduced on fore and mid-legs. 
Metapleuron of 6 often bearing a long or short 
conical spine immediately anterior to hind coxa; 
$ usually with a small polished knob in the same 
position. Spiracles of segments II- VII ventral, 
those of segment VIII apical. 

INCLUDED SPECIES. The following 1 3 species 
are here included in Scironocoris. The first spe- 
cies was omitted from the world catalogue of 
Kormilev & Froeschner (1987) and the last spe- 
cies is described herein. 

Scironocoris sexspinosus (Bergrolh, 1892) 

comb, now 

Artabanus sexspinosus Bergroth, 1892a: 710, 

Dimorphacantha sexspinosa: Usinger & Matsuda, 
1959:256. (Burma). 

Scironocoris armigerus Kormilev, 1957. 

Scironocoris arniigerus Kormilev, 1957a: 402. (New 

Scironocoris distinctus (Usinger & Matsuda, 

1959) comb. nov. 

Dimorphacantha distincta Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 
256. (Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines, Malay Penin- 

Scironocoris luchti (Kiritshenko, 1959) corr^. 


Artabanus luchti YAnishtnko, 1959: 187. 

Dimorphacantha hichti: Kormilev, 1971: 26. (Java, 
Sumatra, Sulawesi, Malay Peninsula, China). 

Scironocoris uslngeri (Blote, 1965) comb. nov. 

Dimorphacantha usingeriBloic 1965: 15. (Java). 

Scironocoris obscurus Kormilev, 1971. (New 




Scironocoris papuasicus Kormilev, 1971 . (New 


Scironocoris baliensis Kormilev, 1972. (Bali). 

Scironocoris brachypterus (Liu. 1980) comb, 


Dimorphacant/ia brachyptera Liu, 1980: 177, 183. 

t China). 
Scironocoris malayensis Kormilev, 1983. 
(Malay PeninsuJaJ. 

Scironocoris borneensis (Kormilev, 1986) 
comb- nov, 
Dimurphacantha bomeensts Kormilev, 1986: 256. 

Scironocoris armatus (Heiss, 1982) comb. nov. 
PseudanabanusanmvusHc\s$, 1982b: 194. (Northern 


Scironocoris australis sp.nov. 

(Figs5J. 19.20J-N) 

TYPE. Holoiype c?, West Claudie Ruer. Iron Range, 
N Qld. 29-30.iK.1974. G.B. Monteiih, RainKoresl. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED, Holotype and 20 speci- 
mens: NORTH QUEENSLAND: West Claudie River. 
Iron Range, Cape York Peninsula. 1 1 d paratypes, 4? 
paratypes. 29-30.ix.l974. GBM. in QM (QMT26487- 
26496). (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH. ANiC. EH. 
UQIC). Non-paratvpes. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Lae 
Botanic Gardens, 5 9 . 6^7- ii 1966, GBM. in QM. 

DESCRIPTTON. Small, brachypterous. 5.1- 
6.2mm long, with hemelytral vestiges reaching 
apex of scutellum and with preapical spines on all 

MALE. Body subrectangular. Head length L05- 
1.12 limes width across eyes; vertex elevated into 
2 longitudinal, setose ridges; anlcnnit'crous tuber- 
cles slightly divergent; clypcus reaching to half 
length of Hrsl antenna! segment; genal processes 
small, separate just exceeding clypeal apex. Ros- 
tral groove open posteriorly. Antennae 1.6-1.7 
times head length; segments 1 and III longest, 
subequal, segment IV longer than II. 

Pronotum with fore and hind lohcs distinct, 
maximum width 1.9-2.0 times median length; 
hindlobcwidih 1.25 limes width offore lobe; fore 
lobe length 1.25 times length of hind lobe; fore 
lobe with antCTolatera! angles subrcctangular, 
slightly protruding; hind lobe with its anterolat- 
eral angles also subreciangular; ibrelobc with a 
conical elevation sublaterally on each side and 
with a flat, glabrous callus on each side of median 
groove. Scutellum triangular with sides some- 
what curved: its centre roundly inflated. 
Hcmelytra reduced to fully developed coria as 

FIG. 19. Dorsal view of S Scironocoris austrnlLs: 

long as scutellum, each bearing an attenuate ves- 
tige of membrane on outer apical angle. All 
femora bearing a prominent, subapical, ventral 
spine. A short, conical spine present on each 
metapleuron immediately anterior to hind coxae. 

EKposed abdoipinal tergal plate flat, coarsely 
punctate, with boundaries between segmental 
plates obscured; Cx IH' VI with faint submarginal 
ridges; margin of Cx VII angulate, with small, 
rounded lobes projecting posteriorly; paraiergites 
of VIII short, clavate, with spiracles apical; pygo- 
phore simply rounded; paramcres as in Fig. 2(JM. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: sides of abdomen 
convex; margin of Cx VII weakly angulate: apex 
of segment LX exceeding length of paraiergites of 
VIII; metapleural spines absent, their position 
replaced by a swelling; spcrmaihcca as in Fig. 
20N with short, simple ducL 

MEASUREMENTS. Holoivpe 6 first, then 

ranges of additional 2c? and 29. L: 5.17. 5.17- 
5.33. 6.17; W: 2.02. 2.12-2.14, 3.08; HL: LI4: 
L10-L14J-24-L26»HW: 1.06, 1.02-1.04, 1.06- 



FIG. 20. A~By A rtabanus sinuatus; A, 9; B, J dorsal abdominal apex. C-F, .4. bilobiceps\ C, d; D, $ ventral 
abdomen; E, spermaiheca; F, paramere. G-I, Caecicoris microcems; G, 9 micropler; H, 9 micropier. veniral 
abdominal apex; I, spermatheca. J-N, Scironocoris australis; J, 6 hind leg; K, 9 dorsal abdominal apex; L, 6 
ventral abdominal apex; M, paramere; N, spermatheca. 



FIG. 21. Records for species of A rra^o/iiu. Caecicoris, 
Scironororis and Usingen'da in northern (^eensland. 

1.20; PL: 0.92, 0.96. 1,10-1.12; PW: 1.84. 1.84- 
1.86, 2.20; AS: I, 0.56, 0.50-0.54, 0.58-0.62: fl. 
0.34. 0.32-0.34. 40; III. 0.54, 0.54, 0.60-0.62; 
IV, 0.46, 0.42-0.44, 0.48; SL: 0.68, 0.70, 0.92; 
SW: 1.14. !. 10-1.16, 1.35-1.40. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 21). A single series Uilcen 
in rainforest at Iron Range. N Queensland. Two 
specimens from northern New Guinea are tenta- 
tively ascribed to this species, bal are not made 
part of the type series. 

REMARKS. Although none have been noted yet 
there is a very strong likelihood that some species 
of Sctronocoris will prove to exhibit alary dimor- 
phism. The morphological relationships between 
macroplerous and brachyplcrous species are vir- 
tually identical to those in the proven cases of 
dimorphism in Usingerida roberti and 
Caecicoris microcems (Monteith, 1969), vIk. re- 
duction of pronotal hind lobe, inflation of !icutel- 
lum, and roughening of the abdominal tergal 
plate. The implications of this possibility are that 
some described brachypterous species may be 
conspccific with some macroplerous species. 
Many of the nominal species have been described 
from unique specimens so there is also strong 
likelihood that further synonymy will be revealed 
when correlated cJs and 5 are obtained of more 
species. For this reason it is with some trepidation 
that I describe another species based solely on 
brachypterous fonns. However, the long series of 
16 lessens the probability that a macropterous 

form exists, although the presence of the species 
on Cape York Peninsula suggests that a winged 
morph may be rather recent in its ancestry. 

Scironocoris australis differs from S. 
armigerus, its geographically nearest flightless 
relative, in the micropterous condition and (he 
lack of fore and mid femoral spines in the latter 
Of the 2 New Guinea macropterous species, S. 
obscurusand S.papuasicus, the first differs from 
Qustralis in the shape of the pronotal fore lobe. 
and the second differs in its smaller size and 
shorter head, Scironocoris australis seems lo 
have us closest affinity to 5. baliensis. 

Usingerida Kormilev, 1955 

Usingerida Kormilev, 1955a: 142 (descr.): Usinger & 
Matsuda, 1959:200,308,310 (inci, in key; redescr.; 
ke> 10 spp.); Kormilev. 1971: 9,132 (incl. in key); 
Kormilev & Froeschner. 1987: 194 (catalogue of 

TYPE SPECIES. Usingerida walshl Kormilev, 1955 
by original designation. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 9F). 18 species which 
range from Asia across the Indonesian Anchrpcl- 
ago to New Guinea and New Bnlain. Cape York 
Peninsula, Australia. 

REMARKS. Usingerida is one of several genera 
based on species separated off from. 'Mezira in 
its old sense as a dumping ground for winged 
Mezirinae without any distinctive features. To 
date it has been accepted as a solely macropterous 
genus disunguished from Mezira {sensu Usinger 
& Matsuda, 1959) in the generic keys of Usinger 
& Matsuda (1959) and Kormilev (1971) by the 
veinless membranes and prominent anterolateral 
lobes on the pronotum. However, the observation 
that some Australian species of 'Mezira (e.g. 
Brachyrhynchu.s australis and B. wilsoni) have 
virtually veinless membranes diminishes the use- 
fulness of the first key character. Inclusion of 
Mezira robertU without prominent anterolateral 
pronotal lobes, m Usingerida invalidates the sec- 
ond key character. The discovery that roberti is a 
dimorphic species with both macroplerous and 
brachypterous forms also means that Usingerida 
can no longer be regarded as purely macTopterous. 
The integrity of Usingerida as a uniform group 
of species is not changed by the inclusion of 
roberti All species share a distinctive scutclluni 
structure, broadly elevated on antt^rior half and 
with an indistinct median, longitudinal ridge: all 
have the hemelytral coria long and apically sinu- 



ate; all have extremely slender antennae without 
the apical crenulation on segments II and III as in 
Pacific species of "Mezircf {=Brachyrhynchus)\ 
all have the rostrum extending beyond the poste- 
rior margin of the rostral groove. Genitalic struc- 
tures have been studied in U. roberti ; the lack of 
the *stridulatory' ridge on the inner face of the 
parameres and the heavily sclerotised and in- 
flated spermathecal duel set it apart from Austra- 
lian species of Brachyrhynchus examined. 
Parameres of U. tenericornis (Heiss, 1989b) are 

Usingerida roberti (Kormilev, \91\)comb. nov. 
(Figs 4H, 5K, 7A, 22A-B, 24P-S) 

Mezira roberti Kormilev, 1971: 28 (descr.; fig.); 

Kormilev & Heiss, 1973: 62 (incl. in key); Kormilev 

& Froeschner, 1987: 157 (listed). 
Usingerida roberti: Monteith, 1982: 654, 655 (fig.). 

TYPE. Holotype, Ceram, Piroe, 11.1909, F. 
Muir. In BPBM 8981. Examined. Specimen 
somewhat abraded and lacking right foreleg and 
apical 3 segments of right antenna. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 29 speci- 
mens: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Iron Range, Cape 
York Peninsula, 3 brachypl. 9, 3 brachypt. d, 14 
macropt, 9, 7 nymphs,, GBM, in QM. 
(QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, EH, NMNH. 
UQIC). NEW GUINEA: Popondelta, 1 brachypl. 6, 
27-28.ii.l966, GBM, in QM. INDONESIA: Piroe. 
Ceram, brachypt. allotype 9, ii.l909. F. Muir, in 

ALARY DIMORPHISM. Kormilev described 
this species from a brachypterous 6 and ? which 
bore Usinger's determination label as being 
"Mezira brachyptera Usinger', a name that was 
never published. 

The specimens available to Kormilev run easily 
to Mezira in the brachypterous section of Usinger 
& Matsuda's (1959) key to Old World genera of 
Mezirinae and so it was natural for Kormilev to 
place it in that genus. 

In June 1971 I collected an aggregation of 20 
adult aradids at Iron Range, 6 of them brachyp- 
terous (6 and 9 ) and 14 macroplerous ( 9 only). 
Neither brachypters nor macropters agreed with 
any aradid previously recorded from Australia. 
The brachypterous forms were apparently con- 
specific with a single 6 brachypter collected by 
the writer at Popondetta, PNG, in 1 966 and which 
had been assigned provisionally to Mezira, the 
genus to which it ran in Usinger & Matsuda' s key. 
In attempting to identify the insect, the types of 

Kormilev's M. roberti from the South Moluccan 
island of Ceram were examined and proved to be 
identical. This gave the unprecedented situation 
of having a flightless aradid species known in 
undifferentiated form from 3 well separated land 
masses, Ceram, New Guinea and Australia. The 
status of the macropterous 9 collected in associ- 
ation with the brachypters at Iron Range was 
problematical in that they ran to Usingerida, not 
Mezira, in keys to macropterous genera (Usinger 
& Matsuda, 1959; Kormilev, 1971). But close 
study showed that these macropters, although 
quite different in general facies, only differed 
from the brachypterous M. roberti with which 
they were collected by characteristics similar to 
those shown by Monteith (1969) to separate the 
winged and micropterous morphs of the dimor- 
phic Caecicoris microcerus (q.v.). Similar mor- 
phological differences between wing morphs 
have also been described and figured in 
Mastigocoris (Heiss & Hoberlandt, 1985). The 
conclusion reached is that the macropters and 
brachypters collected together at Iron Range are 
morphs of single species which should be known 
as (/. roberti (Kormilev) comb. nov. 

This new combination brings together patro- 
nymics based on both Christian name and sur- 
name of the lale Robert L. Usinger, father of 
modem aradid systematics. 

This is the third species of Mezirinae in which 
pronounced alary dimorphism has been demon- 
strated. As with Caecicoris microcerus, the rec- 
ognition of dimorphism in U. roberti unites 2 
aradid types which would have been referred to 
separate genera under the existing laxonomic 
framework. Undoubtedly more cases of dimor- 
phism will come to light especially on the dis- 
persed land masses of the Indo-Pacific region 
where the retention of winged morphs gives a 
great dispersal advantage to those species evolv- 
ing a wingless lifestyle (Monteith, 1982). 

In U. roberti, the winged dispersal morph gives 
a ready explanation for the constancy of form of 
its brachypters on separate land masses. Whereas 
Caecicoris microcerus is dimorphic in both sexes 
there is strong circumstantial evidence that U. 
roberti is dimorphic only in the 9 . Of the random 
sample of 20 specimens taken at Iron Range six 
are brachypters and of these 3 are cJ and 3 are 9 ; 
by contrast all 14 macropters are 9. This apparent 
retention of a flighted form only in the 9 has 
evolutionary significance since dispersal can be 
achieved by a single mated 9 . 

The brachypterous form of U. roberti has been 
adequately described by Kormilev, 1971. I give 



FIG. 22. Usingerida roberti from Iron Range. A, brachypterous d; B, macropterous 9. 

below a description of the newly discovered mac- 
ropterous form with notes and comparative mea- 
surements for brachypters. Naturally there is a 
possibility that this macropterous form has been 
described in the past as a species of "Mezira' but 
I have been unable to confirm this given the 
confused state of taxonomy of this group in the 
islands to the north of Australia. 

DESCRIPTION (Macropterous 9 ). Length 6.00- 
6.17mm. Head slightly wider than long, its dor- 
sum with numerous short curled hairs; postocular 
tubercles minute, narrow projections behind 
eyes; antenniferous tubercles long, divergent, 
blunt, reaching to 2/3 length of first antennal 
segment; genal processes short, broad, blunt, sub- 
contiguous, reaching to 4/5 of first antennal seg- 
ment. Rostrum reaching beyond hind border of 
rostral groove almost to hind margin of head; 
rostral groove broad, shallow, open poslerioriy. 
Antennae 1.45-1.50 limes head length; all seg- 
ments slender, subequal in length. 

Pronotum with width of hind lobe 2.15-2.25 
times median length; fore lobe 0.75 times width 

of hind lobe; anterolateral angles semicircularly 
rounded and projecting laterally; lateral margin 
of pronotum deeply incised between fore and 
hind lobes; collar narrow, poorly defined; fore 
lobe with median sulcus and with submedian 
areas elevated into broad, rounded tubercles; sub- 
lateral areas weakly inflated into ridges. Scutel- 
lum with width 1.3-L4 limes length, its surface 
punctate and setose; anterolateral angles thick- 
ened and raised; middle of basal margin slightly 
convex; disc with basal half swollen and apical 
half with a faint median ridge. Hemelytra reach- 
ing hind margin of Tg VI; coria reaching apex of 
Cx III and apically sinuate; membranes dark, 
veinless and wrinkled. 

Abdomen with margins of Cx 11- VI straight; 
margins of VII straight, converging posteriorly; 
middle of Tg VII quadrately elevated; paraterg- 
ites of Vni short, rounded, with spiracles lateral; 
segment IX long, rounded; tergal disc normal, 
smooth and glabrous beneath wing membranes. 
Sterna of thorax broad, with median length of 
mesostemum 1.3 times length of prostemum; 
midlines of metastemum and abdominal St II- VI 



each with a glabrous patch; midline of St VII 
long, with length slightly longer than V and VI 
combined. Spiracles of segments II-VI ventral, 
far removed from margin. Spermatheca as in Fig. 
24R with duel inflated into a heavily sclerotised, 
U-shaped chamber. 

Brachypterous 9 : differing from macropters as 
follows: slightly smaller, length 5.42-6.00; hind 
lobe of pronotum reduced in length, width and 
elevation so that width of fore lobe is 0.88 times 
width of hind lobe; apex of scutellum subtrunc- 
ate; hemelytral membranes lost; coria fused with 
terga and shorter, reaching only to half length of 
Cx n, their apices rounded, not sinuate; tergal 
disc coarsely punctate, sparsely setose and raised 
in a sublateral band along each size and in vicinity 
of scent gland scar. 

Brachypterous 6 : SLsfoTbrachypierous 2 except: 
pygophore extremely large, rounded apically, 
bearing a small, elongate tubercle on dorsal side; 
paratergites of VIE short, cylindrical, with spira- 
cles apical. Parameres as in Fig. 24S. 

MEASUREMENTS. Macropters. Ranges of 3 
Australian ?. L: 6.00-6.17; W: 2.60-2.76; HL: 
1.10; HW: 1.14-1.18; AS: I, 0.40-0.42, U, 0.38- 
0.40, III, 0.40, IV, 0.42-0.44; pronotal fore lobe 
length: 0.44-0.52; pronotal hind lobe length: 
0.60-0.66; pronotal fore lobe width: 1.82-1.86; 
pronotal hind lobe width: 2.46-2.52; SL: 1.00- 
1.02; SW: 1.30-1.40; WL: 3.33-3.50; corium 
length: 1.84-1.90. 

Brachypters. Holotype d followed by ranges of 
3 additional Australian cJ, then allotype 9 fol- 
lowed by ranges of 3 additional Australian 9 . L: 
4.92, 5.33, 5.42, 5.83-6.00; W: 2.16-2.33, 2.50, 
2.72-2.75; HL: 0.98, 1.04-1.08, 1.06, 1.14-1.16; 
HW:0.92,1.00-1.02, 1.06, 1.08-1. 12; AS: 1,0.36, 
0.40, 0.38, 0.40-0.42, H, 0.30, 0.34-0.36, 0.36, 
0.34-0.38, III, 0.32, 0.36, 0.38-0.40, IV, 0.36, 
0.40, 0.38-0.42; pronotal fore lobe length; 0.50, 
0.50-0.52, 0.54, 0.54-0.58; pronotal hind lobe 
length: 0.30, 0.36-0.46, 0.42, 0.42-0.46; pronotal 
fore lobe width: 1.64, 1.68-1.76, 1.76, 1.86-1.94; 
SL: 0.76, 0.76-0.80, 0.80, 0.86-0.94; SW: 1.10, 
1.10-1.30, 1.14, 1.30-1.40; corium length: 1.22, 
1.28-1.34, 1.40, 1.44-1.50. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 21). South Moluccan is- 
land of Ceram, NE New Guinea and Cape York 
Peninsula where it occurs in lowland rainforests. 

REMARKS. Usingerida roberti differs from 
other members of the genus by its small size, 
rounded anterolateral pronotal angles, non-angu- 

late margin of pronotal hind lobe, and 9 with 
straight margins to Cx Vn. 

There is minor variation in brachypters from 
the different land masses. The Iron Range series 
differs from the types in being a little larger with 
body setae more conspicuous and submedian pro- 
notal elevations a little higher. The Popondetta S 
differs in its smoother body surface, less promi- 
nent anterolateral pronotal angles, median head 
process longer and dorsal tubercle on pygophore 
a little larger. 

The long series from Iron Range was taken on 
the outside of the underside of a small log lying 
on the ground. This is the habitat which Monteith 
(1969a) suggests predisposes winged aradids to 
wing loss in the rainforest environment. Despite 
intensive collecting during many visits to Lron 
Range the species has not been recollected there. 
The presence of Usingerida in Australia and di- 
morphism of U, roberti were referred to in a 
summary discussion (Monteith, 1982). 

Chinessa Usinger & Matsuda, 1959 

Chinessa Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 200, 269 (incl. in 
key; descr.); Kormilev, 1971: 7, 10, 117 (incl. in 
key; key to spp.); Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 
124 (catalogue of spp.). 

TYPE-SPECIES. Crimia bispiniceps Walker, 1873, 
by original designation. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 8D). Ceram, New Guinea, Bis- 
marck Archipelago, North Queensland. 

REMARKS. Chinessa is the most extreme exam- 
pie in the Indo-Pacific region of prolific radiation 
of a genus of Aradidae on a single land mass. 
When Usinger & Matsuda (1959) erected the 
genus they included in it only bispiniceps, from 
New Guinea; Blote (1965) described acutissinia, 
also from New Guinea. Then Kormilev (1971) 
studied the extensive collections in the Bishop 
Museum and described 18 species all from the 
same island with the exception of lobuliventris, 
from New Britain, and a subspecies of a New 
Guinea species from the Moluccas. Since then 4 
more New Guinea species have been erected by 
Kormilev (1972, 1983, 1984) and Vasarhelyi 
(1976). Chinessa has not been recorded from 
Australia but 4 species are noted below from 
north Queensland, bispiniceps, iniqiia which 
Kormilev described from NG and Ceram, and 2 
new species endemic to Australia. 

Thus Chinessa now has 26 species of which 23 
occur on New Guinea; the only other occurrences 



are on land masses to the immediate east (New 
Britain), south (Cape York Peninsula) and west 
(Ceram) of the New Guinea mainland. Of the 
species on the New Guinea mainland 1 1 are 
known only from altitudes above 1,000m. Addi- 
tionally, the fact that 14 New Guinea species are 
still known only from unique specimens indicates 
that many more species may be discovered in 
future. Chinessa evolved on New Guinea and is 
radiating rapidly there at medium to high alti- 
tudes with some dispersal to adjacent landmasses. 

An interesting feature is the coexistence of 
numbers of species at single localities. For in- 
stance in New Guinea 7 species are recorded from 
the vicinity of Enarotadi in Irian Jaya and 4 occur 
at Wau in the east; this same phenomenon extends 
to Austrahan where all 4 recorded species occupy 
similar habitats at Iron Range. The great number 
of apparently sympatric species, many of them 
described from single specimens, might indicate 
that Chinessa species exhibit polymorphism or 
individual intraspecific variation which authors 
have falsely interpreted as specific variation. 
However modern collections from Iron Range 
have produced long series of all 4 species which 
occur there. Often more than 1 species occur in 
mixed aggregations. Each species is uniform 
morphologically with no indication of inter- 
grades, variability or polymorphism. This indi- 
cates that the phenomenon of minor species 
'swarms* is real in Chinessa. 

The typical habitat for Chinessa is on the outer 
bark surface of the underside of fallen logs. This 
is the habitat typical of wingless species but it is 
curious that the tendency to wing loss has been 
suppressed in Chinessa. Only a single brachyp- 
terous species is known, namely the New Guinea 
C. brachyptera Kormilev. 

An intriguing feature o{ Chinessa in Australia 
is that although colonies are often quite large in 
number of individuals and they occur in the typ- 
ical much-searched habitat on log undersides, 
they are encountered very sporadically. I have 
collected aradids intensively at Iron Range on 7 
visits of 1-3 weeks each, over 20 years. In that 
period C iniqua and C. spiniceps have each been 
collected only once (14 and 3 specimens, respec- 
tively), C claudiae has been collected twice ( 1 03 
specimens) and C. pusilla has been taken 4 times 
(13 specimens). 

Morphologically the genus is notable for its 
prominent, divergent genal processes, its back- 
wardly-directed, postocular head lobes, its in- 
curved anterolateral projections of the pronotum 
and the acute extensions of connexiva of abdom- 

inal segment VII. All these features occur in the 
type species but one or more are absent in many 
of the subsequently described species; however 
the uniform overall facies indicates that we are 
dealing with a monophyletic group, albeit one 
undergoing rapid evolution. 


1. Pronotum with anterolateral angles produced for- 
ward as tapering processes which curve inwards 
towards the head; spiracles of abdominal seg- 
ment VII not visible in dorsal view; St VII of c5^ 
with a small, circular, polished callus on each 
sideofmiddleat about half its length .... 2 
Pronotum with anterolateral angles rounded, not 
produced forward; spiracles of abdominal seg- 
ment VII situated on lateral edge and visible in 
dorsal view; St VII of S with a swollen polished 
area on each side adjacent to anterior margin of 
segment 3 

2(1). Genal processes long, strongly divergent and 
apically sharply pointed; posterolateral angles of 
Cx VI strongly projecting and sharply angulate; 
posterior projections of Cx VII sharply pointed, 
much longer than paratergites of VIII 

bispiniceps (Walker) 

Genal processes short, blunt, not strongly diver- 
gent: posterolateral angles of Cx VI slightly pro- 
jecting, rounded; projections of Cx VII blunter 
as long as, or barely longer than, paratergites of 
VIII claudiae sp. nov. 

3(1). Submedian areas of fore lobe of pronotum 
raised into conical tubercles; posterolateral an- 
gles of Cx VI projecting as blunt lobes; glabrous 
swellings of St VII of 6 not differentiated into 

short, oblique ridges iniqua Kormilev 

Submedian areas of pronotum weakly convex, 
not conically raised; posterolateral angles of Cx 

VI not projecting; glabrous swellings of 6 St 

VII forming short oblique ridges abutting the an- 
terior margin pusilla sp.nov. 

Chinessa bispiniceps (Walker, 
(Figs 4G, 24C,F,L,0) 


Crimia bispiniceps Walker, 1 873: 20 (dcscr.). 
Artabanus bispiniceps: Distant, 1902: 359 (generic 

transfer); Kormilev, 1955b: 201 (dcscr. of female; 

Chinessa bispiniceps. Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 270, 

27 1 (generic transfer; fig.) Kormilev, 197 1 : 1 1 8, 1 22 

(incI.inkey);Vdsdrhelyi,1985: 174 (fig.); Kormilev 

& Froeschner, 1987: 124 (listed). 

LECTOTYPE. Walker ( 1 873) described this spe- 
cies from 5 specimens stated as 'a-d. New 
Guinea. Presented by W.W. Saunders, Esq. e. 



New Guinea. From Mr Wallace's collection'. I 
have examined all 5 specimens (2 3 and 3 9 ) in 
the British Museum. The Wallace specimen (a 9 ) 
bears a circular green edged label stating Type', 
and is illustrated by Arthur Smith (Usinger & 
Matsuda, 1959: fig. 78); the caption refers to it as 
the 'Type Female'. However, as advised by Mr 
W. Dolling, the green Type' labels on Walker's 
syntypes do not have any status and there has 
never been any formal selection of a lectotype. 
Since Walker's original description only referred 
to the 6 , since this is the type species of Chinessa, 
and since the syntypic series is composite it is 
appropriate that this opportunity is taken to fix a 
lectotype. The labels currently on the five speci- 
mens are as follows: 

Specimen A (female): Type / 17. Crimia bispiniceps / 
Saunders 65. 1 3 / Dor. / Dorey Wallace / Spec figured/ 
Acanthogenys bispiniceps (Walk.) del R.L.lJsinger 

Specimen B (female): S / Saunders 85.13 / Crimia 
bispiniceps Walkers Catal. (right wing card-mounted 

Specimen C(male): Bac./ Saunders 65. 13 

Specimen D (male): S / Saunders 65.13 / Crimia 
bispiniceps Walker's Catal. / Chinessa bispiniceps 
(Walker) (in Usinger's hand). 

Specimen E (male): N / Saunders 65.13 / Crimia 
bispiniceps Walkers Catal. 

Usinger & Matsuda (1959) commented on 
what they perceived to be 'an astonishing degree 
of sexual dimorphism' in the type series because 
the 6 lacked the projecting pronotal lobes of the 
9 . Kormilev ( 1 97 1) suggested there were *actu- 
ally 2 species' because of the pronotal variation 
mentioned by Usinger & Matsuda. Having exam- 
ined the type series, and given the species diver- 
sity now known in Chinessa, I believe that the 5 
specimens represent 5 different species. The two 
V belong in the section of the genus with project- 
ing, inturned pronotal lobes. Specimen A was 
obviously considered to be the type by Usinger & 
Matsuda ( 1 959) and is so labelled in their illustra- 
tion. In Usinger's handwriting it bears an unpub- 
li.shed generic name, which was obviously 
changed to Chinessa before publication. It runs 
directly to bispiniceps in Kormilev's (1971) key 
and its illustration has been taken as the definitive 
representation by all authors. Specimen B lacks 
the prominent angulations of Cx VI seen in A and 
runs to forfex/armata in Kormilev's key. This 
specimen has its tergal plate exposed and seems 
to be the origin of Fig. 58 A in Usinger & Matsuda 
(1959). Specimens C, D and E, belong in the 
section of the genus with unmodified anterior 
angles of the pronotum and run to iniqua/modesta 
in Kormilev's key. However they differ from 

each other in shape of CX VI and VII and in 
submedian tubercles on the pronotum. Specimen 
D is labelled C bispiniceps by Usinger but cannot 
be conspecific with the figured $ (Specimen A). 
Since the present study does not deal with the 
complex New Guinea fauna it is not appropriate 
to attempt to deal with the identity of all speci- 
mens. It should be noted that the specimen in the 
HNHM used for Kormilev's ( 1 955b) description 
and figure of the 9 of bispiniceps is also not that 
species because it lacks projecting, incurved pro- 
notal lobes. I hereby select and label Specimen A 
as the lectotype thus preserving Usinger's inten- 
tion and conforming with usage since 1959. The 
other syntypes are not conspecific. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Type series and 36 speci- 
mens: NORTH QUEENSLAND: West Claudie River, 
Iron Range, 2d 1 9, 29-30.ix.l974, GBM, in QM; Mt 
Finnigan slopes, 30km S Cooktown. 400m, 19, 
3.vii.i982, SJP, in ANIC; Upper Mulgrave River, via 
Gordonvale, \56 109, l-3.xii.1965, GBM, 3d 19, 
15.viii.l966, GBM, 1 9, 26-27.xii.1967, GBM; Palm- 
erslon NP, 350-400m, 1 d I 9 , 2.i. 1990. GBM, in QM. 
(QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, UQIC). 

MEASUREMENTS. Lectotype 9, first, then 
range of 2d and 2 9 from Australia. L: 7.28, 
6.66-7.00, 7.66-7.91; W: 3.35, 2.69-2,81, 3.35- 
3.60; HL: 1.55, 1.45-1.56, 1.50; HW: 1.25, 1.16- 
1.15, 1,25; PL: 1.16, 1.00-1.09, 1.10; PW: 2.62, 
2.34-2.35, 2.56-2.75; AS: 1, 0.53, 0.47-0.4 1 , 0.47- 
0.48; II, 0.47, 0.37-0.41, 0.47-0.46; III, 0.59, 
0.53-0.50, 0.59-0.58; IV, 0.56, 0.53-0.50, 0.56- 
0.52; SL: 1.28, 1.15-1.12, 1.30-1.35; SW: 1.60, 
1.41-1.62, 1. 56-1.70; WL: 4.00, 3.50, 3.85-4.15; 
corium length: 1.50, 1.44-1.50, 1,50-1.60. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 25). New Guinea and 
northern Queensland as far S as the Cairns dis- 
trict. In New Guinea, C. bispiniceps seems to be 
principally a lowland species and is widespread. 
These l^atures of its distribution pattern undoubt- 
edly predisposed it to be the species which has 
penetrated furthest into Australia, In Australia it 
occurs both at Iron Range (one collection) and in 
the Cairns rainforest system. In the latter region 
it appears very localized and has been taken prin- 
cipally in the lowland rainforests of the Upper 
Mulgrave River Valley where it is common. The 
singleton from the lower slopes (400m) of Mt 
Finnigan is the only record above lowlands. 

REMARKS. Australian specimens are uniform 
from all localities. Females agree with the New 
Guinea lectotype 9 . Since I have positive corre- 



laiion of cJ and 9 in long series from Australia it 
is now possible to be sure of the characteristics of 
the 6 (Figs 24C,24F). Vasarheiyi (1985) 
illustrated the apex of the abdomen of an Austra- 
lian (Mulgrave River) S specimen. Parameres 
(Fig 240) and spermaihecae (Fig. 24L) of Aus- 
tralian specimens are illustrated here. 

Chinessa claudiae sp. nov. 

(Figs 23, 24G-I,K.N) 

TYPE. Ho!ot>pe S , Iron Range, Cape York Peninsula* 
I6-23.xi.l965,G. MonteUh,QMTl 1657 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. HoJotype and 102 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Iron Range. 
156 9 9, 16-23.xi.l965,GBM; WeslClaudieR.. Iron 
Range, rainforest, 50m. 55d 249. 3-10.xii.1985, 
GBM & DJC. in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in 
HNHM). (paratypes: QMT26386-26468). 

DESCRIPTION. Mediura-si2ed, 6.1-7.2mm 
long, with narrow anterior pronolal processes and 
blunt genal processes. 

MALE. Head length 1.1-1.2 times width; 
postocular margins of head parallel behind eyes 
then deeply excised into the neck leaving back- 
ward) y directed lobes; antenniferous tubercles 
divergent, apicaliy acute, reaching to 1/2 length 
of tlrsl aniennaJ segment; genal processes short, 
blunt, not strongly divergent, reaching a little 
beyond apex of first antennal segment Rostnim 
slightly longer than the broad, shallow rostral 
gr04)ve which is parallel-sided and semi-closed 
posteriorly. Antennae 1.32-1.43 times head 
length, segment n shortest, segment Til longest 

Pronotum width 2.1-2.3 times median length; 
anterolateral angles produced forward as narrow 
lobes which curve me&ally at their apices; collar 
distinct but narrow; fore lobe grooved along mid- 
line; submedian areas each with a glabrous callus 
posterior to a high conical tubercle; sublateral 
areas each with a small tubercle lower than sub- 
median tubercles; posterior pronotal lobe 
coarsely granulate and depressed on each side of 
midline. Scutellum width L25-1 .40 times length; 
anterolateral angles each with a tooth projecting 
over pronotal border; lateral margins bordered 
except apicaliy; disc rugose-punctate with an ir- 
regular median carina HemelyU'a reaching to 
half length of Tg \1I; coria apicaliy strai^t 
reaching to half length of Cx III; nwmbranes 
black with distinct veins. 

Abdominal Cx put\ctate on noesal 2/3 and 
smooth on outer 1/3; Cx II and III fused; margins 

no. 23. Dorsal view of d Chinessa daiuiiae. 

of Cx n and III fused; margins of Cx II-V suaighf, 
margin of Cx VI slightly protuberant; margin of 
Cx Vn each with an angulate projection reaching 
io> or a little beyond, apex of paratergites of VIII. 
Spiracles of segments U-VI ventral, those of VII 
sublateral and jusi visible from above. Suture 
between St VI and VII straight, in midtlle and 
angled backwards at sides; St vn with a smooth, 
oval callus on each side at half its length. 

Parameres as in Fig. 24N. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: abdomen much 
broader; St Vn without calli; hemelylra reaching 
almost to hind margin of Tg VI: spermatheca 
(Fig. 24K) with apical half of duct scleroiised, 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype S first, then 
ranges of akldiiional 16 and 2 5. L; 6.17. 6.33- 
6.50, 7.17; W: 2,75, 2.92-3.00, 3.58-3.67; HL: 
1.32. 1.40, 1.44-I.50;H>\^ M0» 1.16-1.20. 1.30; 
PL: 100. 1.10-1.16. 1.14-1.16; PW: 2.28. 2.34- 
2.40, 2.60-2.75: AS; L 0.40. 0.46-0.48. 0.4^0.50; 



II, 0.36. 0.40-0.42, 0.44; III, 0.50, 0.54-0.56, 
0.60; IV, 0.48, 0.52, 0.52; SL: 0.96, 1.04-1.10, 
1.20; WL: 3.33, 3.50, 3.75; corium length; 1.38, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 25). Lowland rainforest at 
Iron Range, northern Cape York Peninsula. 

REMARKS. This species is related to C 
bispiniceps and shares with that species all the 
typical features of the genus except for the short, 
blunt genal prongs of claudiae. In November 
1965 it was taken in mixed colonies with C. 
pusilla. In December 1985 a very large colony 
was located on the underside of a small log but 
this time it shared the situation with a small 
proportion of C. iniqua. 

The species is named for the Claudie River 
along which the rich rainforests grow at Iron 
Range, and which in turn was named for his 
daughter by noted early Peninsula gold prospec- 
tor Billy Lakeland about 1890. 

Chinessa pusilla sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotype d, Iron Range, Cape York Pen., N. 
Qld.. 16-23.xi.l965, G. Monteith, QMTl 1658. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 12 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Iron Range, 
Cape York Peninsula, 16 19, 16-23.xi.l965, GEM. 
26 l,28.iv.-l.v.l968, GBM, 19,, GEM, 
Id, 27-30.iv.l973, GEM, in QM. (QM duplicates 
lodged in BMNH. ANIC, UQIC) (paratypes, 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 5.5-6.2mm long, lack- 
ing both anterior projections and submedian ele- 
vations on the pronotum. 
MALE. Head length 1.7-2.8 times width; 
postocular margins produced strongly backwards 
and deeply incised between projection and neck; 
anienniferous tubercles divergent, rather blunt, 
reaching basal third of second antennal segment. 
Rostrum slightly longer than rostral groove. An- 
tennae 1.35-1.45 times head length; segments I 
and II subequal, shortest; segment in longest. 

Pronotum width 2.3-2.4 times median length; 
anterolateral angles rounded, projecting slightly 
forward; collar distinct but narrow; submedian 
area of fore lobe consisting of a slightly raised 
glabrous callus on each side of median groove; 
sublateral areas swollen but not forming tuber- 
cles; posterior lobe of pronotum granulate, de- 
pressed on each side of midline. Scutellum with 

width 1,3-1.4 times length; basal angles with a 
small tooth on each side projecting over base of 
pronotum; lateral margins bordered except at 
apex; disc rugose-punctate, with median ridge 
obsolete. Hemelytra reaching to a little beyond 
hind margin of Tg VI; coria with apices straight, 
reaching just beyond hind margin of Cx II; mem- 
branes dark, veined. 

Abdomen with margins of Cx II-V straight; 
margin of Cx VI slightly protuberant at hind 
angles; margin of segment VII with apices of 
angulations blunt and shorter than apex of 
paratergites of VIII; surface of dorsal Cx plates 
uniformly punctate; Cx n and HI fused. Spiracles 
of segments 11- VI ventral, those of Vn sublateral. 
Suture between St VI and VII curved posteriorly 
in middle and angled backwards at sides; St VD 
with a raised, smooth callus defined by a short 
ridge on each side of middle immediately behind 
fore margin. Parameres as in Fig. 24M. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: abdomen much 
broader; hemelytra reaching to hind margin of Tg 
VI; St VII without calli. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 2d and 2$. L: 5.50, 5.50- 
5.67, 6.17; W: 2.36, 2.40-2.42, 2.88-2.90; HL: 1.22, 
1.20-1.22, 1.32-1.36; HW: 0.98, 1.00-1.(M, 1.06- 
L08; PL: 0.84, 0.86-0.88, 0.96-0.98; PW: 1.96, 
2.08, 2.24-2.26; AS: I, 0.40, 0.40-0.42, 0.44-0.46; 
K, 0.38, 0.40, 0.42; ffl, 0.48, 0.50, 0.52-0.56; FV, 
0.42, 0.42-0.44, 0.46-0.48; SL: 0.92, 0.92-0.94, 
1.06-1.10; SW: 1.24, 1.30-1.32, 1.40; WL: 2.84, 
2.90-2.92, 3.32-3.33; corium length: 1.20, 1.30- 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 25). Lowland rainforest at 
Iron Range, northern Cape York Peninsula. 

REMARKS. This is one of the smallest species 
in the genus and is related to the New Guinea 
species, C modesta Kormilev (1971), which was 
described from a unique 9 from Maprik on the 
northern side of the island. Chinessa pusilla dif- 
fers from modesta by its flat pronotal tubercles 
and its longer genal processes. I have before me 
a series of an undescribed species, also related to 
modesta, from Kerevat on New Britain so this 
element of Chinessa is one which has crossed sea 
barriers from New Guinea on at least 2 occasions. 







FIG. 24. Chinessa and Usingerida spp.; A, C. iniqua 9; B, C pw5/7/a S;C,C. bispiniceps 6\ D-J, abdominal 
apices, dorsal (d) and ventral (v); D, C. pusUla 6 v; E, C. pM5/7/ti 9 d; F, C bispiniceps S v; G-I, C claudiae; 
G, c? d; H, 9 d; I, d v; J, C m/^wcj c? d; K-L, spermathecae; K, C. claudiae; L, C. bispiniceps; M-O, parameres; 
M. C. pws/7/a; N, C. claudiae; O, C. bispiniceps; P-S. Usingerida roberti; P, d ventral apex; Q, 9 ventral apex; 
R, spermalheca; S, paramere. 



Chinessainiqua Kormilev, 1971 

Chinessa iniqua Kormilev, 1971: 129 (descr.; figs; 
incl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 125 

TYPE Holotype S. W New Guinea. Bodem, lOOm. 
I ! km SEOerherfaren, 1- I7.vii. L959,T.C.Maa. BPBM 
9081- Not examined. 

QUEENSLAND: West Claudie R.. Iron Range, 
rainfoa^st. 50m, 6J 79. 3-10.\ii.l985, GEM & DJC. 
PAPUANEWGUFNEAiBasuR. 50m, 1$ .14.1.1965. 
J.Sedlacek, det. hy Kormilev tn 1972 as Chinessa 
iniqua. In QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, 

IMENS Range of IS and 2 5 paratypes. L: 6.92- 
7.08. 7.08-7.91; W: 3.00, 3.25-3.70; HL: 
L35-i.41. 1 50-1.56; HW: 1.20-1.25. i.32-1.30: 
PL: 1.09-1.15. L09-L19; PW: 2.50-2.66. 2.50- 
2.75; AS: I, 0.48-0.52. 0.48-0.56; H. 0.42-0.44. 
0.44-0.50; III. 0.54, 0.56-0.60; IV, 0.50-0.52. 
0.52-0.56; SL: 1.19-1.25. L]2-1,4I. SW: 1.60- 
1.66. 1.56-1.75; WX: 3.65-3.75, 3.70-4.25; co- 
rium length: 1.65-1.75, 1.60-1.75. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 25). Iron Range in Cape 
Vork Penin.sula, on underside of fallen, dead 
wood on the ground in rainforest. 

REMARKS. This species fits Kormilev' s descrip- 
tion well and agrees with the New Guinea 9 cited 
above. Kormilev erected two subspecies, one from 
Inan Jaya (C iniqua iniqua ) and one from Ceram 
in the Moluccas (C iniqua ceramensis) based on 
a single 2 which differed in slight details. Until 
the complex New Guinea fauna is reviewed there 
is little point in attempting to assign the Austra- 
lian population to a subspecific category. 

In New Guinea this is a lowland species and its 
presence on Ceram shows its propensity for wider 
dispersal, as with C. hispiniceps (see above). 
Thus it is not surprising that it is also one of the 
species which has established in Cape Vork Pen- 
insula. It has been taken there on only one occa- 
sion, mixed with a large aggregation of C 

Clavicomia Kormilev, 1960 

Clavicornia Kormilev. 1960: 167 (descr.); Kormilev, 
1971: 9 (incl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschner, 
1987: 128 (catalogue of spp.l 


* C tfispinlceps 
o C. claudiae 
£ C. pusilla 

• C. iniqua 


♦ C. usingeri 


FIG. 25. Records for species of Chinessa 
Clavicornia in northern Queensland. 


TYPE SPECIES Clavicornia usingeri Kormilev, 
1960. by original designation. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 8E). The two described 
species occur in New Guinea, New Britain, north 
Queensland and India but unidentified specimens 
are known Irom Sarawak (Borneo) and the Malay 
Peninsula (QM). 

DIAGNOSIS. Very small, macropterous: head 
wider than long; postocular margins of head not 
angulate or tuberculate; eyes large, sessile; an- 
tenniferous tubercles absent; clypeus short, with- 
out genal processes Rostral atrium closed and 
sht-like. Ajitennae thick with basal segments al- 
most approximated; segment IV without petiolate 
base, swollen and apicaliy subtruncate. 

Pronotum with anterior lobe much narrower than 
hind lobe; anterolateral angles of fore lobe 
truncately angulate; submedtan areas of disc of 
fore lobe Hat and depressed; sublateral areas each 
with a rugose longitudinal ridge which runs pos- 
teriorly on to the hind lobe and terminates at an 
irregular transverse ridge which crosses the mid- 
dle of the hind lobe. Scutellum with a lateral tooth 
on each side pa>jecling forward over hind lobe of 
pronoTum; its centre elevated into a triradiate 
ridge Hemelytra with coria long, reaching well 
beyond apex of scutellum: membranes larger. 
veinless, covering all of tergal disc inside the 
connexiva. Connexiva 11 and III fused. 



Meso- and niet^tema wide, fused wiih abdom- 
inal sternum II into a large smooth plate; slema 
m, rV and V each with a broad, transverse de- 
pression across anterior half Spiracles of II ab- 
sent, spiracles of ni-VI close to ventral margin 
atvd sometimes visible from above. Fore tibial 
combs long and upright. 

REM>VRKS. This genus of very small mezinnes 
is related lo Chiasioplonia, Acoryphocoris and 
Aphelocons, all of which share us small size and 
reduction of clypeal region of head so that the 
bases of the antennae become approximated. 
Cluvnornia differs from all of them in loss of 
spiracles of the second abdominal segment and in 
the distinctive pattern of two longitudinal ridges 
on the pronotum. 

There is liiUe variation in the specimens before 
me from SE Asia through to Australia and the 
genus may be represented by a single slock' 
which has invaded the Indo-Pacific archipelago 
from mainland Asia. Kirirshenkiessa Kormilev. 
197 1 from a unique 6 from south India, seems to 
be an apterous derivative of Claxicornia 1 have 
collected 2 further probable species of 
Kirirshenkiessa from the Malay Peninsula. Ap- 
terous Smetanacoris Heis^, 1989 from Sabah, 
also appears to be a derivative of the Claxicornia 
line. All these tiny species agree with Clavkomia 
in head and pronotal structure and share its dis- 
tinctive thoracic sterna. These various flightless 
relatives in SE .-Vsia but not in New Guinea can 
be interpreted as evidence of recent migration 
into the eastern part of its range The only species 
recorded from Australia is the type. 

ClavioorDia usingeri Konnilev, i%0 

Clavicornia usingeri Konnilev, I960; 169 (de&cr); 
Komiilev, 1967a: 75 (dcscr. of subspp.); Komiilev 
& Froeschner, 1987: 128 Oisied). 

TYPE. Holoiype 6. Erima, Asirotabe Bay. New 
Guinea, 1896, Biro, in HNHM. Nol examined. 

REMARKS. This species has not been reported 
in the literature from New Guinea since it was 
descnbed but I have new material from Pop- 
ondetta on the mainland and from Kerevat. New 
Britain, the latter being the first record from the 
Bismarck Archipelago. Kormilev (I967d.), in re- 
cording the species from two localities in Aus- 
tralia, erected a new subspecies to contain those 
populations as follows. 

Clavicornia usLageri granulata Kormiky. 

1967 (Fig. 27 A- B) 

Ciavlcomia usingeri gramtiaia KomiileV, I967d; 75 
idescr.); Komiilev & Froeschner. 1 987: 129 { listed). 

TYPE. Holotype d. Iron Range. Cape York Peninsula, 
1 6-23 xi. 1965, G. Momcith, QMT6566. Exumincd. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 57 speci- 
mens: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Iron Range, Cape 
York Penin.sula, allotype 6, paralype S, 16- 
2.Vxi 1965. GBM. 4d 99. 28.iv-4.v.l968. GBM. in 
QM. lo.ANICBerlesaleNo. 313. 14 viJ971,Tavlor 

6 Feehan; Claudic R. , Iron Range. 1 J , 1 "^-ZS-vi i. 1 97S. 
J F.Lawrence^ in ANIC; West Claudie R., Imn Range. 
16 l9,3-l0.xu.l985.GBM&DJC:ShiptonsRat.v!a 
Helenvale. ^S 29, GBM <fe DJC, in 
QM, Moses Ck, 4km NE Ml Finnigan, 1 >5. 14- 
16.X.1980. TAW, in ANIC: Big Tableland, 740m. 1 3 , 
niuhi intercept trap. 20.xii.l990-8j,199l. ANZSES; 
Crystal Cascades. 1 d 29 paratype&.29 xi.l965,GBM, 
Zd 2^, 8.vii3.1968, GBM; UpperMulgrave River. 1 ? 
paratype l-3.xii.1965. GBM, 4d. 26-27.xii.1967. 
GBM. WaiUman Falls, via lngham,2d 49, I X,I980. 
GBM: Broadwater Park. 35 km NW Ingham, 50m, 5S 

7 9 , 16.xii. 1986, GBM, GIT & SH. in QM. (QM du- 
plicates lodged m BMNH. MDPI, UQIC. SAM, EH). 
(QM paratypes: QMT 1 5 1 1 8- 1 5 1 20. QMT29W)3-604). 

DESCRIPTION. Very small, macroplerous. 
2.75-3.25mm long, with closed rosu*al auium, 2 
longitudinal ridges on pronotum. Pale reddish 

MALE. Head width 1.2-1.35 times length; eye 
large, not exserted; rostral groove partly closed 
posteriorly. Antennae 1 .8-2.0 limes head length; 
all segments very stout, particularly the ilrst and 
fourth; segments I, III and IV with length sub- 
equal, longer tlian that of segment II. 

Pronotum width about I -6iimes median length; 
anterior lobe with collar wide and separated from 
disc by furrows which coalesce to give a median 
furrow; anterolateral angles produced as short 
obliquely truncate flanges. Scutellum with width 
1.3-1.5 limes length; basal half with a transverse 
elevation; distal half with a median ridge. 
Hemelytra reaching to apical half of tcrgum VII: 
coria with 2 prominent longitudinal veitts need- 
ing distally. 

Margins of connexiva II- V straight, posterior an- 
gles of connexiva VI protruding; margins of con- 
ncxiva VII angulale. Paraiergilesof Vlllclavaie* 
longer than apex of small pygophore. Spiracles 
of segments IH-VII situated close to lateral mar- 
gin, those of V clearly visible from above. Ster- 
num Vn strongly convex beneath the pygophore. 



FEMALE. As for 6 except: divided halves of 
sternum VII strongly convex; paratergites of VIII 
long, cylindrical. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 9 first, then 
ranges of additional 2c? and 2$. L: 3.16, 2.75- 
3.16, 3.00-3.25; W: 1.22, 1.04-L20, 1.14-L26; 
HL: 0.40, 0.42-0.44, 0.40-0.44; HW: 0.50, 0.48- 
0.52, 0.52-0.54; PL: 0.70, 0.64-0.68, 0.68-0.72; 
PW: 1.14, 1.02-1.12, 1.08-1. 14; AS:1, 0.22, 0.20- 
0.22, 0.22; II, 0.14, 0.14, 0.14-0.16; EI, 0.24, 
0.22, 0.22; IV, 0.22, 0.22, 0.22; SL: 0.44, 0.36- 
0.46, 0.40; SW: 0.64, 0.52-0.60, 0.60-0.64; WL: 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 25). On the underside of 
old logs in rainforest at Iron Range, Cape York 
Peninsula and in the main north Queensland 
rainforest system between Cooktown and the 
Herbert River valley, 

REMARKS. Kormilev separated the Australian 
forms as a separate subspecies on the basis of 
several minor features including granulation of 
the hind lobe of pronotum, colour and absence of 
a small metapleural tubercle. These features vary 
among the Australian and New Guinea represen- 
tatives I have seen and it will probably prove 
difficult to sustain a viable subspecific nomencla- 
ture. I retain Kormilev's name intact. The only 
other described species C. subparallela Heiss, 
1982a, from India. 

Chiastoplonia China, 1930 

Chiastoplonia Chma, 1930: 104 (descr.); Matsuda & 
Usinger, 1957: 167-8 (descr.; incl. in key; key to 
spp.); Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 198,293 (descr.; 
incl. in key): Kormilev, 1971: 9, 137 (incl. in key); 
Kormilev, 1978: 245 (key to spp.); Kormilev & 
Froeschner. 1987: 123 (list of spp.) 

TYPE SPECIES. Chiastoplonia pygmaea China, 1930 
by original designation. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig 9A). 18 species range 
from Ceylon and south China across the Indo-Pa- 
cific Archipelago to Micronesia, Samoa and E 

REMARKS. This genus comprises a group of 
macropterous species among which arc some of 
the smallest Aradidae known. It is very closely 
related to Acoryphocoris Usinger & Matsuda, 
and, as more species are described in each genus, 
the distinction between the two is becoming so 

ill-defined that it will probably become necessary 
to eventually sink Acoryphocoris under 
Chiastoplonia. When Usinger & Matsuda pro- 
posed Acoryphocoris they separated it from 
Chiastoplonia principally by its closed rostral 
atrium. Some Acoryphocoris species described 
by Kormilev (1971) have the atrium partly open 
and he pointed to the elongate coria as being the 
principal difference shown by Acoryphocoris. 
But even this feature varies within otherwise 
homogeneous groups of species. 

The single species previously recorded from 
Australia, C. minuta Kormilev, was only known 
to occur in southern Queensland and was appar- 
ently geographically remote from its nearest con- 
geners in New Guinea. The 4 additional species 
recorded here from intervening areas and the 
extension of the range of C. minuta to north 
Queensland show that the genus is distributed 
along almost the whole of the eastern Australian 
seaboard. Four of the five known Australian spe- 
cies are sympatric at Iron Range in Cape York 
Peninsula. While it is possible that some of these 
species may prove to be shared with New Guinea 
when that fauna is better collected, at present 
there is no evidence that this is so. 

Chiastoplonia species are very difficult to hand 
collect in the field because of their small size and 
the fact that they often coat themselves with 
debris. However they occur in large colonies in 
crevices of rough bark on large dead trees and 
logs and may be obtained by spraying with pyre- 


1 . Coria with a prominent longitudinal vein con- 
vexly raised above the corial surface; head and 
prothorax with many erect hairs, often forming 
linear patterns; hind lobe of pronotum usually 
with a prominent transverse crest of erect hairs; 
antero-lateral angles of pronotum with flattened 

flanges projecting vertically 2 

Coria without a prominent convex vein; head and 
prothorax virtually glabrous; pronotal hind lobe 
without a transverse crest of hairs; antero-lateral 
angles of pronotum without vertically projecting 
flanges 3 

2(1). Anteriordeclivity of pronotal hind lobe with a 
median tubercle about as high as transverse 
crest; margins of connexiva VII in female form- 
ing an acute angle bamaga sp. nov. 

Anterior declivity of pronotal hind lobe without a 
conspicuous median tubercle; margins of con- 
nexiva Vll in female forming an obtuse angle 
minuta Kormilev 



3(1). Third antennal segment more than twice length 
of second; connexiva bicoloured; antero-lateral 
angles of pronotum with prominent, horizontal, 

flattened lobes thoracica sp.nov. 

Third antennal segment less than twice length of 
second; connexiva concolorous; antero-lateral 
angles of pronotum without flattened lobes . . 4 

4(3). Antennal segments 2, 3 and 4 subequal in 
length; pronotum with lateral margins of both 
fore and hind lobes rounded . . pygmaea China 
Antennal segment 3 much longer than 2 or 4; pro- 
notum with lateral margins of both fore and hind 
lobes angulate granulata sp.nov. 

ChiastoploniaminutaKormilev, 1965 

Chiastoplonia minuta Kormilev, 1965a: 30 (descr.); 
Kormilev, 1965b: 5 (misident. of Chiastplonia 
granulata sp. n.); Kumar, 1967 (internal anatomy); 
Kormilev, 1978: 246 (incl. in key); Kormilev & 
Froeschner. 1987: 123 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype S QMT6330. Bunya Mts,Qld., 2- 
4.V.I964, G. Monteith, in QM. Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 128 speci- 
mens: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Mt Halcyon; Wind- 
sor Tbld, 1050m; Black Mtn, 4.5km N Mt Spurgeon; 
Mt Lewis Rd, 950m; Black Mtn, via Julatten, 800- 
lOOOm; Mt Formartine Slh, 700m; Douglas Ck, Lamb 
Range, 900m; Curtain Fig CSIRO Tower; Lake Barr- 
ine, 750m; Lake Eacham, 750m; DanbuUa SF, in QM; 
Gadgarra Road, 700m; Peeramon Scrub, 750m; 3km 
WBonesKnob, 1 100m; Crater NP,950m;BameFrere, 
west side, 700m; PEI Road, Topaz, 580m; Wongabel 
SF, 800m; Mt Father Clancy, 950m; 1.5km N Upper 
Tully R Xing. 750m; Kirrama Range; Ml Hosie. 930m; 
East Funnel Ck, in QM. SOUTHERN QUEENS- 
LAND: Conondale Range; Mary Caimcross Park, 
Maleny; Mt Glorious; Bunya Mis; Lamingion NP, in 
QM; Joalah NP, Tamborine Ml., in ANIC. NEW 
SOUTH WALES: Tooloom Scrub, via Urbenville, in 
QM; Minnamurra Falls, via Kiama; Mt Keira Seoul 
Camp, 320m, in ANIC. (QM duplicates lodged in 
BMNH, DJ, SAM, EH, UQIC). (paratypes: 
QMT296 19-29623). 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 2.8-3.25mm long with 
erect selae on head, prothorax and scutellum, 
with connexiva VII of ? obtusely angled. Red- 
dish brown; connexiva pale with a dark blotch at 
each intersegmental suture from III to VII. 
MALE. Head width 1.15-1.25 times length; its 
dorsum with rows of setae as follows: V-shaped 
row on centre of vertex, longitudinal row on each 
side running from inner margin of eyes to poste- 
rior margin of head; postocular margins slightly 

convex and bearing setal tufts; anienniferous tu- 
bercles flattened, angular, reaching basal two 
fifths of antennal segment L Rostral atrium 
broadly open; rostral groove open posteriorly. 
Antennae 2.5-2.7 limes head length; segment III 
longest, a little more than twice length of II; 
segments I and IV subequal; segment I bent. 

Pronotum with width 2.1-2.4 times median 
length; anterior lobe narrowed, lateral margins 
each raised into a vertical, longitudinal ridge 
which runs posteriorly on to posterior lobe to 
become obsolete; anterior lobe with a median 
sulcus flanked by two low submedian elevations; 
hind lobe with a transverse row of of erect setae 
running across full width. Scutellum with raised, 
setose, median ridge; lateral margins carinate but 
carinae terminating before apex giving apex a 
notched appearance; basal angles each with a 
laterallyprojecting tooth; midline of base project- 
ing over pronotal margin. Hemelylra extending 
to middle of tergum VII; coria reduced but with 
a prominent convex vein near outer margin ex- 
tending beyond apex of scutellum; membranes 

Abdomen with connexival margins straight on 
Il-VI, weakly angulate on VII. Paratergites of VII 
short, clavate, with spiracles laterad of apices. 

Prostemum with median groove; meso- and 
metastema broadly depressed; abdominal sterna 
II- VI each with anterior half depressed and punc- 
tate; sternum VII convex below pygophore, the 
convexity bearing two minute shining tubercles. 
Spiracles of II-III lateral, those of IV sublateral, 
those of V-Vn ventral. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: paratergites of Vin 
divergent, connexiva VII obtusely angulate; ster- 
num Vn without convexity and tubercles. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 2$. L: 3.16, 2.80- 
3.00, 3.08-3.25; W: 1.20, 1.18-1.20, 1.42-1.50; 
HL: 0.38,0.38-0.42,0.42-0.44; HW: 0.42, 0.48- 
0.50, 0.52-0.54; PL: 0.54, 0.50-0.56, 0.54-0.56; 
PW: 1 . 1 4, 1 . 1 6, 1 .28- 1 .30; AS: 1, 0.24, 0.22-0.24, 
0.24-0.26; U, 0.18, 0,.178-0.18, 0.18-0.20; III, 
0.38, 0.38-0.40,0.38-0.40; IV, 0.24, 0.24-0.26, 
0.26; SL: 0.52, 0.44-0,46, 0.54-0.56; SW: 0.64, 
0.68-0.70, 0.72; WL: 1.80, 1.80-1.86,2.00-2.10; 
CL: 0.60, 0.60, 0.64-0.70. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 28). Mostly in mountain 
rainforests from S New South Wales to the Wei 
Tropics around Cairns. Kormilev (1965b) re- 
corded a 9 in NRS (Stockholm) from 'Jarrabah' 
(misspelling for the label locality of Yarrabah in 



north Queensland) as this species. This is an 
unrelated species described below as C. 
granulata sp. nov. 

ElEMARKS. Chiastoplonia minuta belongs to 
the group of species which approach the defini- 
tion of Acoryphocoris in some respects, espe- 
cially the produced outer vein of the corium. It is 
most closely related to the following species, C 
bamaga sp. nov. 

Chiastoplonia bamaga sp. nov. 

(Fig. 27D) 

TYPE. Holotype 9 QMTl 1659, Bamaga, Cape York, 
N. Qld.. 1969, G.B. Monteith, in QM. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 76 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: 3km E of 
Lockerbie, Cape York, 1 9,30.i-4.ii.l975.GBM; West 
Claudie R, Iron Range, 32 d 289, 3-10.xii.1985, 
GBM,DJC; Packers Ck, nr Portland Roads, 2d 1 9, 
6.xii. 1 985, GBM,DJC, in QM; 9km ENE Mt Tozer, 8 6 
49, 5-10.vii.1986, TAW, AC, in ANIC. (QM dupli- 
cates lodged in BMNH, DJ, SAM, EH, NMNH, 
HNHM, MNHG, UQIC). (paratypes: QMT29624- 

DESCRIPTION (Fig. 28). Small, 3.5-3.9mm 
long, with setae on head, thorax and scutellum, 
with Cx VII of 9 acutely angled. Colour reddish 
brown; connexiva with slightly contrasting dark 
blotches on intersegmental sutures. 

This species is closely related to C minuta and 
the following description is confined to differ- 
ences from that species. 

Pronotum with lateral carinae of fore lobe 
higher; anterior declivity of hind lobe with a 
median, somewhat transverse, tubercle as high as 
crest of hind lobe; pronotum a little longer with 
width only 2.0-2.1 times median length. 
Posterolateral angles of connexiva II- VI protrud- 
ing; margin of connexiva VII projecting and 
acutely angled. Hemelytra with several veins ev- 
ident on the membrane. Connexiva less strongly 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 2 first, then 
paratype ?. L: 3.50, 3.92; W: 1.58, 1.40; HL: 
0.42, 0.44; HW: 0.56, 0.54; PL: 0.64, 0.60; PW: 
1.30, 1.26; AS: I, 0.26, 0.28, II, 0.20, 0.22, III, 
0.44, 0.48, IV. 0.24; SL: 0.48, 0.52; SW: 0.76, 
0.72; WL: 2.20, 2.10; CL: 0.76, 0.66. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 28). Isolated rainforests 
of Cape York Peninsula. 

Chiastoplonia granulata sp. nov. 
(Figs 26, 27F) 

Chiastoplonia minuta: Kormilev, 1965b (misidenl.) 

TYPE. Holotype 6 QMTl 1 660, Cooper Creek, 18 mi. 
N of Daintree River, N.Qld., 21-22.V.1969, GBM. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 20 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: 9km ENE Mt 

Tozer,2c? 1 9, ANICBerI.1058,5-10.vii.l986,TAW, 
AC, in ANIC; Iron Range, Cape York Peninsula, I 9,, GBM; West Claudie R., 1 9, pyrethrum, 
3-10.xii.1985, GBM, DJC; Shiptons Flat, 280m, Id, 
flight intercept trap, 6.xii.l990-19.i.l991, Qld Mus & 
ANZSES; Cooper Creek, 1 8 mi. N Daintee River, 1 6 
3 9,, GBM, in QM; Yarrabah, 19, 
Mjoberg, in NRS; Wallaman Falls, via Ingham, bS 
39, 7.viii.I968, GBM, in QM. (paratypes: 
QMT14I34-14147, QMT29609-29610). 

DESCRIPTION. Small, glabrous, 2.9-3.2mm 
long, with granular hind pronotal lobe and re- 
duced lateral rims of fore pronotal lobe. Colour 
uniformly reddish brown. 
MALE. Head width across eyes usually a little 
greater than median length, its surface granular 
and glabrous; poslocular tubercles slightly devel- 
oped, reaching almost to outer profile of eyes; 
antenniferous tubercles short, angulate but 
bluntly so; clypeus short and narrowly pointed. 
Rostral atrium broadly open; rostral groove par- 
tially closed behind. Antennae with length 2.35- 
2.65 times head length; segment III longest, about 
1 .5 limes length of II; segment I and IV subequal. 

Pronotum width 2.0-2.1 times median length; 
surface glabrous, with anterior declivity of hind 
lobe coarsely granular and swollen in the middle; 
anterior lobe with a median sulcus flanked by low 
submedian elevations; lateral margins of fore 
lobe carinate and developed into a projection at 
half length. Scutellum glabrous, its centre with a 
distinct cross-shaped pattern of ridges; lateral 
margins carinate, with carinae terminating before 
apex; basal margin with sublateral teeth project- 
ing over base of pronotum. Hemelytra reaching 
hind margin of tergum VII; coria very reduced, 
shorter than scutellum and without veins; mem- 
branes without veins. 

Abdominal connexiva concolorous; postero- 
lateral angles of connexiva III-VI slightly pro- 
truding; margins of connexiva VII strongly 
angulate; paratergites of VIII cylindrical, longer 
than pygophore and with spiracles apical. 

Prostemum longitudinally grooved; meso- and 
metastema depressed medially; sterna III-VI with 
basal portion coarsely punctate and with an apical 



Strip raised and smooth, smooth areas becoming 
progressively smaller towards posterior; sternum 
VII entirely punctate, swollen below pygophore 
but without tubercles. Spiracles of II and III lat- 
eral, those of rv sublateral, those of V-Vn ventral. 
FEMALE. As ford. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 2?. L: 2.92, 3.00, 
3.08-3.16; W: 1.20. 1.20-1.22, 1.34-1.40; HL: 0.44, 
0.40-0.42, 0.42-0.48; HW: 0.44, 0.46, 0.48-0.50; 
PL: 0.52, 0.54, 0.56-0.58; PW: 1.12, 1.10-1.12, 
1.16-1 .22; AS: 1, 0.26, 0.24,0.28-0,30; n, 0.20, 0.20, 
0.22-0.24; m, 0.34, 0.34, 0.36-0.40; IV 0.24, 0.24- 
0.26, 0.24-0.26;. SL: 0.40, 0.40-0.42, 0.42-0.44; 
SW: 0.62, 0.62-0.64, 0.64-0.66; WL: L80, 1.86- 
1 .88, 1 .90-2.08; CL: 0.34, 0.32-0.34, 0.30-0.32. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 28). Rainforest princi- 
pally from lowlands from Iron Range in Cape 
York Peninsula south to near Ingham in N 

REMARKS. The specimen recorded from 
Yarrabah by Kormilev (1965b) under the name 
C. minuta belongs here. 

Chiastoplonia thoracica sp. nov. 
(Fig. 27C,H) 

TYPE. Holotype 6 QMT11661, Iron Range, Cape 
York Peninsula, N Qld, 5- 10. v. 1968, G. Monteith. 

MATERL\L EXAMINED. Holotype and 8 paratypes: 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: Iron Range, Cape York 
Peninsula, Id 29, 28.iv-4.v.l968, GBM, Id, 5- 
3-10.xii.1985, GBM, DJC, in QM. (QM duplicate 
lodged in EH), (paratypes: QMT29611-296I7). 

DESCRIPTION. Small, glabrous, 3.0-3.4mm 
long, W\i\\ bicoloured connexiva and prominent, 
forwardly directed pronotal lobes. 
MALE. Head width about 1.1 times length, its 
dorsum with a few adpressed setae; postocular 
processes developed as narrow lobes reaching to 
outer profile of eyes; antenniferous tubercles flat- 
tened, with sharply angulate outer margins; clyp- 
eus short narrow. Rostral atrium closed; rostral 
groove partially closed behind. Antennae long, 
2.5-2.8 times head length; segment III very long, 
2.4-2.8 times length of segmet II; segments I and 
IV subequal. 

Pronotum width slightly greater than twice me- 
dian length; anterior lobe with prominently flat- 
tened anterolateral angles which extend forward 

as rounded lobes beyond level of collar and have 
an angulate lateral projection at half length of 
anterior lobe; posterior pronotal lobe with ves- 
tiges of a transverse ridge present on each side of 
middle; anterior declivity fmely granulate, with a 
convexity at middle. Scutellum with a median 
ridge for full length, its disc coarsely wrinkled on 
each side of ridge; lateral margins carinate except 
at apex; basal margin with a pair of indistinct 
sublateral teeth projecting forward over pronotal 
margin. Hemelytra reaching to hind margin of 
tergum VII; coria extending slightly beyond apex 
of scutellum, lacking distinct veins; membranes 
with a few veins evident. 

Abdominal connexiva pale with dark blotches 
along intersegmental sutures between segments 
III- VI; margins of Cx II-IV straight, posterolate- 
ral angles of V and VI projecting, margin of VII 
strongly and acutely angled; paralergiles of VIII 
short, cylindrical, with spiracles terminal. 

Presternum longitudinally grooved; meso- and 
metastema depressed in middle; sterna III- VI 
punctate except for a posterior transverse smooth 
band on each segment; sternum VH punctate, 
slightly convex below pygophore. Spiracles of 
segment II-IV lateral, those of V-VII sublateral. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: apices of hemelytra 
reaching to half length of tergum VII. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 2<? and 1 ?. L: 3.42, 3.08- 
3.33, 3.42; W: 1.44, L28-1.30, 1.40; HL: 0.48. 
0.44-0.48, 0.50; HW: 0.54, 0.50-0.52, 0.52; PL: 
0.60, 0.56-0.58, 0.62; PW: L28, L14-1.20, 1.26; 
AS: I, 0.30,0.26-0.30, 0.30; II, 0.20, 0.18-0.20, 
0.18; III, 0.56, 0.48-0.50, 0.50; IV, 0.28, 0.26- 
0.28, 0.26;. SL: 0.50, 0.44-0.48, 0.46; SW: 0.76, 
0.66, 0.68; WL: 2.20, 2.00-2.10, 2.20; CW: 0.60, 
0.56-0.60, 0.62. 

DISTRIBUTION. Iron Range in lowland rainforest. 

REMARKS. A series of 3 cj and 3 9 in QM from 
New Guinea (Wau, Morobe District, 3-4.ii.l966, 
GBM) runs to C thoracica in the key presented 
here but differs in smaller size, more prominent 
connexival angles and smaller projections on 
CxVII. The only described species from New 
Guinea is C lobata Kormilev, 1971, but this 
species differs markedly from C. thoracica in 
shape of the pronotal margins. 



RG 26. Dorsal view of 6 Chiaswplonia granulata, 

Chiastoploniapygmaea China, 1930 

Chiastopioma pygmaea China, 1930: 2 (descr., fig); 
Esaki & Maisuda, 1937: 80 (Micronesia record); 
Usinger & Malsuda, 1959: 294 (listed); Konnilev, 
1978 245 tinci in key); Kormiiev & Froeschner 
1987- 123 (listed). 

LAND: West Claudie R., iron Range. 1 1^. pyrethnim 
kmx'kdown, 3-IO-xii.l985. GBM.PJC. in QM. MI- 
CRONESIA: Pelelieu I., Palau Islands, Id 1?. 
25.1.1948, H.S. Dybas, in QM. 

MEASUREMENTS. Iron Range 6 : L: 2.42 W 
0.98 HL: 0.31 HW: 0.40 PL: 0.43 PW: 0.88 AS 
L 0,21 II. 0.16 m, 0.24 IV. 0.21 SL: 0.36 SW 
0.43 WL: l.e»2CL:0-45. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig 28). Described froin 
Samoa and recorded from the Marshall Islands 
(Esaki & Malsuda, 1957). Also from Palau. Iron 
Range in central Cape York Peninsula. 

REMARKS. This minute species is recorded 
from Australia on the hasis of a single specimen 
taken by pyrethrum knockdown o{ dead logs in 
lowland rainforest at Iron Range. Us presence in 
Australia, so far from the type locality in Samoa, 
would be more surprising except for the fact that 
other records on remote island groups in the Pse 
cific indicate that the species has high dispersal 
ability The Iron Range specimen runs to C. 
pygmaea in Kormiiev' s (1978) key and agrees 
well with specimens determined as C. pygmaea 
from Palau by Kormiiev. 

It is a plain, unicoloured. minute, glabrous spe- 
cies which differs from others in Australia by its 
unllanged thorax and its short, stout antennae. 

Cory nophloeobia gen. no v. 

DESCRIPTION. Small, macropierous. Head 
about as long as wide; clypeus and gcnac greatly 
reduced, reaching to about 1/3 length of first 
antcnnal segment; antenniferous tubercles barely 
differentiated as rounded lobes; postocular tuber- 
cles absent; vertex inflated on each side of de- 
pressed midline of rear half of head. Eyes very 
small, not exserted, deflected towards the ventral 
side oi the head. Rostral groove deep, bounded 
by raised cannae, open posteriorly; rostrum ariv 
ing from a slit-like aperture anteriorly, reaching 
posicnorly beyond the rosu-al groove on to the 
fore margin of the prostemum. Antennae long, 
twice head length, tiiick; last segment clavate; 
basal segments swollen, curved, subconiiguous 
in from of clypeus. 

Pronotum with fore lobe nanowed and wiih a 
disiinci U"ans verse furrow separating fore and 
hind lobes; collar not differentiated; fore lobe 
without suhlateral or submedian elevations, iis 
midline depressed. A weakly carinaie ridge runs 
from fore lobe to hind lobe on each side just mesal 
or lateral margins. Pronotum may be subject to 
sexual dimorphism with these ndges inierrupled 
and the hind lobe reduced in 6 ■ Margins of pro- 
notum without tubercles or cxplanatc projections. 

Wings fully developed, slightly shorter in i 
than $ ; corium short, reaching lo apex of scuicl- 
lum, without raised veins and with us apex 
squarely truncate; membranes large, smooth, 
veinless. Scutellum triangular, with an incipient 
median carina; its fore margin with 2 large lateral 
teeth and 1 small median toodi projecting forward 
and overlapping the hind pronoial margin. 
Melathoracic scent glands openings enlarged, 
elongate, running dorsoventraliy, wiih enlarged 
evaporative area outside aperture. 



FIG. 27. A-B, Clavicomia usingeri granulata; A, c?; B, 9 dorsal abdominal apex. C-I, Chiastoplonia spp; C, 
C. thoracica c5^; D, C. bamaga 9; E, C. minuta 6\ F-I, abdominal apices, dorsal (d) and ventral (v); F, C. 
granulata 9 , d; G, C. minuta d, v; H, C thoracica 9 , d; 1, C. minuta 9 , d. 



FIG. 28. Records for species of Chiastoplonia in 
eastern Australia. 

Abdomen with whole of tergal disc smooth, 
glabrous and concealed beneath the wings. Cx II 
and III separated by an evident suture; sides of 
abdomen smooth without projecting connexival 
margins. Spiracles of segment II on small tuber- 
cles at lateral body margin and visible in dorsal 
view; spiracles of segments III-VII ventral, dis- 
placed from lateral margin. Paratergites of VIII 
short, rounded, the spiracle situated just external 
to the apex. Abdominal sterna smooth, with nar- 
row transverse, depressed band running across 
anterior margin of St IV, V and VI; midlines of 
sterna not impressed; St VII of 6 not specialized. 

Legs very long, both femora and tibiae slender; 
tarsal claws with small pulvilli. 

TYPE SPECIES. Corynophloeobiadimorpha, sp. nov. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 8E). Monotypic, Austra- 
lian endemic, Sydney area of New South Wales. 

REMARKS. This genus is allied to a group of 
very small macropterous genera with tergal disc 
entirely concealed under the hemeiytra and with 

the spiracles of segment II present and lateral. 
This group comprises Dolichothyreus Usinger & 
Matsuda, Chiastoplonia China, Arbanatiis 
Kormilev, Aphelocoris Usinger & Matsuda and 
Acorypliocoris Usinger & Matsuda from the 
Indo-Pacific as well as Usingeria Schouteden 
from the Africa-Malagasy region. The integrity 
of some of these genera has been eroded by the 
assignment of various problematic species to 
them since they were initially defined in Usinger 
& Matsuda (1959). Within this group 
Corynophloeobia differs from Chiastoplonia by 
its closed rostral atrium, from Arbanatus by its 
reduced clypeus, and from Dolichothyreus, 
Acoryphocoris and Usingeria by its truncate, ab- 
breviated coria. It runs to Aphelocoris in the keys 
of both Kormilev ( 1 97 1 ) and Usinger & Matsuda 
(1959) and I believe hs nearest relationships do 
lie with that genus. However it differs from 
Aphelocoris by: its very different pronotum 
which lacks angular projections and has longitu- 
dinal ridges connecting fore and hind lobes; its 
simple connexival margins; its stouter antennae; 
and its lack of antenniferous tubercles. No species 
of true Aphelocoris occurs in tropical Australia 
adjacent to the known range of the genus in New 
Guinea and Indonesia, so this Australian form is 
considerably isolated geographically. The phe- 
nomenon of sexual dimorphism of thoracic struc- 
ture as described for the type species of 
Corynophloeobia is not known elsewhere in the 

Corynophloeobia dimorpha sp. nov. 
(Fig. 29A-B) 

TYPE. Holotype d: Australia:NSW. Blue Mts, 7- 
900m, Megalong V., 25.xii.1986, Burckhardt, 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 11 
paratypes: NEW SOUTH WALES: Megalong Valley, 
Blue Mts, 56 4 9, 25.xii.1986, Burckhardt, in QM & 
MNHG; Roseville, 1 9, 6.xii.l950, C.E. Chadwick, in 
BCRI; Greystanes, 1 9, 2.xii.l972, R. Whitehouse, in 
QM. (paratypes: QMT29606- 29608). 

DESCRIPTION (Fig. 33). Small, 2.9-3.5mni 
long, pale, brown, with long, thick antennae and 
sexually dimorphic thorax. 
MALE. Head almost circular in dorsal view, 
roundly inflated on each side of depressed mid- 
line of hind half of head; depressed midline with 
a narrow, elongate, polished, longitudinal callus. 
Antennae long, stout; segment II shortest; seg- 
ment I a little longer, thickened and curved down- 



wards; segments III and IV longest, subequal in 
length. Rostrum arising from a greatly swollen 
atrium area. 

Pronotum maximum width 1.7 times median 
length; fore lobe narrowed, its width about 0.75 
limes hind lobe width. Fore lobe with anterolat- 
eral angles roundly inflated; midline, depressed 
and with a median groove. 

Hind lobe of pronotum transverse, narrowed, 
its median half smooth and depressed, its sublate- 
ral areas slightly elevated, and its humeral angles 
not prominent. 

Scutellum triangular, its width about 1.3 times 
median length, its sides straight, its apex acute; 
foremargin with two prominent, dark, polished 
teeth which project forward over hind margin of 
pronotum; mid point of fore margin also roundly 
produced forward; disc of scutellum flat, irregu- 
larly and coarsely reticulate. Wings with apex of 
membranes reaching hind margin of Tg VI; sur- 
face of coria flat, undifferentiated into veins and 
slightly granular. 

Abdomen with external margins of connexiva 
straight, smooth and unspecialised. Spiracle of 
segment II inserted on a tubercle and prominently 
visible in dorsal view. Hind margin of segment 
VII excavated on midline to receive the recessed 
pygophore. Paratergites of segment VIII short, 
rounded, with spiracle situated on external edge 
of apex. Pygophore almost completely withdrawn 
into segment VII, its posterior apex flat, truncate. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: pronotum signifi- 
cantly better developed; forelobe with lateral margins 
each raised into a narrow, blunt ridge which runs 
posteriorly across the transverse furrow on to the 
hind lobe; hind lobe proportionately longer than 
in S, its central area not depressed, uniformly 
raised across full width. Scutellum with central 
disc slightly raised into an incipient median 
ridge. Wings reaching to almost hind margin of 
Tg VII. Paratergites of segment VIII bluntly ui- 

MEASUREMENTS. Hololype first, then range 
of 2c? and 29 paratypes. L: 3.00, 2.97-3.00. 
3.40-3.50; W: 1.10, 1.08-1.11, 1.25-1.31; HL: 
0.56, 0.50-0.54, 0.59; HW: 0.54, 0.50-0.52, 0.52- 
0.56; PL: 0.62, 0.57-0.58, 0.61-0.72; pronotal 
forelobe length: 0.31, 0.29, 0.29; pronotal 
hindlobe length: 0.3 1 , 0.29, 0.32-0.38; PW: 1 . 1 0, 
1.08-1.11, 1.25-1.31; pronotal forelobe width: 
0.83, 0.81, 0.81-0.86; AS: I, 0.23, 0.23-0.25, 
0.25-0.27; II, 0.21, 0.19-0.21, 0.21-0.23; m, 0.29, 
0.27-0.29, 0.31; IV, 0.29, 0.29, 0.31-0.32; SL: 
0.38, 0.38, 0.46; SW: 0.50, 0.48, 0.630.67; WL: 

1.71, 1.58-1.60, 2.19-2.25; corium length: 0.58, 

DISTRIBUTION. Three collections, 2 from the 
Sydney metropolitan area and the 3rd from the 
Blue Mountains, W of Sydney. 

REMARKS. Corynophloeobia dimorpha is a 
sclerophyll forest species associated with the 
Hawkesbury Sandstone which has numerous 
other plants and animals restricted to its habitats. 
The collector of the long series from the Mega- 
long Valley, Dr D. Burckhardt, of the Geneva 
Museum, informs me that they were taken from 
a litter sample. 

The curious sexual dimorphism of the prono- 
tum is constant in all specimens of both sexes. 
The reduction, in the cJ, of the hind lobe of the 
pronotum and of the scutellum are both features 
often associated with alary dimorphism in tropi- 
cal species. The wings are a little shorter in the S 
than in the 9 but it is not known if the male's 
flight ability is lost. 

Glochocoris Usinger & Matsuda, 1959 

Glochocoris Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 199, 302 
(descr., incl. in key); Kormilev, 1967d: 76 (key to 
spp); Kormilev, 1971: 9, 142 (inc. in key; n.sp.); 
Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 139 (catalogue of 
spp.; discussion of synonymy). 

Mezirella Kiritshenko, 1959: 166 (descr. as subgenus 
of Mezira); Kormilev, 1967a: 533 (synonymy with 

TYPE SPECIES. Pictinus crassicomis Matsuda & 
Usinger, 1957, by original designation. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 8F). The 27 known spe- 
cies range from the Seychelles, SE Asia and 
Japan through to Micronesia, New Guinea and 
Australia. Nine species have been described from 
New Guinea. 

REMARKS. The earliest described group of spe- 
cies now attributed to Glochocoris were origi- 
nally placed in Pictinus which was used by early 
authors for small, plain, winged mezirines. The 
artificial nature of Pictinus in this old sense was 
highlighted by the discovery of a femoro-stemal 
stridulatory mechanism in a small group of 
Neotropical species by Usinger (1954). The type 
species, P. cinctipes Stal, 1 873, was one of these 
stridulating forms so this provided the comer 
stone for a fragmentation of "Pictinus^ by Usinger 
& Matsuda (1959). They divided the Indo-Pacific 



C \^\JJ> 

FIG. 29. A-B, Corynophloeobia dimorpfm; A, 9; B. 6 head and prothorax. C-I, Ghchocoris. C, G. monteithi 
6 ; D, G. gipp.slandicus', E-G, lateral views; E. G. gippslandicus; F, G. monteithi] G. G. brisbanicua 6\ H-1, G. 
gippslandicus dorsal abdominal apices; H, d ; I 9 . 

species into Glochocoris and Pictinellus, which 
differed in the absence of spiracles on the second 
abdominal segment in Glochocoris. Pictinellus 
has now fallen in favour oi Arbanatus Konnilev. 
1955c, which was not available to Usinger & 

The two genera are widely distributed in the 
Indo-Pacific region but show a marked dissimi- 
larity in the distance lo which ihey have pene- 
trated into the Pacific, Whereas Ar/?anarw5 ranges 
from Asia to the most remote islands of southern 
Polynesia, Glochocoris, although it extends into 
Micronesia, does not penetrate past the Bismarck 

Archipelago in the S Pacific. The reason for this 
may be in differential vagility of the two genera. 
Glochocoris species, though small, have heavy 
cuticle and their litter dwelling habits give them 
a tendency lo coat themselves with soil which 
adds weight and impairs wing function. By con- 
trast Arbatianis species are sub-cortical in habits 
with light cuticle which does not gather a soil 
deposit. Both genera have several species in Aus- 
tralia \ho\\%h Arbatiatus is recorded there for the 
first time in this work. 

The species of Glochocoris are very uniform 
and specific characters are few. The 4 Australian 



species can be separulcti into 2 allofMlric pairs, 
the open forest brisbanicus-gippslandicus group 
and the rainforest monxeithi-abdominaiis group. 
The brhbanicus-gippslandicus pair are distin- 
guished by a remarkable evaporative area sur- 
rounding and occluding the opening to the 
meiapleural scent gland (Fig. 29E-G}. Such siruc- 
tnres have been overlooked and are unknown in 
overseas species. 


1 - Metapleural scent gland visible as an open, trian- 
giil^w iipcrture on the upper margin of the meta- 
pleuton; eyes well exposed in dorsal view ... 2 
Metapleural scent gland with distuici aperture not 
visible but occluded by an extensive develop- 
meni of vermiculaie evaporative surface on the 
upper half of mesa- and nictapleura; eyes almost 
conceaieJ in dorsal view .3 

2( I )- Posterior pair of the 4 tubercles on the fore 
lobe of the pronoium much larger than the ante- 
rior pair and distinctly sepaialely Irom ihem; 
connexival margins of abdomen straight 

monteithi Kotmilt'* 

Posterior pair of pronoiaJ mberctes about same 
si/e us anierior pair and scmi-fuscd with them; 
connexival margins o\' the abdomen sligluly con- 
cave giving abdomen a sinuate profile (north 
Queensland) nhdominalh KurmiJev 

1( I ). Evaporaiivc area of scent gland divided into 
many small portions, proiwtimi with all four tu- 
bercles of about same size 

- gipp.slamlicux^ sp. nov. 

Evaporative area of scent gland mcomplctcly di- 
vided into a few large pt^nions; pronotuni w itli 
anterior pair of tubercles almost obsolete 

hrishantctts KorniiJcv 

Glochocoris monteithi Komiilev, 
iFjg 29C,F) 


G lovfioc<?rtx mtmteithi Korm\\c\ . I967d: 76.77 (inch 
in key, dcscrj; Kormiles. ]967a:54l (locality re- 
cord): Konniiev & Frceschner, iV87: 140 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype 3 , Mt Glorious. SE Q!d. . 23.iv. 1 963, 
G. Monteiih, QMT656S. Examined, 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotvpe and 262 speci- 
SOUTH QUEENSLAND; Eraser Is. 3km N Lake 
Bowarrady; Amamnor SF; Cooran Tableland, 400m; 
Bunya Mountains; Mt Mcc SF: Mt Glonous. in QM; 
Boombana NP; Manofina NH. in ANIC; Bald Mtn, 
3-4,(K30'. via Emu Vale. Mi Superbus; 'The Head', via 
Killurncy; Lever's Plateau, via Rathdowney; 
Lamington NP; Joalah NP, Tambonnc, in ANIC; Mt 

Tamborine. in SAM; Springbrook. in QM. NEW 
SOUTH WALES: Brindle Creek, Wiangaree SF.. in 
ANIC; Tooloom Scrub, via Urbenville; Domgo NP. in 
QM; Point Lookout, via Ebor; Bruxner Park, via Coffj* 
Harbour, in ANIC: Carrai Plateau, via Kempsey, in 
QM; O'Sullivan Gap Reserve, Hkm NE Buladelah, 
50m. in ANIC: Barrington House, via Salisbury, in 
QM; Lagoon Pinch, Barrington Tops; Ml Allyn, in 
ANIC; Megalong Valley. Blue Mts. 7-900m. in 
MNHG; Mimiamurra Falls; Kiola Forest P;irk, 15km 
N Bateraan's Bay; Batemans Bay; Cambewarra 
Uriarra-Picadilly Circus. 800m; PicadiHy Circus, 800m, 
in ANIC. (QM duplicates lodged m BMNH, DJ,EH, 
HNHM, UQIC). (paratypes: QMT29500-29521). 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 30). Abundant in n^oisi 
forests of high and low altitudes of e-astt^m Aus- 
tralia from Mackay in central Queensland m ihe 
southern coast of N.S.W. and the A.CX. 

REMARXS . This species is generally con fined to 
true rainforests but is occasionally taken in moiil 
tree fern gullies and wet sclerophyll in the vicinity 
of f^ain forests. An exception is the i.soiatcd ptjpu- 
lation in the Brindabella Ranges of the A.C.T. 
where no rainforest occurs This population dif- 
fers from typical forms in having the scent glund 
opening with some vestiges of external evapora- 
tive area. It is regarded as arelict from limes when 
wet forests were more widespread and which has 
persisted in the moisiergulliesofthisinland range 

Glochocorts abdominal^ Kormilev. 1967 

Giochorom abtiominalis Kormilcv. •967d: 76,78 
(incl. In key. descr.); Kormllev & Frocschncr. J987: 

TYPE. Hulolvpe cf. Lake Eacham, N Qld., 13.xJi - 
!964,G. Monteith. QMT6569. Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 53 speci- 
mens: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Ml Boolbun South. 
950m, 2d^,5.xi. 1995, pyrcthrum,GBM,D.(C; Windsor 
Tableland, 1050m, 46 19. 25-26,iv,l982. OBM. 
DKY & GIT; 2km SE Mt Spurgeon. 1 lOOm. 2o 19. 
20.xii.l9SH. GBM vt GIT. in QM; Ml Lewis, 1010 m. 
ANICBcrl. 320Jc?.20.iv.t971. Taylor & Fcchan. in 
ANIC; Mt Lewis Rd, 39. 12.x. 1980. GBM; Ml Edith 
Rd. Lamb Ra., WOm. 29, 12.x. 1982, GBM. DKV Sa 
GIT. in QM: Tolga Scrub. \9, 18.ii.l984, I.D.Gallo- 
way. QDPl; Cratei NP. 950m, 2d 2?. pyreiluuui, 
2S.xii.l989; Gadgarra Road. 700m, 16. pya'thnim, 
9.xii.l989. GBM, GIT. HJ; Upper Plalh Rd, 1 HK)m, 
QM Ber! 908. 1 9, 8Ji.l996, GBM; Wongabcl SF. 5 
km S Atherton. I 9, 5.xii.l988. GBM & GIT; Lake 
Barrine. Icf, 3 l.vii. 1982, S&JP: Lake Eacham, V al- 
lotype. 4d 49 paratypes, 23.xii.l964,GBM; MtBarllc 



Frcre, W side. 7(W3m, I 5, 30.vii.82. S&JP; Bcllenden 
Kcf, Id,»i.l966. GBM; BeJlenden Ker. Cable 
Base Stn. iO()m, M, 25-31.x.]981, Eimhwatch/QM; 
Millaa Milloa Falls. Id. 23.iv.1968, GBXU iS \9 
paratypes. 4.xn. 1 965, GBM; Ml Father Clancy. 9kni S 
Millaa Millaa> 950m. \6. 6.xii. 19S8; Graham Range, 
55ora. 12, pyrethrum, l.xii.l995, GBM; Kirrama 
Range, 700m. 1 d 79. 2-3.X.1980. GBM; I9.4kni E 
Blencoe Falls tumoff. Kirrama Range, I if 19. 
8JX.I988. J. Stanisic & D. Potter, WaJIaman Falls, 
500m, 19, 1.X.1980. GBM- 1$, I4.xii. 1986, GBM, 
GIT & SH. in QM. (QM duplicalCN lodged m BMNH). 
Iparatypes: QMT15068- 15078). 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 30). Rainforests at high 
and low elevations in wet tropical Queensland 
helween the Bloomtleld and Herbert Rivers. 

REMARKS This species is tioseiy related to G. 
monreithi and replaces that widespread species in 
north Queensland. Glochocoris is not known 
trom the rainlbresis at Mt Elliot and the Paluma 
Range In the iniervening region between the 
ranges of G. monteithi and G. abdominalis. If 
intermediate forms are discovered there in future 
it may be necessary to review the specific status 
id G. ahdominalis. 

Glochocoris brtsbanicusKormilev, 1967 
(Fig. 29G; 

Gtocfjocorisbrisbanicus Kormilev. I967d: 76 (iitcl. in 
key: descr.); Kormilcv & Froeschner, 1987: 139 


TYPE. Hoioiypc 6: Brisbane, Qld.. 31.x. 1963. G. 
Momeith. QMT6567. Examined. 

M/VTERIAL EXAMINED- Holotvpe and 100 speci- 
Macartnev, Calhu SF, I 5. 2LivJ979, GBM; Panda- 
Rus Ck. Caihu SF. 80m, 56 42. 20.iv.l979. GBM: 
Bell's Gap. Sarina Range. 2c? I 9, 26.iv. 1979, GBM; 
Yeppoon, Dry RF. !i, 27.iv.1979, GBM, Nob Ck. 
Byflcld. 8.5 59. 27.iv.l979, GBM. in QM; Byfield, 
ANIC Berl. 538, 3d 2?, 26.x. 1976. Taylor & TAW, 
in ANiC; Ycppoon, 1 c? Iv paraiypes, 6.xii-1964. 
Yidnev Scrub, \6 2$.3-4.xii.l975,GIT& A.Slater, 
AAC, in ANIC; Booloumba Ck, Conondale ra., \9, 
mx-l9SS,GBM; Somerset Dam. 96 7$.24.niJ97K 
GBM; Brookfield. 1 9, 8.iv.l976. A. Pusiie; Ml. Cool- 
iha, 5.^. ll-20.iii.197 1, GBM. 19, 3.iii.l97l, A.D. 
Moore: Brisbane, holotype. Id paratvpe, 3 1x1 963- 
9 allotype, i -5 1 9 paratypes. 30.X.1963. GBM. \6 
paratype, 2 1. i v. 1964, GBM, 16 1? paratypes. 
2.xir. 1963, GBM, I 6, 28,x, 1976. R Samson. 26 I ?, 
22-24.1.1975. GIT. )6. 5.)v.l976, A. Postle. Figirec 
l\jckcL Brisbane, 2t? 65, 5.xi.l976, V-Davi<s; Gold 

Creek. Ba>okfield, I J, 20.x. 1980, V. Davies; Cun- 
ninghams Gap, 16, I9.iii.l976. GIT: 10 ml. S of 
Ncrang. 16 19. 20.iv.I976. A- Postle, 16 1$, 
24.iv. 1976, A. PosUe, inQM NEW SOUTH WALES: 
Richmond Range SF. nr Kvngle. 16. 13-l4.ii-l9S3. 
TAW & AC; Altyn R.. Chichester SF. I 6 I ^, 10- 
ILxl. 1981, TAW, AC& Hill, in .ANIC (QM<Iuph- 
caies lodged in BMNH. EH, NMNH, UQIC). 
(paraiypes. QMT29522-29530). 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 30). From a littJc north of 
Mackav 10 the Harrington Tops region in nonhcm 


REM.^RKS, In contrast to C, monteithi wUh 
which its range overlaps. G hrishanuus lives in 
litter and bark debris around the base of trees in 
open eucalypt forests. In this habitat u is the only 
species of Aradidae to persist in the suburban 
environments of Brisbane. Exceptions to its usual 
open forest habitat are its occurrences in 
rainforests on Eraser Island. These rainforests arc 
recent developments on a substrate of pure sand 
and have a very dry litter layer due to rapid 
drainage of surface moisture. They have been 
colonized by a number of other open forest in- 
sects such as the carabid beetle, Famborus viridis 
Gory (Moniciih, pers. obs .) to the exclusion of Ihc 
normal rainforest species, e.g.. Famhorus ai- 
/^rna/u Latreille, and (he presence of G. brUbo/ti- 
cus there fits this pattern. G. brisbanicus 
occasionally occurs in dry rainforests in the 
northern and iouihem extremities of its range. 

Glochocoris gippsLandlcus sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotype 9 . Alfred Nat. Park. 2fK)m Viciuna. 
21 V. 1978. S. & J. Peck, rotted logs in rainforest, in 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 3 paraivpcs: 
VICTORIA: MallacoouiNP, I 9. 26.V.1978. S&JP. in 
ANIC: Lind NP, 16 19 25.V.1978, S&JP, in QM. 
(paratypes: QMT2953I-29532). 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 3.3-4.0mm long, with 
melapleural .scent gland occluded by evaporative 
surface divided into many small segments- 
MALE. Head length 1. 2- 1 3 times width; 
poslocular portions slightly protruding, rounded; 
eyes very narrowly exposed to dorsal view; an- 
lenniferous tubercles abbreviated, rounded; clyp* 
eus narrow, reaching to two thirds length of (irsi 
anicnnal segment: gcnal processes evident as 
minute tubercles on each side of clypcus. helorc 
apex. Rosual groove narrow, open posleriiirly. 



Aniennae 1.42-1.54 times head length; segmenis 
III and IV longest, subequal; segment I 1.4-1.7 
times length of n. 

Pronotum width 1.75-2.00 times length; for 
lobe with anterior pairoftubercles slightly closed 
placed than posterior pair and smaller than them; 
transverse depression between fore and hind 
lobes well marked and complete; posterolateral 
angles of hind lobe thickened and raised. Scutel- 
lum width 1.35-1.45 times length, its midline 
strongly raised into a lidge which tapers posteri- 
orly. Hemelyira reaching to hind margin of Tg 
VI; coria reaching to half length of Cx III. 

Abdomen with posterolateral angles of con- 
nexiva slightly protruding; margitis of Cx VII 
weakly and roundly angulate; metapleural scent 
gland with evaporative area present as raised, 
callus-like structure surrounding the occUided ap- 
enure and divided into a number of discrete seg- 
ments. Spiracles of I! absent, those of lll-Vn 
ventral. St vn with a prominent ventral, median 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 5 first, then para- 
lype 3 and range of 29 paraiypes. L; 3.67, 3.33, 
3.75-3.96: W: 1.58, 1.34, 1.54-1.66; HL: 0.70, 
0.66. 68-0.72; HW: 0.58. 0,50, 0.54-0.60; PL: 
0.64. 0.60. 0.70-0.72; PW: 1.28, 1.14, 1.22-1.32; 
AS: 1. 0.28, 0.26. 0.24-0.26; H. 16. 0.16. 0.16- 
0.18; m, 0.28, 30, 0.30; IV. 0.30, 0.30, 0.28- 
0.30: SL: 0.44, 0.42, 0.4443.50; SW: 0.64, 60, 
0.60-0.68; WL: 2.00, 1.90, 2.10-2.20; corium 
length: 0.96, 0.84. 0.80-0.94. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 30). Known from 3 local- 
ities in the eastern comer of Gippsland, Victoria. 

REMARKS. This species is related to G. 
brishanicus with which it shares the highly mod- 
ified evaporative region of the scent gland. Like 
G. brisbanicus, G. gippsiandicus may be princi- 
pally an open forest .species. The holoiypc is from 
rainforest but the 3 paratypcs are all from open 
forest. The species is one of only 4 Mczirinae 
occurrmg in Victoria and is the only species 
confmed to that State. 

ArbanatusKormilev. 1955 

-*tr/7««a/itt'Kormilev. |955c: I80(descr.);Kormilev&: 
Froeschner, 1987: 99 (catalogue of spp,). 

Picunetlus Usinger & Maisuda, 1959; 288 (descr.); 
Kormilev. 1971: 144 (synonymy) 

TYPE-SPECIES. Arbanatus mermt^ Kormilev, J955, 
by original designation. 


^ G. monteithi 
• G. abdomlnalis 
G. brisbanicus 

# G. gippslandlcus *^\ 




FIG. 30. Records for species of C^oc/M3C£?m in eastern 


DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 9B). From SE Asia to the 
outer Polynesian islands and eastern Australia. 

REMARKS. Arbanatus extends further into the 
remote islands of the southern Pacific than any 
other Aradidae and there are species described 
from the Marquesas and Austral Islands in Outer 
Polynesia. There are about 54 currently recog- 
nized species. 

Their vagile form together with their presence 
in Asia and absence from New Zealand suggest 
that they have invaded the Pacific from the west. 
In certain island groups there seems to have been 
considerable radiation of species but this may be 
a rellection of collecting effort. The taxonomy of 
the genus has been made difficult by the great 
number of species described from smglc sexes or 
unique specimens, There is some indication ihai 
the genus may be composite; the Asian species 
with broad, heavy body form and short paiatcrg- 
ites (including the type species) contrast rather 
strongly with the light, elongate species with 
foliate paraiergiies found principally in the Pa- 
cific region. Heiss (1989) gave excellent 



illustralions of A. loriai (Bergroth, 1894), an 
Asian form species from New Guinea. The genus 
has not been noled previously from Australia but 
3 new species are described from the easiem 
seaboard below Arbanatus peninsularis sp. nov. 
belongs to Uie group of species of Asian facies 
while the other two are of Pacific form. 


1 . Pronoium with anterolateral angles produced for- 
ward anterior to the collar on each side; margins 
ofCx VII strongly tobed on each side of 
pygophore; paralergUes of segment Vllt elon- 
gate and expanded in male . 2 

Pamoiuni wiih anterolateral angles not extending 
anterior lo collar; margins of Cx Vtl not lobed. 
paraiergiles of segment Vlii short and inconspic- 
uous in male vNorlh Queensland) 
peninsularis sp. nov. 

2(1). Spiracles of segment 11 situated on lateral mar- 
gin and visible in dorsal view: si/,e smaller. 4.0(J 
mm or 5maller (North Queensland ) 

- . - . tropicus sp. nov. 

Spiracles of segment II ventral and not visible in 
don»aI view; size gneater, 4.50 mm or larger 
(South Queensland and northern N.S.W.) 
frazien sp.nov. 

Arbanatus peninsalarU sp. nov. 


MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype 6, Iron Range. 
Cape York Pen., N Qld.. 26 May-2 June. 1971, B.K 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 4.4mm long, with short 
paratergiles and a large, tnangular pygophure. 
MALE. Head length width, its dorsum granular 
and convex; postocular margins rounded, not pro- 
duced, eyes large, not exserted: antenniferous 
tubercles short, parallel-sided apically pointed; 
clypeus short, reaching to less than half length of 
first antenna) segmeni. genae present as small 
convexiliesoneachsideofclypealapex. Rosinim 
siiorl; rostral groove wider open posteriorly. An- 
tennae slightly mott; than twice head length; seg- 
ments I. ni and IV subcqual in lengdi. about 1 5 
times length of 11. 

Pronotum width slightly less than twice median 
length; surface unitnrmty granular; fore and hind 
lobes poorly differentiated; fore lobe without me- 
dian sulcus, slightly elevated behind the narrow 
collar; hind lobe weakly depressed in cenU^c with 
a median swelling; lateral margins of pronotum 
converging and siraighr, anterolateral angjes not 

produced anterior to collar. Scutellum with wtdth 
1 .3 limes length; its margins bordered; basal mar- 
gin with a tooth on each side overlapping hmd 
pamotal margin; central disc with an obscure 
median ridge intersected by a faint cross-bar. 
Hemelytra reaching almost to hind margin of Tg 
Vll: cona apically straight, reaching to Cx ni; 
membranes black, wrinkled. 

Abdomen with margins of Cx U-VI straight; 
margins of VIT rounded angles, not projecting; 
paratergiles of VIII short, truncate, with spiracles 
apical Pygophore large. su'i)ngly exserled. trian- 
gular in dorsal view with apex produced when 
seen in side view. Prostemum granular on mid- 
line; meso- and metasterna broad, granular, 
weakly impressed. Spiracles of segmeni II lat- 
eral, those of 111- VI ventral and well-removed 
from margin, those of VII ventral but close to 
margin; St Vll enlarged, Us antenor margin con- 
vexly extending into St VI. 

MEASUREMENTS. L: 4.42: W: 1.64; HL; 62; 
HW: 0.64; PL: 0.76; PW: 1.46; SL; 0.56; SW: 
0.75. \VL; 2.50; corium length" 1 .00: AS: 1 0.34; 
II, 0.22; III. 0.36; IV, 0.36. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 33)- Rainforest at Iron 
Range, Cape York Peninsula. 

REMARKS. .4. peninsularis is related lo Asian 
species which share the dorsally produced 
pygophore of the 6 and the relatively undifferen- 
tiated form of the pronolal dorsum A nxalayensis 
(Kormilev, 1967a) conforms lo this pattern and I 
have a number of similar unidcniiftcd species 
from Java, Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. 
However, none of this gaiup are known frooi 
New Guinea. A. peninsularis differs in its .small 
size and straight pronotal margins. 

4rbanalus tropicus sp nov. 

TYPE. Holotype d . 6m N of Bflbind;». N Old., 
7.viii. 1966, G. Monleith. QMTl 1 663. 

MATERIAL EXAMJNED. Holoiype and 71 
paraivpes NORTH QUEENSL.\ND. 1 1 km NW BaM 
Hili. Mcllwrairn Range, 520m, 15d I6^\ ANIC 
Berl.lltjy. open lorest. 27.vi02 viii.lQ89. TaW: 
15km WNW Bald Hill. McUwaralth Range, 420av 
I4ij 149. ANIC Bcrl II2CI. open forest.,in.ANlC&OM;MtFinnigan 
summit, 1050m. 1 9. 3-5. xii. 1990, 
GBM.DJC.GIT,RS.LR; Ml Hakvon. 870m Id. pvre- 
Ihrum. 23.xi.1993, GBM.I-U; Emerald Ck. Luxwb 
Range. 950m, 3o* ! 9, 3 l.x. 1982. GBM, DKY AGIT: 



GraharaRange, viaBabinda, l(^ , 9-K>.iv.)979, GBM. 
6nil.NorBabinda,4d 1 $,7.YiiiJ966.GBM;Kaban. 
via Rqvcnshoe. 2.5. 25. v. 1966, P. Kemdge. in QM. 
(QM duplicates lodged in BMNH,ANIC, EH. UQIC). 
(paralypes: QMT 14032- 14040, QMT29567-29597). 

DESCRIPTION. Small 3. 5 0-4. 00mm long, 
elongate, reddish, with pronotal angles produced 
and spiracles of >egmeni £1 visible dorsally. 

MALE. Head length 1.1-1,2 limes width across 
eyes; vertex with 2 rows of large granules, re- 
mainder of dorsum finely granulate; posiocular 
margins of head somewhat expanded and irregu- 
lar with notches immediately posterior to eyes; 
eyes moderately exsertedi antenniferous tuber- 
cles short, slightly divergent, apicaJly anguiate.. 
reaching basal fifth of first antennal segment; 
clypeus narrow, apically flanked by two small, 
blunt genal processes, reaching to half length of 
first antennal segment. Rostral groove narrow, 
not closed posteriorly. Antennae 1.66-1.71 limes 
head length; segment HI almost twice length of 
II; segment 1 and IV subequal. 

Pronoiutii with width 1.95*2.1^ times median 
length; fore and hind lobes separated by a contin- 
uous transverse furrow; fore lobe with a i^edian 
longitudinal sulcus^ a pair of low submedian ele- 
vations and a pair of low sublaierai ridges; hind 
lobe granular; lateral margins of pronotum sinu- 
ate at level of transverse funx>w; anterolateral 
angles produced forward as blunt lobes on each 
side of the narrow collar. ScuxcUum witli width 
1.0O-K20 times lengtti; ba^al and lateral margins 
carinale; basal teeth absent: disc depressed with 
a median longitudinal ndge and an indistinct 
crass-baron anterior half. Hemelytra reaching to 
apical two thirds of Tg VH, coria apically sinuate, 
reaching to half length of fused Cx II and HI; 
membranes wrinkled. 

Abdomen with margins of Cx II-VI straight; 
margins of Cx VII with portion posterior to the 
suhluieral spiracles produced into rounded lobes; 
paraiergiies of VHI long and apically expanded 
into 11 aliened lobes bearing the spiracles on the 
liUerai margins of apices. P^gophorc long, with a 
median, dorsal ridge. 

Tlwracic sterna broad and flat; abdominal 
Sterna with faint median impreiisions; spiracles of 
II laterally placed, those of 111- VI ventral but 
close to margin, those of VI sublatcral. 

FEMALE. As for S except: hemelytra shorter, 
not reaching apex of Tg VI; Tg Vn broadly 
exposed; margins of Ca VII with posterior lobes 
smaller, paratcrgiies of Vni shorter and bf oader 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype <? first. Ihcn 
ranges of additional 26 and 1 ?. L: .^.75, 3.50- 
3.67, 4.00; W: 1.26. 1.21-1.30. K40; HL; 0.62, 
0.60-0.62. 0.62; HW: 0.52, 0.50-0ii2, 0.56: PL: 
0.50, 0.50-0.54, 0.54; PW: 1.08. L06-1.10. 1.16; 
AS: I 0.26. 0.26. 0^8; H. 0.18, 0.16, O.IH; III, 
0.30. 0.30-0.32, 0.32; IV, 0.32. 0.28-0.30, 0.28, 
SL: 0.54. 0.50-0.56. 0.58: SW: 0.54. 0.60-0.62. 
0.64; WT: 2.20. 2.00-2.10, 2.24. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 33). Rainforest and open 
forest in lowlands and plateaus from ihc 
Mcllwraidi Range to the southern rim of Ihc 
Athcrton Tableland. N Queensland 

REMARKS. Arbonatus tropicus is closely allied 
to A frazieri from further south in Australia and 
both species belong in a section of the genus 
which includes longicornis Kormilev, 1971, 
abdomuialis Korrailev, 1 97 1 , kM2Si*his 
Konmlev, 197 K simplex Kormilev, 1971 and 
other species which have radiated in ll>c New 
Guinea-SoloiTions-New Caledonia region. The 
systematics of the group is in some confusion and 
it may eventuate that tropicus is synonymous 
w ilh one of those extra- Australian species How- 
ever the Ausffalian species are di.stincl in their 
greater develoi)n>etU of lobes of Cx VIL 

Artianatus frazirri >p. nov. 
iFigs 4F. 5M, 32E,H.L) 

TYPE. Holotype 6. Universiiy, Annidale. NSW. 
22.vUj. 1967. C.W. Frazier, QMTI 1 664. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED- Hololypc and 32 
paratypes: SOUTH QLFEENSLAND: Flelclurr, I 9, 
14. iv. 1963, P- Kerridge, in QM. NEW SOUTH 
WALES: New England University Armidalc. ^o 7V, 
22,viii.l967. C.W. Frazier; Swan Vale. 30km W 
Armidalejd 29. vi/vii.l978.R. Nobkc, 2?. v.1978. 
R. Noske, 1 f^ ] 5 . i\/x. 1 978, R. Noskc; Armidalc area. 
\S2^, 1978/79, R. Noske; Wollomomhi Falls. 40km 
E Armidale, 2d 29. 29.iv.l978, R.Noske. 5S I 9. 
30. vi. 1978, R, Noske, in QM. (QM duplicates lodged 
in BMNH, ANIC. EH. UQIC). (parolypcs: 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 4.50-5 .OOmm 
long, elongate, with spiracles of segment llctwi- 
cealed in dorsal view. 

This species is related to A. tropicus and ibe 
following descnption is confined lo differences 
from that species. Size larger; pronotunt with 
iTiinsveree funx>w shallower and submedian ele- 
vations of fore-lofce barely evident; lateral proflO* 
Uil margins almost straight with anterolateral 



FIG. 31 Dorsal view of 6 holotypc of A rbanatus 

angles less developed, extending only slighily 
anterior to level oF collar. Scutellum wider. 
Pai'atergites of VIII in 3 longer and narrower 
Spiracles of segment 11 situated ventrally. 
Parameres as in Fig. 32L. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype i first, then 
ranges of additional ]6 and 2 9 . L: 4.50, 4,75. 
4.50-5.00; W: 1.64. 1.72, 1.46-1.76; HL: 0.70, 
U.70, 0.66^0.78; HW: 0.64, 0.62, 0.58-0.68; PL: 
0.62, 0.66, 0.58-0.64. PW: 1.38. 1.40, 1.24-1.50; 
AS; 1 0.30. 0.30, 0.30-0.32; H. 0.18, 0.20. 0.18; 

m, 0.36, 0.38, 0.32-0.38; IV, 0.32. 0,32, 0.30- 
0.32; SL; 0.70. 0.72, 0.60-0.78; SW: 0.84, 0.74, 
0,72-0.88; WL: 2.60, 2.68, 2.40-2.88; corium 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 33). Open forest on the 
granite plateaus of the Great Dividing Range m 
southern Queensland and northern N.S.W. 

REMARKS. This species, although similar to A. 
tropicus, is geographically and ecologically well 
separated from that species. Jt differs from all 
other members of the genus in the ventral place- 
ment of the spiracles of the second abdominal 
segment. This character is generally accepted as 
of generic importance but A. frazieri is in other 
respects a typical member oiArbonatus, 

It is a pleasure to name this species for one of 
lis collectors, the late Toss Frazier, who spent 
many years as Curator of the insect collcciion at 
the University of New England, Amiidalc. Many 
of the other specimens were collected under hark 
of living eucalypls by Richard Noskc during his 
survey of food resources of treecreeper birds in 
the Armidale area 

ArictusStal. 1865 

Arir/w.vSt^, 1865: 31 (descr); StAI, 1870: 672 (descr. 
of type species): Stil, 1873. 144 (subgenus of 
Brachyrhynchus): Bergroth. 1886: 59 (syn- 
onymiscd with Mezira); Usinger & Matsuda. 1959: 
200, 312 (reinstated as genus; incl. in key); 
Kormilev, 1971: 9, 106 (incl. in key; key to spp.J; 
Kormilev & Fxoeschner. 1987: 103 (catalogue of 

TYreSPEClES. Arictujf tagalicus Si^, 1870, iit%l 
included species. 

GENERIC DISTRlBLrriON (Fig. 90). Arkius 
contains 28 species which are distributed from 
South East Asia across the islands of the Indo-Pa- 
cific to Samoa. New Caledonia and Northern and 
Eastern Australia. The maximum species diver- 
sity occurs in New Guinea where 1 i species are 

REMARKS. Ahctus, though proposed in 1865. 
failed to receive general recognition until 1959 
when Usinger & Matsuda separated it from 
Mezira s. 1. It contains a close-knit group of 
generalized macropterous species which are 
linked together by the distinctive, opaque, usually 
bicoloured, iniegument beset by numerous small, 
.setigerous tubercles These tubercles form rV^ws, 




FIG. 32. A-D, Aspisocoristermitophilus; A, 6 lateral view; B, 6 head underside; C-D, 9 abdominal apices; C, 
dorsal; D, ventral. E-L^ Arbanatus spp.; E.A.frazieri 6\F,A. peninsularis S;G,A. tropicus 6 ; H-K, abdominal 
apices; H^A.frazieri 9 dorsal; hA. tropicus 9 dorsal; J, A. tropicus S ventral; K, A. peninsularis 6 lateral; 
L, A.frazieri, left paramere, inner view. 



patches and patterns on most of the body surface. 
The broad, median basal lobe of the scutellum 
and the thin, rod-like postocular tubercles also set 
it apart from Mezira s. 1.. Arictus lacks the strid- 
ulatory ridge of fine teeth on the inner face of the 
6 parameres of Brachyrhynchus of the Austra- 
lian region but further study is required to estab- 
lish if this is a feature of Mezira s. 1. in the 
cosmopolitan sense. Arictus shares with 
Brachyrhynchus the reduction of tarsal pulvilli to 
minute rods. 

The taxonomy of Arictus is difficult and com- 
pounded by the greasy discolouration which de- 
velops on most specimens obscuring the colour 
patterns. In this study the previously unnoticed 
patterns of glabrous regions on sternum VI of the 
6 have proved highly specific. 

Of the 6 species known from Australia 4 are 
open forest endemics {monteithi, tasmani, 
dimidiatus and obscurus) and 2 {thoracoceras 
and lobuliventris) occur in rainforest on Cape 
York Peninsula and in New Guinea. A. chinai 
(Kormilev), previously recorded as Australian, is 
believed to be based on a type specimen not from 


1. Antennal segment III equal in length to segment 
1 ; postocular tubercles reduced and barely discern- 
ible from other surface tubercles of the head ... 2 
Antennal segment III distinctly longer than I; 
postocular tubercles present as distinct, rod-like 
projections behind eyes 3 

2(1). Margins of Cx II-VI straight, without protrud- 
ing postero-lateral angles; two longitudinal veins 
of corium raised and carinate; St VI of male 
with a small circular glabrous region on each 

side of middle dimidiatus, sp.x\o\. 

Postero-lateral angles of Cx II-VI slightly protrud- 
ing; inner longitudinal vein of corium obsolete; St 
VI of male with a large, rectangular glabrous region 
on each side of middle . . . tasmani (Kormilev) 

3(1). Setigerous tubercles of hind lobe of pronotum 
elongate, much higher than wide; first antennal 
segment with numerous, long tubercles; spira- 
cles of VIII almost apical; angles of Cx VII of 6 
longer than paratergites of VIII 

lobuliventris {KormWev) 

Setigerous tubercles of pronotal hind lobe 
shorter, not as high as wide; first antennal seg- 
ment without numerous long tubercles; spiracles 
of VIII inserted well before apex; paratergites of 
VIII longer than angles of VII 4 

4(3). Postero-lateral angles of Cx II-VI not protrud- 
ing; postocular tubercles not surpassing outer 

▲ C. dimorpha 


♦ A. peninsularis 

• A. tropicus 
■ A. frazieri 


FIG. 33. Records of species of Corynophloeobia and 
Arbanatus in eastern Australia. 

margins of eyes; antero-latera! angles of prono- 
tum not projecting forwards 

monteithi (Kormilev) 

Postero-lateral angles of Cx II-VI protruding; 
postocular tubercles extending beyond outer 
margins of eyes; antero-lateral angles of prono- 
tum projecting forwards 5 

5(4). Spiracles of VII much closer to margin than 
those of VI; margins of scutellum constricted be- 
fore apex; segment IV of antenna thinner than 

III, not clavate obscurus, sp. nov. 

Spiracles of VI and VII about equidistant from 
margin; margins of scutellum straight; segment 
IV of antenna clavate, thicker than III 

thoracoceras {MonixoMiAtv) 

Arictus monteithi Kormilev, 1 965 

Arictus monteithi Kormilev, 1965a: 32 (descr.); 
Kormilev, 1965b: 5 (locality records); Kormilev, 
1967c: 299 (mentioned); Kormilev, 1967a: 542 (lo- 
cality records); Kumar, 1967 (internal anatomy); 



Monlcith. !968: 46 (locality recondj: Karmilev. 
1^71; 107 (incl. in Key); KormUev & Froeschner, 
1987: 105 (listed). 

TYPE Holotvpc d , Dunv. ich. Stnidbrokc Is., SFQld., 
27.iv. 1963, G. Momciih. QMT6324. Examined 

Material examined. HoJotypc and 330 speci- 
mens: NORTHERN TERRITORY: Darwin; Pon Dar- 
win: 30ml E Darwin: Adelaide R., in BMNH; Fogg 
Dam. 53km S Darwm. in ANIC; 22km ESE Humpiy 
Doo, in MDPI; Howard River; Balhurst Is.; GrooLe 
Island, in SAM: Bathursi Ls.. Cape Fourcray; Melville 
h.. Pularumpi, in NTM; Swim Creek Poini. Stuart Sm; 
Horn L^let, Pellew Group; Keo River, Victoria Hwy, in 
QM. NORTH QUEENSLAND: Ect Hill. Moa Island, 
Torres Strait; Prince of Wales Island. Torres Strml. in 
QM; Badu Is.!and. Torres Sirait. in AM: Lockerbie^ 
Cape York; Cowal Creek, via Bamaga; Iron Range; 
Scrubby Ck, Iron Ra.. m QM; 13 km ENE MtTo/er; 
I8kmENEMtTozer; 2kmNEMtTozer; Andoom, via 
Weipa; Kerr Point. Weipa; Upper Lankelly Creek, via 
Coen: Rocky R., Silver Plams; Massv Creek. Silver 
Plains; Homesteiid, Silver Plains, in QM, 3km NE Mt 
Webb N; 14 km NW Hopcvnle; 7 km N Hopevale; Ml 
Cook NP. I km SE Mt Cook, in ANIC: 15 ml. SW 
Nomianlon; Ellis Beucli. in QM: Emerald Ck. vu 
Marccba. in MDPI: Rcdlvnch; 3.5km on KuranJi- 
Miirccba Rd» in BMNH; Kuranda. in UQIC; Haain 
Tableland Radai Sui, 8(K)-900in; Upper Siaiion Creek. 
6 ml. W Kuranda: Wallaman Falls; '40-milc Scrub', 
via Ml Garnet; 2.4km E Blencoe FalLs lumoll, K4frama 
SF: Cape Pallarcnda. Townsvillc. in QM; Townsville; 
Inkennan, nr Townsville. iu BMNH. Magnetic Island. 
CFNTR AL QUEENSLAND Greta Creck.20mlNtir 
Proserpine: Cannonvalc; Springcliffc: Finch Hatton 
Gorge; Stockyard Ck., 120ml. S Mackay: Blackdown 
Tableland, in QM; Moura; Awoonga Dam. Boyne 
River, m QDPI. SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Eraser Is- 
land: 5km N Ocean Lake, Fraser Is., Gayndah: Car- 
narvcm Gorge; Camp Milo. Cooloola. in ANIC; 
Yurraman SF; Maryborough. Id 19 paratypes; Bal- 
four Range, Benarkin; Beerwah, in QM: Bundaberg; 
Coulsion Lakes. Ban Ban Ra., tn ANIC. Kiiigaroy, I y 
paralype; Peine; Brookficld I d* panitype. in QM; 
Maroochy River; Dalby. in AM: Bracmar SF. via 
Kogan, GBM; Gation, in QM, in RCRI: Harlin; Broad- 
water: Toowong; Sunnybonk, in QDPI, Brisbane, in 
ANIC; 2o 2 9 paratypes, I V paralype; Acacia Ridge. 
i<5 paratype; Hollywcll, 1*:^ paratypc: Mt Gravatt; 
Grccnbank; Nonh Pine River; Stradbroke Island, $ 
alU'type, 1(5 I $ paratypes; Emu Vale; Ml French; 
Lamington NP; Numinbuh Valley: Levers Plateau, via 
Raihdowney; Stanihorpe; M» Tnlly, via Startthorpe; 
Nundubbermerc Falls, 25km SW Stanthorpc; 
Wallangana. \9 pafalypc, m QM; 'Queensland* in 
BMNH. NEW SOUTH WALES: Tooloom Plateau, 
vsa Urbenville, in QM, Bfcwarrina, in .\NIC; 
Bog;gabri-Tam worth; Brooklanii, East Dorrii£o: R-iy- 
morid Terrace nr Tottenham: 6km SE Mt Horns, in 
AM; 3-km N Lansdowne, via Tarcc, in QM; Williams- 
tmvQ, in BCRI: lOkm ESE Moruva. Dovcn & Law- 

rence, in ANIC. fQM duplicates lodgsd in DJ, EH) 
(paratypes: QMT263 39-26357). 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 35). One of the coiiimon- 
cst and most widespread aradids in Auslralia oc- 
curs from the Nortbeni Territory across Cupe 
York Peninsula (including the Torres Strait Is- 
lands) and along the coast lo Moruya in S N.S. W, 

REMARKS. This is a subcortical species of open 
forests found in aggregations under bark of a wide 
range of log types. It is the only species oiArkUu 
m the Northern Territory and reaches furlhcf 
south than any other species along the east cousi. 
Although it t;xtends far out into the islands of 
Torres Strait (lo Badu and Moa islands) ii has not 
yet been recorded fnwn the New Guinea main- 
land. However il will prx->bably eventually turn up 
on the southern coa;st of that island. 

It is rather isolated toxonuniicully among (tie 
other Australian species of Aricrus by vinuc of 
tiie broad, little-projecting, anterolateral anglosof 
its pronnium. 

Arictus tasmani (Kormilev, 1953) 
(Fig. 34D,H,0,V) 

Mcztra taxmani Kormilev, 1955d: 4*^2 (dcscr.); Usia- 
ger& Maisuda, ls)5*>: 381 (listed), 

Aricutx tasmani'. Kormilev, lOfj^a. 32 (locality re- 
cords); Kormilev. 1965b: 5 (localiiy recorxl) 
Kumar. I%7 (iuicrnai anatomy): Kormilev, 1971 
107 (inti. in kevi; Kormilev & Froeschner. 19K7 
105 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype '2 . Australia, N.S.W., iji HNHM Not 
cxauniied. Recently collected specimen compared with 
lypc on my behalf by Dr T. VSsSrhelyi. 

QUEENSLAND: Bulburin SF. 2.000*. vi4 Mjinx- 
Peaks, I.-?, l2-I5.iv.l974.I.Naumann:Yan'aman, 1 J, 
2I.V.I970. N. Heather; Monstldolc. 1<5, I7.iv \^ti. 
GBM; Maleny. Irf. 3.vii.l966, B.F. Ingroro; 
Stradbroke Island. Ic5. 27. iv. 1962, GBM. M, 
y.v.l964, GB.M, M, 2. v. 1972, GBM. 3cr. 29- 
30.iv.l972. 2d\ 27 iv.l966- J E. Dunwoody. Id". H. Hacker: Ml French, via Boonah. I<J. 
I5x 19S3. GBM, in QM; Hiahvalc, 19, I8.UI.1969, 
M. Schncjc!cr. m UQIC. Gation, 1 V\ Il.iii.l937, A. 
May, in QDPI; Danwich, I ^, 6.iv. 1984. R. de Kcyzei. 
in AM NEW SOUTH WALES: Tweed River, Irf, 
1904, W.W-F.. m BCRL (duplicate lodged in BMNH). 

DISTRIBUTION (Frg. 35). Open forest* of 
coa.stal S Quccn.sland. The type is labclltx! as 
bcjng from New South Walccs but the only record 
avsiilable to autheoiicatc this is one specimen 



taken in 1904 at the Tweed River in the extreme 
NE of that State. 

REMARKS. This is a rare species over most of 
its range but is common on Stradbroke Island 
where it coexists with A. monteithi under loose 
bark of Casuarina logs. 

Arictus tasmani is closely related to A. 
dimidiatus and both species are separable from all 
other Australian Arictus by their short third an- 
tennal segment. 

Arictus dimidiatus sp. nov. 

(Fig. 34A,N,U) 

TYPE. Holotype d. Stockyard Creek, 120 ml. S of 
Mackay, 4.1.1965, G.B. Monteilh, QMTl 1 665. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 1 paratype 
6: CENTRAL QUEENSLAND: Stockyard Creek, 
120 ml. S of Mackay, Id, 4.i. 1965, GBM,QMT26375. 

DESCRIPTION. MALE. Small, obscurely 
bicoloured, 7.3-7. 5mm long. 

Head length equal to width; posiocular tuber- 
cles reduced, barely evident; vertex with 4 longi- 
tudinal rows of high tubercles; a single row of 
tubercles above each eye; antenniferous tubercles 
reaching to about 2/5 length of first antennal 
segment; clypeus with coarse tubercles dorsally 
and apically, its apex slightly surpassing half 
length of first antennal segment. Antennal length 
1.4-1.5 limes head length; segment III subequal 
in length to I; segment IV not thicker than III and 
barely clavate. 

Pronotum with maximum width 2.43-2.46 
times median length; fore lobe with antero-laleral 
angles projecting laterally but not anteriorly; col- 
lar distinct; submedian glabrous discs surrounded 
by a single ring of tubercles; sublateral ridges 
each consisting of about 1 2 tubercles in 2-3 rows; 
hind lobe not much wider than fore lobe, its 
surface uniformly covered with squat, seligerous 
tubercles. Scutellum with width 1.25-1.18 times 
length; median carina not prominent, its position 
marked by a double row of tubercles which be- 
come dispersed on posterior half; lateral margins 
tuberculate and moderately pinched in before 
apex. Hemelytra reaching to hind margin of Tg 
VI; coria extending to about half length of Cx III; 
both longitudinal veins of coria carinate, the outer 
tuberculate, the inner virtually bare. 

Abdominal Cx II-VI with margins straight and 
posterior angles not protruding; Cx VII with pos- 
terior lobes subquadraie, reaching almost to apex 
of pygophore; paratergiles of VIII broad, blunt. 

longer than pygophore, and with spiracles lateral, 
subapical. Pygophore with a glabrous, dorsal, 
triangular depression flanked by a raised flange 
of tubercles on each side posteriorly. Parameres 
as in Fig. 34U. Midline of meso-and metastema 
and abdominal St II-VII all with a smooth, shal- 
low sulcus; St VI with a raised, circular, opaque 
callus on each side of middle between inner and 
sublateral glabrous areas. Spiracles of segments 
II-VII ventral, far from margin. 
FEMALE. Unknown. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype $ first, then para- 
type i. L: 7.50, 7.33; W: 3.25, 3.08; HL: 1.28, 
1.26; HW: 1.26, 1.30; PL: 1.14, 1.10; PW: 2.80, 
2.67; SL: 1.46, 1.36; SW: 1.72. 1.56; WL: 4.17, 
4.00; corium length: 1 .74, 1 .60; AS: 1, 0.62, 0.58; 
II, 0.30, 0.32, m, 0.62, 0.60; IV, 0.36, 0.36. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 35). Only the type locality 
in central coastal Queensland. 

REMARKS. The two known specimens were 
collected in association with A. monteithi but the 
species is actually related to A. tasmani which 
occurs a little further south. A. dimidiatus is the 
only open forest aradid confined to central 

Arictus thoracoceras (Montrouzier, 1865) 
(Fig. 34E,G,P,W) 

Aradus luguhris Boisduval, 1835: 642 (preoccupied). 

Aradus thoracoceras Wioniro\xz\QX, 1865: 107(descr.). 

Arictus thoracoceras Sl^l, 1870: 672; Usinger & 
Matsuda, 1959: 314 (listed); Blote, 1965: 26 (local- 
ity records); Kormilev, 1967a: 542 (locality re- 
cords); Kormilev, 1967c: 299 (locality records); 
Kormilev, 1971: 106, 107, 112 (redescr.; locality 
records); Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 105 

Crimia thoracoceras dlktx, 1873:21 (locality record). 

Brach\rh\nchus thoracoceras Bergroth, 1886: 59; 
Let'hieiry & Severin, 1896: 43 (listed). 

Mezira thoracocera Kormilev 1953: 340 (locality re- 
cord); Kormilev, 1955d: 501 (redescr.; locality re- 

TYPE. Montrouzier described this species from New 
Caledonia. The type material is presumed to have been 
in his colleciion which was dispersed among different 
collections in Europe. However, Kormilev (1971) 
could not locate Montrouzier material of Aradus 
thoracoceras and the type is regarded as being lost. 

QUEENSLAND: Iron Range, Cape York Pen., 5 d 6 9 , 
1-9. vi. 1971, GBM, 1$, 26-31 .v.l971, 19, 5- 



FIG. 34. Arictus spp.; A. A. d'tmidiatus 6\B,A. monteithi; C, A. obscums; D, A. tasmanh E, A. thoracoceras, F, 
A. lobuliventris; G-l, 9 dorsal abdominal apices; G. A. thoracoceras; H, A. tasmani: I, A. monteithi; J, A. 
lohtdtventris; K-P, 6 ventral abdominal siema VI and VII; K, A. lobuliventris; U A. monteithi; M, -4. obscitrus; 
N. A. dimidiatus; O, .4. tastnani; P, A. thoracoceras; Q, A. monteithi. sperraaiheca; R-W, left parameres. inner 
view; R, A. lobidiventris; S, A. obscurus; T, A. monteithi; U, A. dimidiatus; V, A. tasmani; W, A. thoracoceras. 



l0.v.l968,GBM,2<i 3?, -4.vii.}977,GBMJ <5 
29. 16-23.\i.l965, GBM; West Qaudje R., Iron 
R:inge, 4<5 19, -VJ0-xii.I986. GBM & DSC, East 
Claudie R.. Iron Range. I 9. 6.xii.l986, GBM & DJC; 
Cooper Creek. 10 ml. N of Daintree R.. 39, 2. v. 1970. 
GBM: Upper Daintree River. 23 29. 27.xii.l%4- 
OBM. in QM. (QM dupJicales lodged m BMKH. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig, 35). New Caledonia. Sol- 
omon Islands. Bismarck Archipeiago. New 
Guinea. Philippines and Cape York Peninsula, in 

REMARKS. ArictHs thoracocems has been a 
problemauc name in the Australian aradid fauna, 
firstly because the lack of type material has made 
fixation of the species' identity diiticuU, and sec- 
ondly because it is not known on what material 
Ciirly liieraiure records from Australia are based. 

Although ji. was described from New Caledonia 
there has been little subsequent material seen 
from that island. Kormilev ( 1 955d) redescribed it 
fiom New Guinea and Woodlark Island speci- 
mens and ihen redescribed it again in 1971 from 
a New Caledonian 6 in the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Nuiural History. This latter specimen 
is the first recorded from the type locality since 
Montrouzier' s 1 865 description and since it is the 
only species oiAham known from New Caledo- 
nia this description is regarded here as definitive. 

The species was first listed for Australia by 
Lethierry & Severin (1896) bur they do not indi- 
cate the basis for theu* so doing. It is apparently 
on this listing that subsequent authors (e.g., Usin- 
ger & Matsuda. 1959) also include Australia in 
the species range but Kormilev (1967c) ques- 
tioned its aulhenlicily and suggested tlial it may 
be based on specimens of the widespread A. 
hionteithU which was not name<J at the time of 
Lethierry & Severin This may well be true be- 
cause although genuine A, thoracoceras is re- 
ct>i*ded from Australia in the present work its 
distribution is limited lo remote regions from 
which it is doubtful that material would have been 
available last century. The specimens here listed 
from rainforests of Cape York Peninsula agree 
both with Kormilev's ( 1971 ) redescripiion of the 
New Caledonian specimen and with New Guinea 
material idcntitlcd by Kormilev as thoracoceras. 

Ajictusobscurussp. nov. 
(Fig. 34C.M.S:i 

TYPE Holoiypc tJ. Homestead. Silver Plains, via 
Cocn, H, Qld.. 1 LxliJ964, G. Moniciih, Q\fril666. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotypc and 1« 
paniiypes. NORTH QUEENSLAND: Cape York, I <J 
2 9 . in ANIC; Terry Beach. Bamfield Head. Prince of 
Wales Island, Torres Strait, 16 29, 2.vii.l976. li 
Cameron. 19.».I. Loch; Iron Range, !(? I ?, 
26.V.1974, M. Walford-Hugelns; Rocky River, Silver 
Plains. H, l4-16.xii.I9^4, GBM; Homestead, Silver 
Plains. 5^ I 9 J 1x11. 1964. GBM, in QM. (QM dupli- 
cate lodged in ANlCl tparatypes: QMT26358-26374:i, 

DESCRIPTION Medium sized, 7.8-9.5mm 
long, with indistinct bicoloored pattern and with 
spiracles of VII displaced mwat>ls margin. 

MALE Headlengihl 07-1 IDnmes width across 
eyes; vertex with 2 median, longitudinal rows of 
large tubercles flanked on each side by a row* of 
smaller tubercles, a single tow of small tubercles 
abt>ve each eye; poslcvular tubercles straight, 
exceeding outer majgin of eyes; antennileruus 
tubercles re-achjng basal third of first antennal 
segment: clypetrs with tubercles on dorsal surface 
.vmaller than those on iis apex; clypeus rcachingi 
almost 2^3 length of first antennal segment. An- 
tennal length 1.65-1 77 limes head length; seg- 
ment III longest; segment IV a little longer than 
II; segment Ys' barely clavale, not thicker than 
segment FU. 

Pronotum width of hind lobe 2-41-2.50 times 
median length; fore iobe with anterolateral angles 
projecting anteriorly and laterally; lateral mar- 
gins deeply notched between fore and hind lobes; 
subraedian glabrous discs separated by a median, 
double row of tubercles and with a cluster of 
tubercles anteriorly and posteriorly; sublateral 
elevations q^x\ bearing about 1 8 small, crowded 
tubercles; hind pronotal lobe surface with, shirrt 
squat tubercles which are sparse m centre. Scu- 
lellum width 1 .07- 1.15 rimes length; median ca- 
rina obscure on posterior halt: scutellar surface 
with tubercles sparse and confined to posicritv 
half; lateral margins constricted subapically. 
Hemelytra reaching to a little beyond hind margirt 
of Tg VI, coria with veins weakly carinaie ar)d 

Abdominal Cx U-Vl with poslerolaieral angles 
slightly protruding; Cx VII with angulate poste- 
rior margins reaching to level of apex of 
pygophore; paratergjtes of Vin with apices just 
longer than pygophore, with spiracles lateral, 
subapical. Pygophore with an obscure dorsal, tri- 
angular depression. Parat^icrcs as m Fig. 34S. 

Midline of thoracic and abdominal sterna all 
with a very fine sulcus; St VI with an extensive 
glabrous region on each side of middle (Fig. 
34C). Spiracles of segments 11 -VI venual far 



from margin; those uf VII displaced close to 
lateral margin but not visible from above. 

FBMALE. As for 6 except: hemelytra not quite 
reaching hind margin of Tg VI; apex of segment 
IX longer than paraiergites of VIII. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 2 9. L: 8.33. 7.83- 
8.33, 8.83-9.50; W: 4.00. 3.50-3.92. 3.92-4.25; 
HL: 1.46, 1.40- 1. 50, 1.54-1.56; HW: 1.34, 1.28- 
i.36, 1.42-1.44; PL: 1.28. 1.20-1.28. 1.26-1,34; 
PW: 3.08, 2.80-3. 16.3.1 6-3.33; AS: 1, 0.70, 0.70-;IL0.38,a34-;III, 
0.96, 0.90' LOO. 1.04; IV. 0.42. 0.40-0.46, 0.42- 
046; SL: I.6H. I.48-I.6J*. 1.68-1.80; SW: 1.80. 
L72-1 .88, 1 .94-2.00: WI.: 5.00, 4.50-5.00, 5.00- 
5.25; corium length: 2.00, 1.80-2.00, 1.96-2.20. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 35). Open forest from the 
southern islands of Torres Strait south to IheCoen 
district of Cape York Peninsula. 

REMARKS. This species is similar to A. 

thoratoceras in Us long postocular tubercles and 
in the form of the pronotum. However, the dis- 
placed spiracles of segment VII and the glabrous 
area of St VI of the d set it clearly apart. It is 
unusual in being an open forest species conilned 
to the northern pan of Cape York Peninsula and 
in this respect it resembles Neuroctenus yorken- 
sis. Both are closely related to r^ainforesl species 
shared with New Guinea (Neuroctenus eu- 
ryccphaliis and Ahctits thoracoceras). 

Arictusiobulivtnlrisi (Korrailev, 1953) 
(Fig. 34F.J.K,R) 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 35). Rainforcsl at Iron 
Range. Cape York Peninsula; wide-spread in New 
Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Bismarck Ar- 
chipelago and the Philippines. 

REMARKS. This is the first record for this spe- 
cies from Ausu-aha. It brings to 4 the Arutus 
species known from Iron Range which is the only 
Australian rainforest tract with more than I spe- 
cies (thoracoceras and lohuliventris). The other 
two (monteithi and obscurus) occur there in open 

Arictus chmai CKormilev, 1955) 

A/ora f/ima/ Komiilev, I955d: 550(descr., fig.). 
Arictus ckinai Usinger &. Mat-suda, 1959: 314: B16tc, 

1965: 25 (record from Sumbawa); Kormilcv, 1971. 

107 (incl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschncr, 1987* 

104 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype 9 , Damraer Is, Australia, in HNHM 
(not examined). 

REMARKS. There is no Dammer Island in Auv 
iralia and it is presumed that this record refers to 
Damar Island (spelt variously Damma, Dammer) 
lo the east o( Timor in eastern Indonesia The 
recording of a specimen of .4. chinai from nearby 
Sumbawa by Blote (1965) supports this conten- 
tion. A 9 Arictus labelled 'Damma 1. 92-44' is m 
the British Museum and register information in- 
dicates it was collected by J.J. Walker who visited 
the island in 1891 (Walker. 1894). However this 
specimen does not accord with certain aspects of 
Kormilev's description of y4. chinai. Until evi- 
dence to the contrary is received A. chinai will be 
deleted from the Australian faunal hsi. 

Mezira labuliventm Kormilev, 1953: 340 (descr.); 

Kormilev, I955d: 499 (descr. of ?; locality re- 

Arictus lobuiivemris: Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 314 

(generic transfer'); Kormilev, 1967c: 298 (locality 

record); Kormilev. 1971: 107, 111 (incl. in key; 

locality records); Kormilev & Froeschncr, 1987: 

1 04 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype i, Buin. Bougainville, 1930. H. 
Hediger, in NMB. Not examined- Kormilev (1955d) 
designated a 9 from New Guinea in HNHM as an 
allotype but since Uiis was after the original debcnption 
it Ks uivaJid. 

QUEENSLAND: Iron Ranee, Cape York Peninsula, 
3c? 7V. 16-23.X1.1965, GBM, lc\ 21.iv.l975. M.S. 
Moulds, in QM. (QM duplicate lodged in BMNH). 

BrachyrhynchusLaponc, 1832 

Bmchyrhynchus Laporte, 1832: 54 (descr); Kormilev 

& Froesichner, 1987: 1 1 3 (reinstaieraent; catalogue 

Dusim Bergrolh, 1894: 104. 
HammatoPieunim Blote, !965r27- 
DuuiocoriseUa Blote, 1965: 28. 
Mezira {Zemira) Kormilev., 1971: 31. 34 (descr. of 

subgenus; key to spp.). 
Mezira {Ztmera) Kormilev, 1980:328 (replacement 

name for preoccupied 2em/ra). 

TYPE SPECIES. Brachyrhynchus oriemaiis l-aporte, 
1 832 i^Acartihia ntetnbranacea Fabricius) by montMypy. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 9D). Africa, Madagascar 
and the Indo-Pacific region, south lo eastern Aus- 



FIG. 35. Records of species of Arictus in Australia. 

tralia and Tasmania, and east to the Society Is- 
lands but not New Zealand. 

REMARKS. Mezira has been the largest and 
most difficult genus in the Aradidae. It has been 
a dumping ground for a great number of largish, 
winged Mezirinae which lacked distinguishing 
characters of other genera. The fact that "Mezira", 
in this sense, was undoubtedly composite has 
been recognized by many authors and despite the 
efforts of Usinger & Matsuda (1959) to split off 
several generic entities (e.g., Oroessa, 
Daulocoris, Arictus, Chinessd), 'Mezira' has re- 
mained one of the outstanding taxonomic prob- 
lems in the family. Usinger & Matsuda (1959) 
ascribed 106 species to 'Mezira' and by 1987 this 
number had risen to more than 230 from every 
part of the globe (Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987). 
The formidable task of reviewing the status of 
this group of species could only be undertaken on 
a world basis (Kormilev, 197 1 ). Kormilev ( 197 1) 
erected Mezira (Zemira) for the membranacea- 
group of species from the Oriental-Pacific region 
and later (Kormilev, 1974) included a group of 

African species with them. Later, Kormilev 
(1980) discovered that the subgeneric name was 
preoccupied and he replaced it with Zimera. 
Kormilev & Froeschner (1987) made the radical 
step of raising all subgenera to generic rank. In 
doing so they discovered that the long-rejected 
name, Brachyrhynchus, was available. Since 
both Brachyrhynchus and Zimera were based on 
the same type species, Acanthia membranaceus 
Fabricius, Brachyrhynchus is an objective senior 
synonym of Zemira. Kormilev (1971) had de- 
fined Zemira by its large tarsal claws without 
pulvilli and a deep sinuation in the hind pronotal 
border. These criteria had not been applied across 
all the existing species of "Mezira', so many of 
the species still remaining in Mezira s. s. were 
there by default only, pending examination of 
authentic specimens. This definition was not 
elaborated upon by Kormilev & Froeschner 
(1987) when they raised Brachyrhynchus and 
Mezira to generic rank, and hence many species 
were rather abitrarily allocated to the genera 
when it came time for cataloguing them. 



Five Australian species belong to 'Mezira' in 
the sense of Usinger & Matsuda. Kormilev in- 
cluded only sulcauts and subtnanguius in his key 
to Zemira Kormilev, ] 971 : 3 1 ), infiplying thai he 
considered anstrolis, wilsont and elegans to be 
members of Mezira s. s.. Kormilev & Frocschner 
( 1 987) listed australis, elegans, sulcatus and sub- 
uiangulus uud^t Brachyrhynchus, while wihom. 
a very close relative of aiairalis, is alone placed 
m Mezira However, all 5 Australian species lack 
tarsal pulviJli and have the pronotal border mod- 
erately excavated, a-ccording with Kormilev*s 
original definition of Zemira (=Zimera. 
-Brachyrhynchus). Si net this present work deals 
with only a minor component of the \^siMeziro 
Brachyrhynchus complex it is not appropriate 
here to consider the problem of the respective 
status of these taxa. I deal with them all under 
Brae hrhync has. 

Of the 5 Australian species 2 arc widespread 
open forest endemics {Qiistralis^ wihoni), 2 arc 
rainforest species shared with New Gumea (^wA 
r«rwy, subrnangulus), and the fifth [elegant) is 
known from a unique specimen of uncertain veg- 
etational affinities. 

Australian species for which c are availabte 
have parameres with a distinctive ridge of fine 
teeth on the inner face (Figs 371-L). This is not 
seen in any other wmged genus in Australia but 
is present throughout the complex of fully apter- 
ous genera 30 Australia, New Caledonia and New 
Zealand. As discussed elsewhere Ihls is bcheved 
to support the contention that the macrup^erous 
anccMofs of this large apterous complex lie in the 
Bnuhyrhynchm-Mezira complex . 


I . Wing membranes with branching venation clearly 
evident; sides of pronotum indented on each side 
at junction between fore and hind lobes ... .2 
Wing membranes without branching venation evi- 
dent; sides of pronotum straight or uniformly 
cur>'cd. not indented 3 

2(\ ). Vt^ins oi wing membranes glabrous; transverte 
sulcus between fore and hind lobes of pronotum 
Very deep; hind pronotal lobe with an irregular 
tubercle on each side of anterior declivitj'*. d 
with margins of Cx VII biconvex 

, , . , , , - sukatas{Kom)\e\\ 

Veins of wing membranes setose; transverse sul- 
cus of pronoiuro shallow, anterior declivity oi 
hmd pronotal lobe without large tubercles; 6 
wuh margins of Cx VU simply rounded 

3(1). Submedian areas of pronotal fore lobe wUh ii 
glabrous disc set on an elevation on each side of 
midline; female paratergites of VIU shorter than 
length of midline of VIU, bK)3d species with head- 
body length 2.25 or less times body width . . 4 
Submedian areas of pronotal fore lobe barely dif- 
ferentiated; female with paratergites of VIII 
large, longer than median length ot Tg VIU; 
small, slender species with length 2.5 limes 
width elegans (Kormilev) 

4(3). Pronotal fore lobe with submedian elevations 
much higher than sublaterai elevations aiul wiih 
anterolateral angles produced, usually beyond 
level of collar: lateral margins of pronotum con- 
vex; male paramcre with tooth al base of poste- 
rior margin bent outwards . w-iboni (Kormilev) 
Pronotal fore lobe with submedian and sublaterai 
areas of equal height and with anterolateral an- 
gles reduced^ not surpassing collar, laierai mar- 
gins ot pronotum straight; d paramerewith 
tooth at base straight, in line with posterior mar- 
gin ai*irru//A (Walker) 

Brachyrhynchus suicatus (Kormilev, 1958J 
(Figs 50, 37A,E.H.J) 

Mezira st4lcara Kormilev, 1958: 9 1 (descr.); KonnlltV. 

l%5a; 33 (locality records); Kormilev, l%7y 546 

(locality records); Kormilev. 1968: 231 (locality 

Mezira {Zemira) Si4lcanr. Kormilev J 97 1 : 32. 40 (incl. 

mkey; locality records). 
BrachyrhynduiS sulcarm: Kormilev & Froeschnct. 

1987:1 19 Oixied), 

TYPE. Hokuvpe c. Australia N.S.Wales, inHNHM, 
Not examined but specimens compared with hoiotype 
on my behalf by Dt T. V^sirhelyi, 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. 261 specimens: NEW 
GUINEA: Popondeiia; Brown River, via Pori 
Ijockerbie, Cape York, in ANIC: 3km E of Lockerbie; 
Bamaga: Andoom. via Weipa; Iron Range; West 
Cluudte R., in QM; Rocky River, via Cuen, in AM; 
Shipton's Fliii. via HelenvaJe, in ANIC and QM; Coo- 
per Ck, Cape Tribulation, in ANIC; Upper Dainu-ee 
River, MoBsman Gorge, in QM; Redlynch. in BMNH. 
Cairns; Gordonvale; Upper Mulgravc River. Maalan. 
mQM: Yarrabah; Gadgarra, Bailey's Creek; KoIbi>. in 
QDPl; Innisfaii; Eubenangee; Kurandii, in AM. 
SOUTH QUEENSLAND Brootoo SF. S. of Gympic, 
in AM; Bulburin SF, Mount Bauplc. North Pmc Rivcr. 
in QM; Pine River, in QDPl; Queensland (un- 
localized), in BMNH. (QM duplicates lodged in DJ, 
SAM. EH, UQ1C>. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 38). Common, subcoTTi- 
cal. rainfore&i species in New Guinea and along 
the eastern seaboani of AuKtrdia from Ihc tip at 



Cape York to S Queensland. The type series is 
labelled 'N.S.Wales' but no modem material is 
available to authenticate its occurrence south of 
the Queensland border. There is a large gap in 
collecting records between Innisfail and 

REMARKS. This species is recognizable by its 
strong elevations on the pronotal fore lobe and the 
deep sulcus between forelobe and hind lobe. It is 
common in north Queensland but rare in the 
south. Old and modem records from the southern 
limit of its range are from the Pine River, north 
of Brisbane, and the great destmction of the fring- 
ing gallery rainforest there in recent years places 
its present status in doubt. 

Brachyrhynchus subtriangulus (Kormilev, 
1953) (Fig. 37C,F,G,I) 

Mezira membranacea triangula: Kormilev, 1953: 339 

Mezira subtriangula Kormilev. 1957c: 269 (descr.); 

Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 379 (listed); Kormilev, 

1967a: 546{localityrecords); Kormilev, 1967c: 300 

(locality records). 
Mezira (Zemira) subtriangula: Kormilev, 1971 : 34, 46 

(incl. in key; locality records). 
Brachyrhynchus subtriangulus: Kormilev & Froesch- 

ner;i987: 119(Hsted). 

TYPE. Holoiype 6, New Guinea, Huon Gulf, 
Simbang, 1898, Biro, in HNHM. Not examined. 

QUEENSLAND: Lockerbie, Cape York, 26 2 9,6-, GBM, 2c? 1 9, 10-15,vi.l969, GBM, 26, 
13-27.iv.l973, GBM; 3km E of Lockerbie, \6, 16- 
20.ix.l974, GBM; Iron Range, 56 39, 30.iv.- 
4.vii.l977,GBM,3d 1 9,,GBM,2c? 19, 
5-10.V.1968, GBM, 26 29, 28.iv.-4.v.l968, GBM, 
19, 11-17.V.1968, 19, 27-30.iv.l973, GBM; Leo 
Creek road, 500 m, Mcll wraith Range, 5d 3 9 , 
4.vii.l976, GBM & SRM, in QM; Mcllwraith Range, 
NE of Coen, Id. 1976, J. Donaldson, in 
QDPI. (QM duplicate lodged in EH, UQIC). 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 38). Confined to 
rainforests of the northern half of Cape York 
Peninsula. Widespread and common in New 
Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon 
Islands, Vanuatu and Micronesia. 

REMARKS. Brachyrhynchus subtriangulus is a 
member of a difficult complex of large species 
related to B. membranaceus (Fabricius, 1803) 
and which occur from Asia through the islands of 
the Indo-Pacific. Kormilev ( 1 957c) first began to 

split the group into discrete species and he con- 
tinued in 1971 when he erected B, (Zemira) to 
contain them and provided a key to species. In the 
eastern part of its range this group is represented 
by B. subtriangulus, B. solomonensis (Kormilev, 
1 97 1 ), B. micronesicus (Esaki & Matsuda, 1 95 1 ) 
and B. funebrus (Kormilev, 1971) but sub- 
triangulus is the only member to reach Australia. 
This is the first record of the species from the 

Brachyrhynchus elegans (Kormilev, 1967) 
(Figs 36, 37D) 

Mezira elegans Kormilev, 1967: 543 (descr.). 
Brachyrhynchus elegans: Kormilev & Froeschner, 
1987: 125 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype 9 , Dorrigo, N.S.Wales. W. Heron, in 
SAM 120,393. Examined. 

type only known. 

REMARKS. The status of this species remains 
doubtful in the absence of additional material to 
confirm the authenticity of the label locality of 
the unique holotype. Kormilev, when describing 
the species expressed some doubts when he wrote 
'this new species looks more like a Neotropical 
Mezira than an Australian species, however the 
hind border of pronotum is more deeply sinuate 
than in the Neotropical species' . Nevertheless the 
failure of more material of this apparently sub- 
cortical species to be recollected from the well 
known locality of Dorrigo, together with its non- 
Australian facies, favours the suspicion that the 
holotype is a mislabelled exotic, 

Brachyrhynchus australis (Walker, 1873) 
(Figs 3A-D, 5P, 37K) 

Crimia australis V</a\.keT, 1873: 22 (descr.); Lelhierry 

&Severin, 1896:47 0isted). 
Brachyrhynchus scrupulosus Bergroth, 1886: 56 

(descr.); Lethierry & Severin, 1896: 43 (listed); 

Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: \]9 (Usied) syn. now 
Brachyrhynchus australis: Distant, 1902: 362 (listed); 

Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 1 14 (listed). 
Mezira australis: Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 379 

(listed); Kormilev. 1965a: 33 (locality records); 

Kormilev, 1965b: 6 (locality records); Blote, 1965: 

34 (locality records); Kormilev, 1967a: 542 (locality 

records); Kumar, 1967 (internal anatomy). 


Crimia australis: Lectotype 9, N. Hoil., Ent. Club. 
44-12, in BMNH. Examined. 



FIG. 36. Dorsal view ol liolotype 'M BracMrHynchux 

Brach\rh\nchusscrupi4losus: Holotype 9, No v. Hull., 
.ScholiA 7269. in HUB. Examined. 

LECTOTYPE. Walker 1. 1 873) listed 3 specimens 
as fono\^ts: 'a. Australia. Presented by the Ento- 
nxoiogicai Club. b. South Australia. Presented by 
R. Bakev^eli Esq, c. QueensUmiV All 3 speci- 
mens are preser\ed in the British Museum and 
they represent 3 different species Specimen *a* 
is a ? of the species which has been widely 
known as mistralis in modem times (Kormilcv, 
I%5a. 1965b, 1967a; Kumar, 1967) and is here 
designated the lectorype. The specimen ss stage 
mounted and is in good condition except for the 
loss of the right middle leg, the tibia of the left 
middle leg, the apical segment of ihe left antenna 
ai>d ihc two apical segments of the nght antenna- 
II rww bears 5 labels as follows: ( I ) handwritten, 
pencil, white 'N. Holl.\ (2) printed, while 'HnL 
Club. 44- 12*. (3) printed, white 'Crimiaamtralis 
Walker's Calal', (4) red, handwritten ^LECTO- 
TYPE. rnm/aaav/ra//^ Walker, 1 873\<5> white, 
printed 'Mezira australis (Walker. 1873) Dei. 
G.B Monteith. 1978'. Specimen 'h' is a 9 of fi. 
wilsotti Kormilev. It bears a circular, green-edged 
label reading T>'pe' but, according to advice 
from Mr W. Dolling of the British Museum, such 
labels on Walker material have no nomcnclalural 
status. Accordingly this specimen has been la- 
belled as a SynT}'pe of Crimia australis Walker 
but now bears my determination label as Mezira 
wilsoni. Specimen *c' is a ? of Neunxtenus» 
gramJis Kormilev and now bears a Synt\fpr label 
as Critma aastralis and my dctcnninaliun label 
as Neurocrenas grandis. 

SYNONYMY OF Brachyrhynciius scrupuhsus, 
Bcrgroth's description ol scrupulosus refers only 
to the 5 and gives the following details on ftiaie- 
riaJ studied; *Pa!ria: Australia (D. Schult/). Mus. 
Berol. Var b. Minor, lotus niger l.on 5 7'/5 • 8 
mm. Patria: Nova Caledonia - Coll. Sign.' I have 
taken the single $ipecifT»en in the collection of the 
Humboldt University of Berlin as the holotypc 
and it agrees well with the Lectotype of Walker's 
species selected above. 1 have nol located the 
New Caledonian specitncn mentioned by 
Bcrgroth but since it is referred to as Var b' it 
cannot qualify asof synlypic status under Article 
72b o! the ICZN. Kortmlcv & FrtK-schner { 1987) 
eiToncously listed 'New Guinea' instead of New 
Caledonia for type material of this species. 

MATERIAL E.XAMINED- The ivpes and 2% spcci- 
niejis: N( )RTHERN' TERRITORY: Siaplcton, in SAM 
& BMNH: Black Point. Cobourg Pen.; 9km NE of 



Mudginberri HS; Gove; Horn Islet, Pellew Group, in 
QM; I2kni NNE Borroloola, in ANIC; W. Alligator R. 
mouth, in QM. NORTH QUEENSLAND: Hann River 
Xing, in ANIC; Mt Isa; Karumba; 26km W Mareeba; 
6 ml. W. ofKuranda; 50 ml. S. of Hughenden; *40-Mile 
Scrub', via Mt Garnet; Walkamin; 7.7km W 
Greta Ck., 20 ml N of Proserpine; Mt Etna, Rockhamp- 
ton in QM; Clermont, in AM. SOUTH QUEENS- 
LAND: Coringa Scrub. Central Burnett; Rosedale; 
Pomona; Taroom; Inglewood; Broadwater, in QDPl: 
Fletcher in ANIC; Mt Moffatt NP, The Tombs; Mt 
Moffait NP, Consuelo Tbld; Womblebank, via Injune, 
in QM; Morven; CunnamuUa; Condamine; Carnarvon 
Gorge; Blackall; St. George, in AM; Millmerran; Con- 
damine; CunnamuUa: Bybera Road, Inglewood; Chin- 
chilla; Glenmorgan; 16km N Boonah; Mt Crosby, in 
QM and in UQIC; Braemar SF, via Kogan; Lake 
Broadwater (SW Track); Lake Broadwater (Site 9); 
Warwick; Dunwich, Stradbroke Island; Meandarra; 
Brisbane, in QM; Ravensboume; Bunya Mis; Mt 
Tamborine; Nundubbemere Falls, 25km SW 
Stanlhorpe, in QM; 1 6 km S Texas, in ANIC; Fletcher, 
in BCRI. NEW SOUTH WALES: 10 ml W of Glen 
Innes; 30 ml. W of Junee, in QM; Nyngan dist.; Wel- 
lington; Coolabah, in ANIC; Bogan River; Wheogo, 
nr. Dunedoo; Nyngan; Howlong; Barrington Tops; nr. 
Tottenham; Burning Mt., Wingen; Tenterfield; 
Nandewar Range, nr. Narrabri, 6km SE of Mt Harris; 
Weetaliba; 38km N. of Bourke, in AM; Ponlo Falls, nr 
Wellington, in QM; Branxton; Wellington; Howlong; 
Sandy Hollow, 30km W Muswellbrook. in BCRI; Syd- 
ney; N.S.Wales, in BMNH. AUSTRALIAN CAPI- 
AUSTRALIA: Parachilna, Flinders Ranges, in QM; 
Mt Remarkable, in SAM. (QM duplicates lodged in DJ, 

DESCRIPTION (based on Leciotype and addi- 
tional modem material). Medium sized, oval, 
7.50-9.00mm long, with elevations of pronotal 
fore lobe low. 

MALE. Head length subequal to width across 
eyes; vertex with crowded, low granules not in 
rows; supra-ocular carinae well developed, cren- 
ulate; postocular tubercles broad, with hind mar- 
gins curved, reaching, or slightly surpassing outer 
profile of eyes; antenniferous tubercles with outer 
margins subparallel, their apices blunt, reaching 
to basal 1/3 of first anlennal segment; genal pro- 
cesses reaching to 4/5 length of first antennal 
segment, with their apices blunt, notched and 
sometimes slightly divergent. Rostrum shorter 
than rostral groove which is open posteriorly. 
Anlennal length 1 .5- 1 .75 times head length; seg- 
ment III longest; segments II and III apically 

Pronotum width 1.87-1.96 times median 
length; collar clearly separated off; lateral mar- 

gins subparallel on posterior half and convergent, 
straight, on anterior half; anterolateral angles 
rounded, narrow, not produced anteriorly beyond 
level of collar; fore lobe with submedian areas 
each consisting of a low crescentic, obliquely 
placed glabrous callus surrounded by a single row 
of granules on inner margin and by 2-3 rows of 
granules on outer margin; sublateral areas form- 
ing a weakly inflated patch of granules; hind 
pronotal lobe bearing rather sparse surface gran- 
ules; hind pronotal margin moderately concave in 
centre. Scutellum with width LI 8- 1.32 limes 
length; margins carinate, thickened at anterolat- 
eral angles; apex notched; disc granulate, wrin- 
kled, with midline weakly elevated. Hemelytra 
reaching hind margin of Tg VI; coria reaching 
half length of Tg III, their surface granular; mem- 
branes black with surface opaque and roughened, 
venation not distinct. 

Abdomen with margins gently curved, without 
any Cx angles protruding; outer half of dorsal Cx 
plates longitudinally striate, inner half punctate; 
Tg VII roundly elevated above pygophore; 
paratergites of VIII short, broad, apically rounded 
and with spiracle ventral, far from apex. 
Pygophore with base of dorsum impressed on 
each side of midline. Parameres as in Fig. 37K. 
Spiracles of segments II- VII present, situated 
ventrally, far from margin. 
FEMALE. As for S except: Tg VII with a quad- 
rate elevation which is depressed in middle; 
paratergites of VIII short, broad, shorter than 
length of midline of Tg VIII; apex of segment IX 
surpassing apex of paratergites of VIII. 

MEASUREMENTS. Leciotype oiaustralis first, 
hololype of scrupulosus second, then ranges of 
2 cJ and $ . L: 8.50, 9.00, 7.50-8.00, 7.83-9.00; W: 
3.92, 4.17, 3.33-3.75, 3.67-4.08; HL: 1.30, 1.40, 
1.26-1.32, 1.16-1.34;HW: 1.36, 1.40; 1.16-1.30, 
1.26-1.28; PL: 1.54, 1.66, 1.30-1.40, 1.42-1.60; 
PW: 2.88, 3.16, 2.50-2.75, 2.75-3.08; SL: 1.30, 
1.42, 1.14-1.36, 1.30-1.40; SW: 1.72, 1.86, 1.40- 
1 .60, 1 .54-1 .80; WL: 4.58, 4.67, 3.83-4.42, 4. 1 7- 
4.75; corium length: 2.40, 2.40, 2.06-2.20, 
1 .90-2.30; AS: 1, 0.50, 0.54, 0.42-0.48, 0.44-0.50; 
II, 0.58, 0.58, 0.44-0.50, 0.50-0.56; III, 0.68-0.76. 
0.58-0.60, 0.64-0.70; IV, absent, 0.50, 0.44-0.48, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 38). Endemic, subcorti- 
cal, open forest species with the widest distribu- 
tion and the greatest tolerance of aridity oi any 
Australian mezirine. Northern Territory to north 
Queensland and down eastern Australia to the 



FIG. 37. Brachyrhynchus spp.; A, B. sulcatus d ; B, 5. wilsoni; C, B. subtriangulus S ; D-F, 9 abdominal apices; 
D, B. eiegans ventral; E, B. sulcatus dorsal; F, B. subtriangulus dorsal; G-H, spermathecae; G, B. subtriangulus; 
H, B. sulcatus; I-L, left parameres, inner view; I, B. subtriangulus; J, B. sulcatus; K, B. amtralis; L, B. wilsoni. 



A.C.T. and E South Australia. It has not been 
recorded from Vicioria or from northern Cape 
York Peninsula. 

REMARKS. This species is closely related to B. 
wUsont and is broadly sympatric with it over 
much of eastern Australia. 

Brach}Th>TichusMUsoni {Kormilev, 1967) 
comb.nov. (Fig. 37B,L) 

Mezira wilsoni Kormilev. 1967a: 542 (dcscr.): 
Korrailev & Froeschner. 1987: 160 (listed). 

TYPE. Holoiype cJLome, 
SAM 120390. 


MATERIAL EXAMfNED Holotvpe and 71 spcci- 
(siL-ns: CENTRAL QUEENLAND: Spnngcliffe. via 
Miickay. 2d 3$. 12.i.J965. E.i. Dunwoody, in QM; 
Rtx-khampton, 1$, 15.X.1924, A. Musgrave, in AM. 
SOLTTH QUEENSLAND: 20kin E Kroombit Tops. 2 9 , JS, D. Potter, J. Chaseling; Samibrd, 19.,1966. F.R. Wylie: Ravcnsboume. 1 9, 15.i\.197L 
BKC; North Pine River. 56 1 9, 5.ix.1965, GBM; St 
Lucia. Brisbane, 2d, 3.ii.l975. GIT, in QM: 29, 
3.vii.l91L H. Hacker, in QM & BMNH; South Emu 
Creek, via Emu Vale. I 9 . 22.v.l%9. BKC; Braemar SF, 
via Kogan, 1 d K\ QM Bed 2 1 5. R. Raven, 1 9 . QM Berl 
21K. 18x1979, GBM, 2d 45. 15-19.X.I979. GBM; 
L^e Broadwater, 56 I9, QM Bed 722 (Site 1). 
22.ii.l986. V.E. Davtes & GIT. ! 9. QM Bed 719 (Site 
2 ), 24.n. I9K6, V R Oavies & GIT. in QM NEW SOLTH 
WALES: Toorooka, Macieay R, 1 5, 10.11992, JS & J. 
Cha»ehng; 30 ttil W of Junee, 4d 2 9 , 5.iv.l969. GBM; 
South Ita Stmd Hills. 70 ml. S of Broken Hill. 1 9, 
8.xii.l0^6. J.B. Williams, in QM: Mt Jenabombera, via 
Qucanbeyan, Id, Uj(u.1969. IC. Taplin. in ANIC, 
.lindabyne, allotvpe 2 paratype 9, 26.ii.195l . F.E. Wil- 
son, in SAM; Island Bend, 4.100\ Kosciusko. 29. 
24.xi.l952, J.WT. Armsimng. in AM. ViCTORIA' 
l4kTO W of Murray ville. Berlcsatc 244, Roadside mallee. 
29, 9Ji.I970. C. Brooks: 1km N of Nowingi, Beriesale 
23.1 Roadside MaDee, 2d . 8.iL 1970. C, Brooks; 1 Ikm E of 
I Imih Lakes, Beriesale 239. roadside mallee, 2 d , 6.ii. 1970, 
C. Brooks; Chiltem Forest. Berlesaie 14. leaf liner. Id, 
»t-l967. R.S. Mdnnes; 27kjn S of Ouyen, 1 9. 8.ii.l970.C. 
RRioks, in .-\N!C; M(a>bbera&. 1700 m, 1 9, 5.iv.I969, J. 
Scdlacek. in QM. TASMANIA: Mt Wellington. Id 19. 
J.W. Ev;ins. in QM; Glen Dhu. Id 1 9, 3.viiil929, V.V. 
Hxteian. in AM\ Launcesion, I 9 , in BMNH; Hobart, 3 9 , 
H D.Baker & A Daitncll. in TMAG M'ESTERN AUS^ 
■1R\LIA: Walsh anni, Admiralty Gult, ANIC Bed.871. 
Id. 16.V.1968, J. Baldcfwn, in ANIC (QM duplicates 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 3S). Open forest in Tas- 
mania and on die mainland Tram Victoria Ic 
Mackay in Queensland. Most occurrences arc 

from along the Great Dividing Range but there 
are records from the western plai ns of New South 
Wales and Victoria. One specimen is recorded 
from NU'^ Australia 

REMARKS. B. wilsoniis easily recognized by the 
great enlargemenf of the submedian elevations of 
the pronotai forelobe, but in other respects it is very 
similar to B. australis. The two species overlap in 
range but wilsoni extends to higher elevations and 
is the only member of the Me^ir^nae to occur in the 
higher parts of the Austraban Alps. 

Many of the records ofB. wilsoni are from leaf 
litter and debris at bases of eucalypi trees and in 
this situation it extends into semi-dcseit malice 

Drakivssa Ustngcr^ Maisuda, 1959 

Dmkifssa Usingcr & Matsuda. 1959: 230 (dcscr.); 
Konnikv, I965ii: 25 (key to %pp); Knrmilev. 1971 ; 
6(iDcl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschner. 1987: 136. 

T>TE SPECIES. Ch^lonodtnis hackeri PnAc^ 1942, 
by original designatioiL 

DESCRIPTION. Moderate to large, heavily 
sclcroiised, apterous. 

Head broad and flattened, poslocular tubercles 
usually well developed as triangular lobes; eyes 
small, exserted. separated from antcnniferous tu- 
bercles by a deep cleft extending beyond inner 
margin of eye; antenniferous tubercles usually 
blunt; genal prccesses usually blunt and tKtt fused 
basally beyond die apex of the clypeus; roslral 
gaxne alm<:isi always closed behind; rostr,il 
atrium closed. Antennae usually with all seg- 
ments of similar diameter; two apical segments 
ofsubcqual length. 

Pronotum without median longitudinal groove; 
submedian areas no< elevated and usually with 
distinct glabrous places; sublateral elevations 
present; pronotai collar separated off by a dof«il 
groove and bearing both dorsal and ventral oj)- 
posable tubercles; hind margin of pronotum with 
discrete border present in median region, 
Mesonotum and metanotum both with elevations. 
Thoracic opposable tubercles always present as 
follows: a pair present between mesonotal and 
meianotal elevations one each side of thorax; two 
pairs (anterior and posterior) present betv^rcn 
raetanotal elevations and median plate of abdom- 
inal Tg L A deeply inflected cavity present be- 
tween mesonotum and metantitum on each >id<e 
of midline. Legs not bicolourcd T;4rsal puUilh 
present, spaiulaic. 




♦ 6. sulcatus 

^ B, subtriangutus 

♦ B. elegans 

♦ B. australis 
■ B, wilsoni 

FIG. 38. Records of species of Brachyrhynchus in Australia. 

Abdominal tergal disc usually not greatly ele- 
vated; its pattern of glabrous areas generally 
distinct and demarcated by raised ridges; 
inner glabrous areas of Tg II and in subdivided 
by ridges; suture between Tg I and II distinct in 
middle and obliterated laterally; small oppos- 
able tubercles present between posterior angles 
of central plate of Tg I and anterior margin of Tg 
II; lateral margins of Cx VII usually angled in 6 . 

Meso- and metasierna with median im- 
pressions; pattern of glabrous areas deeply im- 
pressed on abdominal sterna. 

Spemiatheca and its duct without modifica- 
tions, or with a dilation in the duct. Parameres 
with a row of fine teeth on inner face. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. lOB). Australian endemic 
confined to the eastern seaboard between central 
Cape York Peninsula and northern N.S.W. 

REMARKS. Drakiessa has 13 named and I un- 
named species making it the largest genus of 
Aradidae in Australia. It comprises a group of 
large robust species separable from all other ap- 
terous Australian Mezirinae by the non-sulcale 
midline of the pronotum and the pattern of tho- 
racic opposable tubercles. All species, except the 
rather anomalous type, D. hackeri, coat them- 
selves with a heavy incrustation of soil and debris 
which must be cleaned off before identification. 
This is difficult to do with dried specimens because 
the body hairs are embedded in the dried soil layer. 
It is best done with a mounted needle and fme 
with the specimen in alcohol before mounting. 

The genus has its centre of diversity in .south 
Queensland where 7 species occur in a complex 
interwoven distribution pattern with up to 4 spe- 
cies being sympatric. The remaining species occur 



singly in rainforest tracts further north in Queens- 
land wiih the exception of the major Cairns - 
Aiherton Tableland system where D. glaebula 
and IX planula coexist and at Eungella where D. 
sybilae and D. minor coexist. 


I. Second and third antennal segments with crcci 
setae as long as diameter of shaft of segment; 
gena! processes apically pointed (except in P. 
arW/m(>a) and wjih a lateral angulation ... .2 
Second and third antennal segments with decum- 
bent setae shorter than diameter of shaft of seg- 
ment; genal proccssefi tipicnlly rounded (except 
sometimes D- wasseUt) and without a lateral an- 
gulation - 4 

2( I ). Scuiellar area convex and granular; sides of ab- 
domen convex laterally viragOySp.uov. 

Scuteilar area llai and smooth; sides of abdomen 
straight ,.»,»,,,,.*,.. X ...... 3 

3(2). Gena] processes attenuate and apically pointed; 
margin of C\ VIl straight on each side of 

pygophore yv/>/76e sp.nov. 

Genal paxesses apically blunt; margin of Cx VII 
angulate on each side of pygophore 
arelimira sp.nov. 

4(1). Metikthoiaic scent gland orifice widely open, with 
prominent evaporative area visible in cleft; dor- 
sal body surface with some sparse patches of 
erect setae, particularly on sublatcral elevations 
of pronotum; abdominal spiracies raised on low 
tubercles; 6 without polished boss on St VD . . 5 
Metptboracic scent gland orifice narrow and slil- 
Hkc; dorsal body surface without erect setae; 
abdominal spiracles noi usually on low tuber^ 
cles; 6 with a polished boss on St VD (except 
D. hackeri) 7 

5(4). Pronotum with a lateral explanate margin lat- 
crad of sublatcral pronotal elevations 

parva Kormilev 

Pronotum without lateral explanate margins lat- 
eradof. sublatcral pronotal elevations 6 

0(5). Third and fourth aniennal segments subequal 
in length and diameter; postero-lateral margin of 
Cx VI not angled in male . . cdH/rW/', sp. nov. 
Third antennal segment longer and thinner than 
fourth; postcro-lateral margin of Cx VI angled in 
male g/a<'i?«/a, .sp.nov. 

7(4). Mom of head i±nd body surface with dense, 
waxy, decumbent setae, postocular tubercles re- 
duced to narrow bands behind eyes, male with- 
oul median, polished boss on St ( Vtl; size large, 
1 1 mm or moie in length ... ftm^^t-n (Drake) 
Head and body surface with sparse, mconspicu- 
ous setae; postocular tubercles fonning angular 
processes behind eyes; male with a median, pol- 

ished boss on St VII: size smaller, less than 

11 mm in length ^ ...•., .^ . ^ 

8(7). Antenniferous tubercles and genal processes 
apically pointed; male with postero-lateral mar- 
gin of Cx VI angulaie (Cape York Peninsula) 

wasseliU sp. nov. 

Antenniferous tubercles and genal processes apically 
blunt; male with margins of Cx V( straight . 9 

9(8). Genal processes separate at base but with their 
apices bent towards each other and contiguous, 
thus enclosing a foramen between their bases; 
explanate lateral margtn of pronotum terminat- 
ing anterior to hind angles; female with median 
length of St V|| longer ^an combined lengths ol* 

St V and VI canfusa Kormilev 

Genal processes parallel, their apices not bent to- 
wards each other, explanate lateral margin of 
pronotum continuous to hind angles; female 
with median length of St VII shoner than com- 
bined lengths of St V and VI . 10 

10(9). Polished boss on Si VII on male in form of a 
small capitate tubercle wiiti height equalling 
width (ca 0- 1 5mm); genal processes usually 
barely reaching apex of first antenna! segment, 
head margin deeply incised behind posterior iu» 

bercles 11 

Polished boss on St VII of male forming a broad, 
low disc about 0.5mm wide; genal processes 
slightly surpassmg apex of first antennal scg- 
mem: head margin sinuate, but not deeply in- 
cised, behind postocular tubercles .... 12 

I U 10). Genal processes contiguous in front of clyp- 
cus; narrower, body with length/widih ratio uf 
thorax and abdomen combined equalling 1 .52- 
1.61 (South Queensland) . mm^r Kormilev 
Qenal processes slightly separated in front of 
clypeuN; broader, body wider, with Icngili/width 
ratio of thorax and abdomen combined equalling 
1.4 1 -1.46 (Nonh Queensland) planufa. sp. nov. 

i2( 10). Polished boss on St VH of male bearing two 
smnll superimposed tubercles; female with hiixl 
margin of Tg VI] straight for full width, making 
abdominal apex truncate .... lerfia Kormilev 
Polished boss on St VII of male flat, without su- 
pcrimnosc-d tubercles; female with hind marstn 
of Tg VII curved laterally so that abdominal 
;ipex i.s more rounded - . . consobrina^ sp. t)oyf. 

Dr&kiessa hackeri {Drake. 1942) 
(Figs 2A, 40H, 43P,R,S. 440,d) 

Chelonoderus hackeri Drvkc, 1942: I90(dc&ct.). 

Drakiessa hackeri. Usingcr & Matsuda. 1959 33li 
Kormilev, 1963: 446 (locality records); KormiJev, 
1964: 47 (locality records); Kormilev. 1965a: 23 
(kx-ality records). Kormilev, 1967a: 523 (locality 
records): Kumar. 1967 (internal anatomy); 
Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 136 (listed). 



TYPE. Holotype 9, Montville, Australia, Jan., 1913. 
In NMNH. Type not examined but good condition 
veritled for me by Dr R.C. Froeschner. The holotype, 
plus a paratype 9 labelled 'Buderim Mountains, Aus- 
tralia, 6.iv.l2, H. Hacker*, are housed in the Drake 
Collection of Hemiptera, NMNH. 

QUEENSLAND: Gayndah, 2 9, Masters, in AM; 
Harry's Hut, Cooloola, 19, 4.V.1994, R.Sheridan; 
Cooran Tableland, via Gympie, IS, 49, 19- 
21.iii.l976, GBM; Jimna Range, via Kilcoy, 19, 
9.xii.l966, GBM, 26 29, 4.iv.l969, BKC; Yarra- 
man, l<?,21.iv. 1957; Imbil, 2 9, 6.xii. 1966, GBM; Mt 
Beerwah, \S, 12.viii.l966; Buderim Mountain, 36 
I 9 , 8.iv. 1 9 1 2, H. Hacker, in QM; Blackall Ranges, 3 6 
39, A.M. Lea, in SAM; Mt Glorious, \6. 24.ii.1987, 
A Hiller; Highvale, 19, 15.ix.l964; Mt Nebo, 19, 
9.ix. 1 986, S. Wilson, 1 9 . 3.ix. 1966, H. Burton; Brook- 
field, 26, 10.iv.l964, 16 59, 19.X.1964. GBM, in 
QM, 19, 19.X.1964, GBM, in ANIC; Uely Gully, via 
Mt Crosby, 2cJ 29, 31. x.1964, GBM; Brisbane, Id, 
18.iii.l984, G.Sames, 19, 3.vii.l911, H. Hacker, IN, 
7.ii.l925,H.Hacker, 19,viii.l963,B.A.Mooney, Id, 
22-24.i. 1975, GIT, 1 9 , 3.ii. 1975, GIT, I 6 , 1961 , J.H. 
Bryan, in QM. 29, 2N, 8.viii.l959, R. Kleinschmidt, 
in QDPI; Tamborine Mm., 2d 39 1 N, 28.x. 1912, H. 
Hacker, in QM, 19 1N» A.M. Lea, in SAM, 19, 
26.xi.1982, J. &. E. Doyen, in ANIC; National Park, 

1 9. H. Hacker; Canungra, 19, iaxii.1967, GBM. in 
QM: Tallebudgera Creek, 2 9 , 1 1 .x. 1980, DJC, in UQIC 
NEW SOUTH WALES: Rivertree, 1 9 , E.Sutton, in 
BMNH; Whian Whian SF, via Dunoon, 700', 39, 
25-26.xi.l972, GBM. in QM. NO LOCALITY: Id, 
29. 6N, in QDPI; I 9, in QM; Id, in SAM, 4d 39, 
in AM. (QM duplicates lodged in DJ, NMNH, 

DESCRIPTION. Very large, ll-lSmm long, with 
dense vestiture of waxy, adpressed setae covering 
most of dorsal and ventral surfaces of head and 

MALE. Head slightly longer than wide, its dor- 
sum completely covered with waxy setae except 
for narrow glabrous strip on each side of vertex; 
postocular tubercles reduced to a narrow, angular 
strip behind each eye; eyes rather large, separated 
from anlenniferous tubercles by a narrow cleft; 
antenniferous tubercles short, broad, apically 
blunt, extending beyond eyes by a little less than 

2 eye diameters; genal processes with bases sep- 
arate and apices contiguous enclosing a small 
foramen usually filled with detritus; lateral mar- 
gins of genal processes each with a sub-apical 
angulation. Rostral groove closed posteriorly. 
Antennae shorter than head, with total length 
0.8-0.9 head length; segment I longest, segment 
II shortest; segments III and IV subequal; setae 
on segments II and III short, adpressed. 

Pronotum with anterolateral angles produced 
into rounded, semi-erect lobes terminating poste- 
rioriy before hind angles; sublateral elevations 
small, lower than upturned edges of lateral lobes; 
submedian areas with prominent glabrous dLscs 
laterad of median ridge terminating posteriorly 
as a slighUy projecting median tubercle on hind 
pronotal margin; anterior to submedian areas pro- 
notum slopes sharply forward to collar. Meso- 
notum with wing vestiges projecting laterally 
beyond body margin; scutellar area not raised; 
sublateral elevations of mesonotum larger than 
those of metanotum; metanotum largely glabrous 
laterad of median setose ridge. Metathoracic scent 
gland groove very narrow and semi-occluded. 

Abdominal Tg I with central area raised and 
bearing two opposable tubercles on each side 
bearing against metanotal elevations; abdominal 
tergal disc raised along midline and with pattern 
of glabrous areas holding marked by setose 
ridges; inner glabrous areas of Tg III-VI each 
subdivided into two by strongly elevated longitu- 
dinal ridges; sides of abdomen straight with mar- 
gins of Cx II- VI a little sinuate; margin of Cx VII 
with a small projecting angulation; paratergiles 
of VII very short, truncate, with spiracles apical. 
Mesostemum with a median sulcus. Pygophore 
deeply withdrawn inside segment VII, with a 
dorsal projection formed from apices of posterior 
parandria. Parameres as in Fig. 440. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: Tg VII with a pair of 
transverse posterior tubercles; St VII with median 
length shorter than that of V and VI combined. 
Spermatheca with a secondary chamber devel- 
oped in its short duct (Fig. 44D). 

MEASUREMENTS. Ranges of 2d and 29. L: 
10.83-12.13, 13.67-14.50; W: 5.00-5.83, 7.33-7.50; 
HL: 3.00-3.58, 3.83-3.92; HW: 2.83-3.42, 3.50-3.67; 
PL: 1.25-1.32, 1.42; PW: 3.42^.25, 4.50-4.83; AS: 
1, 1.05-1.06, 1.10-1.22; II, 0.50-0.60,0.60-0.64;11L 
0.66-0.78, 0.760.86; IV, 0.64, 0.74, 0.78. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Common in open 
eucalypt forests of lowlands and tablelands from 
near Gayndah in SE Queensland to near Lismore 

REMARKS. This well known species was the 
second apterous aradid to be described from Aus- 
tralia and although it is the type species of the 
largest Australian genus, it shows a number of 
features unique in the Australian fauna. It is the 
largest member of the Aradidae on the continent 
and is the only apterous mezirine to have fully 



adapted to the non-rainforest environment in Aus- 
tralia. It has a fairly close association with Mronbark' 
eucalypts and may be found in large colonics on 
the underside of logs and under loose bark of dead 
stumps of this group of Eucalyptus species. The 
deep surface crevices and non-shedding charac- 
teristics of their bark provides a continuous cor- 
tical environment for a number of years after tree 
death and this enables several seasons of colony 
buildup of the aradid to occur after initial colony 
founding by this flightless species. D. hacked has 
a surprisingly small geographic range consider- 
ing the apparent lack of habitat constraints such 
as are seen in its rainforest relatives. 

Within Drakiessa this species is strikingly dis- 
tinct with its characteristic dense surface vesti- 
lure, its reduced postocular tubercles and its 
apparently functionless scent gland openings. 
Newly emerged specimens also show a surface 
bloom of waxy material not seen in other species. 
However, its basic thoracic structure is quite in 
accord with the generic pattern. 

Drakiessa cantrelli sp. nov. 

(Figs. 40B, 431, 44e) 

Drakiessa parva: Kormilev, 1967a: 523 (misideni.). 

TYPE. Holoiype d, Whian Whian Stale Forest, 700\ 
via Dunoon, New South Wales, 5. v. 1973, 1. Naumann, 
QMT 11667. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 5 paratypes: 
SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Joalah NP, Ml Tamborine, 
19, 18.vii.l969, BKC. 12, 12.iii.l990, J. Slanisic & 
D. Potter; Lamington NP, 19, 15.ix.l969, BKC, in 
QM. NEW SOUTH WALES: Mt Warning, in pitfall 
trap, I 9 , vi-xi. 1 976, GBM & SRM, in QM. (paratypes: 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 7. 5-9. 8mm 
long with tubercular thorax, reduced postocular 
tubercles and sparse, erect setae on dorsum. 
MALE. Head slightly wider than long, its dorsum 
smooth, with tufts of erect setae at apices of 
antenniferous tubercles, postocular tubercles and 
genal processes; eyes small, strongly slylate, with 
small bluntly angulate postocular tubercles borne 
on stylate bases of eyes; cleft between eyes and 
antenniferous tubercles wide, the latter small, 
short, curving laterally, barely longer than stylate 
eyes, with blunt apices; 2 pairs of prominent 
opposable tubercles between antenniferous tu- 
bercles and median head process; genal processes 
narrow, slightly divergent, apically blunt. Anten- 
nae 1.15 times head length with adpressed setae 
on all segments; segment I longest, segment II 

shortest, segments III and IV subequal; all anten- 
nal segments subequal in diameter. Rostral 
groove closed behind. 

Pronotum with long, erect setae with hooked 

apices on lateral and sublateral lobes; explanaie 
lateral lobes reduced to flattened projections at 
anterolateral pronotal angles; sublateral eleva- 
tions very large and overhanging posterior prono- 
tal margin; anterior portion of sublateral 
elevations drawn out into hypertrophied oppos- 
able tubercles of collar. Mesonotum with scutel- 
lar area smooth and continuous with metanotum; 
lateral elevations of mesonotum large, smooth; 
wing vestiges forming small setose, lateral lobes; 
a very deep pit present between meso- and 
metanota on each side of middle; metanotal ele- 
vations large, smooth, with large opposable tuber- 
cles directed anterolateral ly and posteromesally. 
Metathoracic scent gland openings widely open, 
curving above mid coxae, with extensive evapo- 
rative surface visible inside cleft. Legs with 
semi-erect setae on femora and tibiae. 

Midline of abdominal Tg I prominently raised 
into a bilobed elevation; fused tergal disc with 
smooth, raised ridges separating glabrous areas; 
inner glabrous areas of Tg III, IV and V each 
subdivided into two by a ridge. Cx II very long 
and narrow; lateral margins of Cx II- VI straight, 
those of VII weakly angulate; Tg VII strongly 
inflated above pygophore. Paratergites of VIU 
short, truncate, with spiracles apical. Meso-, 
meta- and abdominal St with deep margin im- 
pression; pattern of glabrous areas deeply im- 
pressed on St and oudined by raised ridges; 
abdominal spiracles raised on low tubercles; St 
VII without polished boss. 

FEMALE. As for S except: abdominal tergal 
disc broadly inflated; Tg VH with a pair of tuber- 
cles Cx II shorter and broader; median length of 
St VII slightly longer than combined lengths of V 
and VI. Spermatheca with simple, short duct (Fig. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype $ first, then range 
of two 9. L: 7.50, 9.00-9.83; W: 3.42, 4.58-5.00; 
HL: 2.00, 2.28-2.44; HW: 2. 16, 2.40-2.60; PL; 0.88, 
1 .08 - 1.20; PW: 2.44, 2.90-3.42; AS: 1, 0.76, 0.84- 
0.86; n, 0.36, 0.44-0.46; ffl, 0.62, 0.70-0.72; IV, 
0.56, 0.68-0.70. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Rare in mountain 
rainforests on the plateau remnants of the Mt 
Warning shield volcano straddling the Queens- 
land-N.S.W. border. The type locality is the only 



towclevaiion locality from which the species has 
been taken. 

REMARKS. It is a pleasure to name tliis species 
for Bryan Cantrcll. the collector of the first 
known specimens. 

D. canirelU fonns. with the north Queensland 
Dnikiessa giaebula^ a closely related, disjunct 
species pair which have the most highly modified 
thoracic nota in the genus. Were it not tor the 
intermediate species, D. parva, they could conve- 
nieniJy have been separated at generic level. Tlie 
deep cavities, high tubercles and erect setae with 
hooked apices all seem to be noodifications for 
holding the very thick layer of soil and debris with 
which they characteristicaUy coat themselves. 

Orakiessa giaebula sp. nov. 
(Figs 39, 40L, 43M, 44K.V,h) 

TYPE. Holotype cJ, Millaa Millaa Falls. N. Qld, 
4.xii.l965, G.B. Monteilh. QMTl 1668. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 14 
Piinilypcs: NORTll QUEENSLAND: Bellenden Ker 
Ra.. \6 rl\ 1.5km S. Cable Tower No 7. 500m. 
I7-24.X.198L Earthwaich/QM. Id, 1km S. Cable 
Tower No. 6. 500in, 17-24.X.I981, Earthwaich/QM, 
Id, Cable Tower No. 3. 1054 m. i7..\ - 5.xi.l9SL 
Eanhwatch/QM; Millaa Millaa Falls. 3>6 49, 
4xii.l965. GBM. 2 9, 23.iv.iy68. GBM; Palmerston 
NP, lc5. 23.iv.196S, GBM; Vine Creek Rd, ilOOm. 
I d, 24 xii. 1994, GBM. in QMm'Q.M duplicates lodged 
ID BMNH. EH) (paraiypes: QMT14149-14151. 
QMT 1 4 1 53- 1 4 1 64, QMT22360). 

DESCRIPTION. This species is very closely al- 
lied to D. camrelli, and the (k-scriplioti vvill be 
limited to a comparison with that species. 
MALE. Antennae with segmeniK n and III of 
slightly lesser diameter than that of segments I 
and IV; lateral margin ot pronotum reduced to a 
rarrow anterolateral projection; sublaieraJ prono- 
tal elevations smaller, less smooth: midline of 
hind pronoial margin with an opposable tubercle 
projecting backwards; mesonotal elevations 
smaller and more rugose than meianotal lobes; 
median elevation of abdominal Tg I higher and 
more strongly bilobate; abdominal tergal disc 
with a median, rounded scent gland scar tubercle: 
lateral margins of abdomen rather convex, not 
straight as m cantrelti: posterolateral angles of 
both Cx VI and VII annulate. Parameres as in Fig. 
44 V 

FEM.-VLE. Differs from 9 ofcmrretii^s fallows; 
abdominal tergal disc more convex; sides of ab- 

RG. 39. Dorsal view of bolotypc d of Drakkssxi 


domen wider; size smaller. Spemiatheca wrlh 
short, simple duct (Fig. 44h). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional Id and29 . L: 7.50,7.17-7-50, 
8. 17-8.33; W: 3.83, 3.75. 4.67-4.92; HL: 2. 12, 2.00- 
2.20. 2.20-2.24; HW; 2.20, 2.20-2.28. 2.40-2.44; 
PL: 0.84. 0.84-0.88. 0.884).92; PW; 2.4Z 232, 
236: AS: 1. 0.90, 0.88-0.96. 0.9H-1.00; R. 0.46, 
0.46-0.50. 0.50-0.52. DL 0.64. 0.56'Oj62, 0.68-0.70; 
I\'\ 0.54. 0.500.54, 0.60. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Wet mountain rain- 
forests at the southern end of the Athcnon Table- 
land and adjacent Bellenden Ker Range, N 

REMARKS. O. giaebula is little differentiated 
from D. ccmtrelti, despite their separation by 
about 1 500km. Both species have been taken only 

in wet rainforests mostly on basaltic soils (except 
Bellenden Ker) which suggests that their disjunct 
disthbulion is probably real as there arc few tracts 
of similar rainforest in the intervening region- 



Drakiessa parva Kormilev, 1965 
(Figs 40G, 43N-0, 44C,Q j) 

Drakiessa parva Kormilev, 1965a: 24 (descr.); 
Kormilev, 1967a: 523 (misident. o[ Drakiessa can- 
trelli); Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 136 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype 9, Lamington Nat. Park, S.E. Qld.. 
22.V.1964, G. Monieilh, QMT6327. Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 26 speci- 
mens: SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Cunningham's Gap. 
790m, 1 d , 1 .iii- 1 1 .iv. 1 994, DJC; Binna Burra, 1 d 3 9 , 
19.iv.l986, J.Stanisic; Lamington NP, 19 holotype, 
1 S allotype, 2d 1 9 paratypes, 17.viii.l965,GBM, 1 S 
1 9, 20.iii.l966, S. Hamlyn, 1 6, I7-24.v.l965,GBM, 
Id 19, 17.viii.l965, GBM; Numinbah Arch, 
25,iv.l974, GBM; Levers Plateau, via Ralhdowney, 
Id, 3.iv.l965, GBM; Mt Clunie, 2000', 2d 19, 
27.xi.l972, GBM; Mt Gipps, 750m, Id, l.iv.l991, 
GBM; Upper Tallebudgera Ck., 600m, 1 d 1 9 . GBM 
& DJC, in QM. NEW SOUTH WALES: Wiangaree 
SF, 2d, 14.V.1973, D. Grossman; Mt Glennie. via 
Woodenbong, 2d IN, 3.xi.l983, GBM, in QM. (QM 
duplicates lodged in BMNH, EH, UQIC) (paratypes: 
QMT297 14-297 17). 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 7-8.3mm long, 
with enlarged scent gland openings and continu- 
ous, cxplanate, pronotal margins. 
MALE. Head with median length equalling width 
across eyes, its dorsum with sparse, semi-erect, 
curled setae on apices of ocular and genal pro- 
cesses and along midline; postocular tubercles 
wide, angular, reaching laterally to outer profile 
of eyes; eyes exserted, antennifcrous tubercles 
broad, parallel-sided, apically subtruncate, reach- 
ing beyond eyes by about one eye diameter; op- 
posable tubercles between antennifcrous 
tubercles and median head processes small; genal 
processes long, widened apically, blunt, reaching 
just beyond apex of first antennal segment. Ros- 
tral groove closed behind. Antennal length 1.15- 
1 .3 times head length, with all segments subequal 
in thickness; segment I longest, almost twice 
length of segment II; segments III and IV sub- 
equal; segments II and IE with adpressed setae. 
Pronotum width 2.7-3.0 times median length; 
lateral margins with explanate edges continuous 
almost to posterior angles; sublaieral elevations 
large, their surfaces rugose, overhanging pronotal 
boarder posteriorly; each elevation curving me- 
sally at front and subtending an opposable tuber- 
cle against the collar; posterior pronotal margin 
with a median, posteriorly directed opposable 
tubercle; mesonotum with metanotum with sub- 
lateral elevations smaller than those of pronotum 
and usually roughened and somewhat irregular in 

shape; scuiellar area smooth and continuous pos- 
teriorly to raised central region of abdominal Tg 
I. Metathoracic scent gland orifice widely open 
with evaporative surface extending out of interior 
on to lips of cleft. 

Abdominal tergal disc slightly inflated, with 
pattern of glabrous areas distinctly marked by 
raised, smooth ridges; inner glabrous areas of Tg 
III and rV each subdivided into two by a carina; 
sides of abdomen parallel, with edges of Cx II- VI 
straight; margin of Cx VII bluntly anguiale; 
paratergites of VIII short, cylindrical, tamcate 
with spiracles apical. Meso-, meta-, and abdomi- 
nal St II- VI with deep median impressions; ab- 
dominal spiracles of segments II- VI raised on low 
tubercles; St VII without a raised, polished boss. 
Parameres as in Fig. 44Q. 
FEMALE. As for S except: sides of abdomen 
slightly convex; margin of Cx VII not anguiale; 
Tg VII with quadrate elevation; median length of 
St VII longer than combined lengths of V and VI. 
Spermatheca with short, simple duct (Fig. 44j). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 9 first, then 
ranges of additional two S and two 9. L: 8.00, 
7.00-7.17, 8.00-8.33; W: 4.00, 3.16-3.25, 3.92- 
4.25; HL: 2.12, 1.80-1.92, 1.96-2.16; HW: 2.04, 
1.96-2.00, 2.00-2.20; PL: 0.80, 0.80-0.88, 0.92; 
PW: 2.40, 2.48-2.80, 2.32-2.40; AS: 1, 0.70, 0.74- 
0.76, 0.76; II, 0.36, 0.40, 0.42-0.44; HI, 0.60, 
0.60, 0.64; IV, 0.58, 0.60-0.62, 0.62-0.66. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Wet mountain 
rainforests centred on the Lamington Plateau, SE 
Queensland with extensions along the Macphcr- 
son Range as far west as Cunningham's Gap and 
over the NSW border into the Tweed Ranges. 

REMARKS. This species has the same pattern of 
thoracic tubercles as the canrrelli-glaebula spe- 
cies pair but lacks their specialisations of the head 
(extremely slylale eyes, reduced postocular tu- 
bercles). This places it as an intermediate fonn 
between the more generalized tertia-gronp and 
the divergent cant relit- glaebula pair. D. parva is 
sympatric with both cantrelli and tertia on the 
Lamington Plateau. 

Drakiessa consobrina sp. nov. 
(Figs 5W,X, 40A, 43G, 44E,P,f) 

Drakiessa tertia: Kormilev, 1965a: 24 (misident.). 

TYPE. Holotype d. Bald Mountain area, 3-4,000', via 
Emu Vale, SE Qld. 17-22.V.1969, G.B. Monteith, 



VfATERIAL EXAMINED Holoiype at»d 77 
parac>pes; SOUTH QL^EENSLAND: R"avcnsbounic, 

39. I5.ix.l971, BKC: Toov^oomba, pufall irap. t 5, 
GBM & SRM; Mt Mi&iai;e Plateau, via Gooniburra, 
19. 22.xi.I9S7, GBM; Bare Rock, 2km W Mt 
Cordeaux.ll00m.2tJ 25, 20.ii.J994,GBM. Ml Hunt- 
ley, 1250m, 2d, !S-20.xi 1992. GBM; Bald Mountain 
area.3-4O0OM0(? 79. 17-22.v_iy69. GBM. M, 17- 
22.V.1969. BKC, 16 19. I6-20.v.l97a GBM, 15. 
2911973. 1. Naumann, 19. 22-27.11971. GBM. 12. 
22-27.1.1971, D. Murray, 3(? 29, 27-3111972. GB\t 
2S 29 27-31 i.1972, BKC. I* piifaJI trap, GBM & 
SRM; Ml Superbus summit. i300m. 13d 29. 8- 
9iil990. GBM, GIT & HJ. M 19. pitfalls, IS.ii- 
12.iv.l990, GBM. GIT & HJ; Mt Clunie, 2.(X)0\ 2o' 
19. 27.xi.I972. GBM; ^Hie Head", via Boonah. 2o 
i 9 . 18.1-1973, GBM. in OM. NEW SOUTH WALES: 
Mt Glcnnte. 16 km E. Woodcnbonp, 900m, 2d 29. 
24.xi. 1982, GBM. DKY & DJC; Acacta Plateau, via 
Lcgumc> I 9. 7. V. 1973. 1. Naumann; Tooloom Scrub, 
via Urbcnville, 26 19. 26-27.xii.l%8. BKC. 19. 
25. ii. 1973. GBM; Bellbrook, vin Kempscy, 19. 
2j. 1 967. GBM; Wilson River Reserve, via Wauchope, 
1 (?, L\i.3986. GBM. in QM. {Q.M duplicate& lodged 
MNHG. UQIC) iparutypes: OMT297 18-2978 i ). 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 7 7-9.5TTim 
long, rugose, dark species with prominent prono- 
lal margins and a smooth sternal bi>5s in o . 
MALE Head width equal to or a little more than 
length, its dorsum with scattered^ curled setae; 
about 6 large granules in 2 rows on vertex: 
postocular tubercles large, angular, extending be- 
yond outer profile of eyes; eyes moderately ex- 
serted. with a deep, narrow cleft beisveen them 
and an^enniferous tubercles; the latter broad, 
bJUnU short, surpassing e)nes by about IV^ eye 
diameters; genal processes long, often noiconrig- 
UOU5. with apices swollen and rounded. Rostral 
groove closed poisteriorly Antennae with lengih 
LI- 1.2 times head lengdi; segnvent I longest, 
segment II shortest, segment III stighUy longer 
than IV, segments II and III with adpressed setae. 
Pronoium about 3 times as wide as long, ii5 
surface rough, with scattered setae: margins ex- 
planate, produced anteriorly a*^ flattened, rounded 
lobes; sublaleral elevations small, irregular, situ- 
ated posteriorly and separated Ircmthe tubercle 
opposable against the collar; middle of posterior 
pronotal margin developed as an opposable tu- 
bercle subtended against a tubercle of the scutel- 
lar region of the mesonotum. Mesonotal 
clevatjuns low. coarsely granular; scuicliar re- 
gion setose; metanotaf elevations small, each 
Willi prumment anterior and posterior opposable 
lubercles. Meunhoracic scent gland orifice form- 
ing u curved, niuTOwly open slit. 

Abdominal Tg I with a quadrate cicvaiion me- 
dially; abdominal tergal disc Hat, with p^iUcm of 
glabrous areas delineated by low, rugose, seiose 
ridges, inner glabn^us area of Tg III each subdi- 
vided into 3 by two longitudinal ridges; inner 
glabrous areas of fV divided by one ridge; mcsai 
margins of Cx ITcannaie on posterior half; Cx III 
with a slKirl, median, longituomal canna; sides of 
abdomen straight, widening somewhat posteri- 
orly; Cx MI with margins bluntly angulntc; 
paratergites of vni short, rounded apically, with 
spinvcles subapically ventral . St VII with a rai.scd, 
.smooth boss about 6.5mm in diameter on midline 
imn>edi3te1y behind anterior margin Paranncrcs 
as in Fig. 44P. 

FEMALE. As for 5 except: raised carinac along 
full length of inner margin of Cx 11 and medially 
on Cx ni-Vl; Tg \TI median length less than thai oi" 
V and Vlcombiived. Spermaiiheca<Fig. Owith asmull 
dilation and a long sclerotased region in the duel. 

MEASUREMENTS. Koloiype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 2?. L: 8.17. 7.67- 
8.00, 9.00-9.50; W: 4.CX), 3.75, 4,67-5.08; HL: 
2.00. L9fr-2.<XI, 2.12-2.36; HW; 2 J 6, 1 .96-100. 
2-20-2.44; PL: 0.92, 0.92, L00-L12; PW: 2.80. 
2.60. 3.00-3.5ii; AS: I. 0.76. 0.70, 0.70-0.80; 0. 
0.40, 0.36-0.40, 0.40-0.44; UL 0.64, 0-564).6a 
0.60; IV. 0.60, 0.54-0.56, 0.50-0.58. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Mountain rainforc.s^s 
of the Great Dividing Range from wtM of 
Kempsey, N.S.W. to a liule north of Toowonmba 
in Queensland. StricUy allcpauic wuh nesptxt to 
D. ttrtici. whjch occurs nearer the coast The 
specinven from Cuntiinghara's Gap referred to as 
D. tertia by Koroulev ( 1 965a) is actually O. am- 

RENf ARKS. D consobrina belongs to a group oF 
5 closely allied species (viz. consobrina. rertia, 
minor. planula and conjzisa) With the exception 
of planitla^M occur in SE Queensland where they 
siK»w a complex pauem of disu-ibuiion wifh/<»r- 
//a, minor and ctvifiisa mutually sympatric over 
part of their range. D. co^tohrina, however, 1$ 
isolated from all the others. It occupies a JatiliKii- 
naJ range of over 400km bu| is rclaiivclyf uniform 

Drakies^a tertia Kormilev, 1964 
(Figs 40F, 43 A.F. 44G.N,R,c) 

Drakiessa tenia Kormtlcv, 1964: 47 (descr.. figj; 
Konnilev, 1965a 24 (descr. of 6 ; locality rtrcurdji); 



Kumar. 1967 (internal anatomy); Kormilcv & 
FroesehncT, 1987: 169 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotvpe 9, LaniingtoTi Notioniil Piirk, Qld , 
l4-20.ii.l958, 1.C. Veo. QMT62n. Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holoiypc and 58 speci- 
mens; SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Couruit Tableland. 
40()m, IV. J2.iv.I995, GIT: Kenilwonh SF, \9, 
Llv.I969, BKC. Mt Mee SF, 1$, 7,iv.iy74, GBM: 
Highvalc, IV. i5.ix.l964, GBM; Ml Glorious. II o 
69, 9.1.1972, GBM. 4^, 31.x. 1971, GBM. !.^. 
Liii.l96it, 1 V, 23.iii.1968: Lamington NP, \}6 49. 
l7-24.v.i965, GBM. lo 19. 12.iv.l964. GBM. J?. 
6.iiiJ965, BKC. I 6. 6.iii.l965. TAW. 1 9, 2.1.1973. 
l.Naumann;MtGipps,750m, 1 9, l.iv.l991.GBM,in 
QM, 19, 20.V.1965, GBM, in ANIC. \6 19. 17- 
24. V. 1965. GBM, in QDPI; Springbrook. ANIC Berl 
No. 155. IS. 6.xi.l969, S. Mi.sko. in ANIC. NEW 
SOUTH WALES: Wiangaree SF, via Kyogle, 19. 
28.xi,1970. GBM: Whian Whian SF, via Dunoon. 
700', 26- \ 9 2N, 25-26.\i.l972. GBM, in QM- <QM 
duplicates lodged in BMNH, DJ, SAM, EH, NMNH, 

DESCRIPTION. Large, 8-l02mm long, flat- 
leaed. with truncate abdominal apex and 2 tuber- 
cles on sternal boss of cJ . 
MALE. Head about as wide as long, most of its 
dorsunri with short curled setae; a large granule on 
each side of occiput: postocular tubercles broad 
and angular, reaching outer profile of eyes; eyes 
exsened; antenniferous tubercles short, breed, 
blunt, reaching beyond eyes by a little less than 2 
eye diameters; genal processes usualh separated, 
vJith swollen, rounded apices slightly surpassing 
apex of first antennal segment Rnstral groove 
closed posteriorly. Antennae short, about L! 
limes head length; first segment longest, about 
twice length ofll: segment III a little longer than 
rV; segments U and in with adpressed setae. 

Pronoluiti width about 3.3-3.3 limes median 
length; explanate lateral margins well developed, 
rounded, reaching beyond collar anteriorly and 
back to posterior angles; sublaiera] elevations 
small, consisting ofa cluster of irregular tubercles 
on eiich side and separated from opposable tuber- 
cles subtended against collar; hind pronotal mar- 
gin straight, with a small median, posteriorly 
directed tubercle opposable against a tubercle of 
the mesonoial scuiellar area; sublateral elevations 
of mcsonotum low, irregularly rugose. 
Meiaihoracic scent gland orifice long, narrowly 

Abdominal tergal disc flat except for slightly 
raised, median, longitudinal scent gland scar; pat- 
tern of glabrous areas marked by setose ridges; 
inner glabrous areas of Tg lH subdivided by two 

longitudinal ridges, those of Tg IV and V subdi- 
vided b>- one ridge; mesal margin of Cx 11 con- 
nate; Cx IIl-V! each with a low median carina: 
outer margin of Cx ni-V slightly concave, il>os$ 
of Vn weakly angulate; paratergites of VIII siwrt* 
cylindrical, truncate, with spiracles apical. St Vll 
with a n>edian. polished boss bearing two tuber- 
cles situated immediately behind anterior m:ugin, 
Parameres as in Fig. 44R, 44N. 
FEMALE. As for -5 except: margin of Vll 
straight, continuous for full width making apex of 
body truncate, Tg VII with quadrate elevation 
obsolescent and without pair of tubercles. St VI 
much shorter than combined length of V and VI. 
Spermatheca as in Fig. 44C, with short, sliichtly 
swollen duct. 

MEASUREMENTS Holotvpe $ first, then 
ranges of additional 2d and 25. L: 9.83, 8.00^ 
8.33. 9.50-10.17; W: 5.17. 3.92-4.33. 5.25-5 42; 
HL: 2.48. 2.08-2,20, 2.56-2.68; HW: 2.48. 2.24, 
2.52; PL: 1.08, 0.92. 1.04-1.08; PW 3.42, 3.00- 
3.08, 3.42-3.58; AS : 1 0.86. 0.74-0.84, 0.84-0.90: 
U, 0,44, 0.38-0.40, 0.42-0.48; in. 0.66, 0.60. 
0.60-0.68; iV,0.64, 0.50-0.58, 0.58^0.62. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Rainforests of the 
oiountain ranges centred on the Lamington Pla- 
teau on the Queen&land-N.S.W. border, and in the 
region from Mt Glorious to the Blackall Ranges 
and Cooran Tableland further north. Principally 
a highland species hut has been taken occasion- 
ally at low altitudes, e.g.. Hrghvale, Kenilworth, 
Whian Whian. The record for Cunningham's Gap 
(Kormilev, 1965a) refers to a specimen of fX 

REMARKS . This species shows a disjunct distri- 
bution with northern and southern populations 
separated by the lowlands of tlie lower Brisbane 
River valley. In the south its range extends near 
10 the range of its close sister species, I>. con- 
sotfrina, along the Macpher&oo Range. There D. 
tenia extends west as far as Mt Gipps, wtiile l>. 
consobrina reaches as far east as Ml Glennic. IL 
will be significant to establish wliich. if any. 
species occupies Lever*s Plateau which lies be- 
tween these two mountains. 

Drakiessa planula sp. nov. 
iFjgs 40C. 43K, 44F,J,S:i 

TYPE Holotypc d, Upper Mulgravc River, N. Old.. 
3O.iv.l970. G.B Montcith. QMTl 1670. 



FIG. 40. Drakiessa spp. A, D. consohrina d . B, /). cantreUi 9 .C,D. planula d.D,D. arelimira S . E, Unknown 
nymph (Mt Lewis). F-K, heads; F, D, tenia; G, D. parva; H. D. hacked; I, D. minor, J , Z). confusa; K, D. virago. 
L, D. glaebuia, side view of 6 . 



MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 9 paratypes. 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: Crystal Cascades, via 
Redlynch, 19, 9.xii.l964, GBM, in QM; Danbulla, 
nkmNEYungaburra, 750m, intercept trap, 1 9.23.iii- 
27.iv.1987, RIS & DeFaveri, in MDPl; Upper Mul- 
grave River, \6 19, 30.iv.l970, GBM, 3d, 
25.iv.1968, BKC, in QM, 2J, 2.iv.l984, A.Calder & 
TAW, in ANIC; Graham Range, via Babinda, 19, 
9-l0.iv.l979, GBM, in QM. (paratypes: QMT14166- 

DESCRIPTION. Medium sized, 7.5-9. 0mm 
long, broad, with explanate pronotal margins and 
an erect, polished sternal tubercle in the 6 . 
MALE. Head about as wide as long, its dorsum 
with scattered curled setae; vertex with a double 
row of irregular granules, flanked by one large 
granule on each side in occipital region; postocu- 
lar tubercles narrow, apically pointed and with 
curved posterior margins; mesad of postocular 
tubercles head margin angularly incised; eyes 
exserted, with a deep, wide cleft between them 
and antenniferous tubercles; antenniferous tuber- 
cles bent forwards, with blunt apices, surpassing 
eyes by about 1 V^ eye diameters; genal processes 
long, usually not contiguous, apically swollen, 
reaching just beyond apex of first antennal seg- 
ment. Rostral groove closed posteriorly. Anten- 
nae with segment I longest, II shortest, and III a 
little longer than IV; segments II and III with 
adpressed setae. 

Pronotum with explanate lateral margins 
rounded, reaching beyond collar anteriorly, and 
to hind angles posteriorly; sublateral elevations 
large, irregular, almost connected to tubercles 
which oppose against collar; median line of pro- 
notum with a row of large granules leading pos- 
teriorly to a large, usually bifid, tubercle on 
posterior pronotal margin which is opposed 
against a tubercle on the mesonotal scutellar re- 
gion. Mesonotal and metanotal sublateral eleva- 
tions subequal in size, rugose; scutellar area 
usually rugose; metathoracic scent gland orifice 
long, curved, narrowly open. 

Abdominal Tg I with a bilobed, median eleva- 
tion subtending opposable tubercles against the 
metathoraic elevations and posteriorly against Tg 
II; fused tergal disc rather flat with an irregular, 
rugose, longitudinal ridge on each side of anterior 
half; pattern of glabrous areas marked by setose 
ridges; inner glabrous areas of Tg in subdivided 
by 2 ridges, those of IV subdivided by one ridge, 
those of V and VI undivided. Sides of abdomen 
subparallel, with posterolateral angles of V and 
VI roundly protruding; inner margin of Cx II 
carinale and Cx UI with a short median carina; 

margins of Cx Vn angulate. Paratergites of VIII 
short, cylindrical, with dorsal side of apex slightly 
produced. St VII with a polished, capitate tuber- 
cle about 0.15mm in diameter at midline im- 
mediately posterior to anterior border. Parameres 
as in Fig. 44S. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: Cx IV-VI also with 
dorsal carinae; Tg VII with a low quadrate eleva- 
tion and 2 transverse tubercles near hind margin; 
St VII shorter than combined lengths of V and VI. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype d first, then 

ranges of additional 26 and 29. L: 8.00, 7.50- 
7.83, 8.33-9.00; W: 4.17, 3.83-4.00, 4.33-4.75; 
HL: 2.08, 1.88, 2.08-2.16; HW: 2.08, 2.00, 2.04- 
2.24; PL: 0.96, 0.84, 0.88-0.92; PW: 2.88, 2.72- 
2.80, 2.80-3.08; AS: I, 0.72, 0.68-0.70, 0.70; U, 
0.42, 0.42-0.44, 0.42; HI, 0.62, 0.60-0.62, 0.60- 
0.62; IV, 0.56, 0.52-0.54, 0.54-0.62. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Uncommon, in 
rainforests in the Cairns region, N Queensland. 
All are from lowlands except Danbulla at 750m 
on the N Atherton Tableland. 

REMARKS. D. planula is closely related to D. 
minor from the range of which it is separated by 
about 500km. The new species differs in its 
broader, flatter form and by the fact that it inhabits 
wet rainforests instead of the open forests and dry 
rainforests inhabited by D. minor. 

Drakiessa minor Kormilev, 1963 
(Figs. 401, 43C,H,44T,H,b) 

Drakiessa minor Kormilev, 1963: 446 (descr., fig.); 
Kormilev, 1965a: 26 (incl. in key); Kormilev & 
Froeschner, 1987: 169 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype c?, 'Rkhpton', in NRS. Examined. 
Kormilev (1963) referred the locahty of the type spe- 
cies to New Guinea but later (Kormilev, 1965a) cor- 
rectly referred it to Rockhampton in Queensland. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 35 speci- 
mens: CENTRAL QUEENSLAND: Eungella Nat. Pk., 
Broken River, 19, I8-19.iv.l979, GBM; Conway 
Beach, SW Proserpine, 19,1 6. v. 1990, J. Stanisic & D. 
Potter, in QM; Rockhampton, 1 9 paratype, in Drake 
Collection (NMNH), 9 allotype, in NRS. SOUTH 
QUEENSLAND: Forest Station, 2,000', Bulburin SF, 
via Many Peaks, 56 39, 2-5.iv.l972. GBM; Cobb's 
Hill, via Cloyna, 19,1 N,24.x.l992,S. Hamlet; Upper 
Yarraman SF, 2c? 29, 2.x. 1979, GBM & SRM; Gold 
Creek, via Brookfield, 1 9. 28.iv.1964, GBM; Brook- 
field, 19, 2N. 19.X.1964, GBM; Bahrs Scrub, via 
Beenleigh, \6 39 9N, 9.X.1987, M. DcBaar, in QM. 



(QM duplicates lodged in BMNH. EH. NMNH. 

DESCRIPTION. Small. 7.3-8.2mm long, narrow 
with explanate pronotal margins and a small, 
capitate, polished sternal tubercle m the 3 . This 
species is very close to D, planula and the de- 
scription is confmed to differences from that spe- 

Head with genal processes usually contigixjus 
in front of clypeus and with incision behmd 
posiocular processes deeper; explanale lobes of 
pronotum narrower, projecting anteriorly only a 
little; median row of granules of pronotum 
smaller; median, posterior, marginal tubercle of 
pronotum smaller, notbifid; mesonotal sublateral 
elevations smaller, less rugose; postero-lateral 
angles uf Cx V and VI not protruding; angulauoas 
of Cx VII blunter in c?; parameres as in Fig. 44T; 
spermatheca (Fig. 44b) with a large, thick-walled 
chamber developed m its short duct 

MEASUREMENTS. Hololype $ first allotype 
second, then ranges of additional 2 i omJ 2 9 . L: 
7,67, 8.67, 7.33^7,50. 7.50'8.17; W: 3.83, 4.58, 
3.58-3.75. 3.75-3.92; HL: 1.80. 1.8«. 1.76-1.80, 
1.80-1.S4;HW: 1.96,2.20, 1.S8.1-96. 1.92-2.O0: 
PL: O.W. 1,00, 0.84-0.88. 0.84-0 88; PW: 252, 
3.08. 2.40-2.44, 2.60-2.67; AS: 1. 0.60. 0.64, 
0.60-0.64. 0.66-0.70; 11. 0.36. 40. 0.38-040, 
0.36-0.40; ID, 0.52, 0.56, 034-0.58. 0.56; IV, 
0.48, 0.46. 0.48-0.54. 0.48-0.50. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Eangella to Brisbane 
in central and southern Queenslaiid, in open eu- 
calypt forest and in dry rainforest. 

REMARKS- D. minor is sympatric wHh D. can- 
fiiSQ and D. lenia in the southern pan of its range 
but does not seem lo enter the wetter rainforests 
inhabited by tlwse species. If intermediate popu- 
lations are discovered hetvveen the ranges of A>. 
minor and its disjunct sister species. />. pUmuia, 
from N Queensland then their separate specilk 
slaius may require assessment. 

DrakiessaconfusaKonnilcv, 1965 
(Figs 2B, 40J. 43 J,U 41X,B.L.a) 

Orakie&sa confitsa Kormilev, l^5a; 25 (OC*ct.); 
KumaT.1967 (internal anatomy); Kormilev & 
FfoeSL'htier. I9hl: 169 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotypc V, Mt Mcc Fon^itr>■ Reserve, S.E- 
Qld. Ii.x.t964, G.B. Montcith. QMT6328. Exam- 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 51 speci- 
mens: SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Cooran Tableland, 
3 c? 12. Lviii. 1984. J. Ticmey. in QFS; Jimna Range, 
via Kilcoy. \6 \9, 9.xii. 1966. GBM; Mt Mee Forestry 
Reserve, allotvpe 3. Id 3 5 paratypes, n,xJ964, 
GBM.iDQM/l2,ll.x.l964.GBM.inANiC. Id49, 
lLx.l964.GBM.7d 49. 7jv.I974. GBM. \iS 99. 
16.iv.l972.GBM;MiGloriou&. lo\28J(.f965,GBM. 
in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, SAM. EH, 
UQIC) (paratypcs: QMT2980 1-29805). 

DESCRIPTION- Small, 7-8.7mm long, non-flat- 
tened, with opaque body surface and profioium 
not depressed in middle. 

MALE. Head about as wide as long; vertex with 
2 rows of granules converging posteriorly; 
postocular tubercles broad, angular, extending 
iateially beyond outer profile of eyes; eyes sepa- 
rated fVom antenniferous tubercles by a wide 
cleft; antenniferous tubercles >hort, broad, blunt, 
with lateral margins parallel; genal processes 
blunt, with lateral margins angulate, and with 
apices bent raesally, contiguous, enclosing a lo- 
rarrven between their bases anterior to clypcal 
apex. Rostral groove closed posteriorly. Anten- 
nae short, not or barely longer than head; all 
segments of equal diameter; segment I longest, 
segment II shonest, segments in and IV sub- 
eqtial; segments II and III with adpressed setae. 

Pronotum about 3 times as wide as long; antcro- 
laieral angles with narrow explanate margins 
which terminate posteriorly slightly tefore hind 
angles; sublateral elevations low, each fomning a 
granular ndge terminating anteriorly in tubercles 
opposable against the collar; middle of pronotum 
no: depressed, slightly inflated, with a median 
row of granules; hind pronotal margin bordered, 
with a median tubercle subtended posteriorly 
agajnsl the scutellar region. MesonoraJ and 
metanotal sublateral elevations low and granular; 
scutellar area moderately intlaicd and rugose. 
Mclalhoracic scent gland orifice sUiught, rather 
widely open. 

Abdominal tergal disc slightly inflated in ante- 
rior half and with a weak longitudinal ridge on 
each side laterad of inner glabrous areas of Tg Ui: 
pattern of glabrous areas delineated by weak, 
setose ridges; inner glabrous areas of ni subdi- 
vided by 2 ridges, those of I\' subdivided by one 
ridge, diose of V and \T undivided; median iceni 
gland scar contrastingly pale; posterolaterid an- 
gles of Cx II-\T not protruding; margins of Cx 
V II strongly angulate; Tg VII usocdl \ w ith 4 snwll 
Uibercle along hind margin; patatcrgiies of VITI 
short, cylindrical, with dorsal side of apex slightly 



produced. St with pattern of glabrous area rela- 
tively weakly impressed; St VII with a capitate, 
polished tubercle about 0.2mm in diameter near 
anterior margin Parameres as in Fig. 44X. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: Tg VII wirfi a high 
quadrate elevation and a pair of transverse tuber- 
cles; margin of C.x VU with weak angulations; 
median length of St VII longer than that of V and 
VI combined. Spermaiheca with short, simple 
duct (Fjg. 44a). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holot>pe 9 first, then 
ranges of additional 2<J and 2 5. L: 8.33. 7.17- 
7.67, 7.00-S.67: W: 4.17. 3.16-3.50. 3.16-433; 
HL;204, 1.88-1.96. 1.80-2.12: H\\^: 2 16, 1.84- 
2,00, 1.76-2.32; PL: 0.88. 0.76-0.88. 0.72-0.96; 
PW: 2.80; 2.24-2.72. 2.24-3.00; AS: 1 0.66, 0.60. 
0.62-0.70: U,0.36. 0.36-,0.46. 
0.50, 0.52; l\\ 0.50. 0.50, 0.50. 

DISTRIBLTION (Fig 45). Mountain rainfore&ts 
of the subcoastal ranges from Mt Glorious to the 
Jimna Range and Cooran Tableland. S Queens- 
land, ft is very common at the type locality. Mt 
Mee, but rare elsewhere. 

REMARKS Although part of the species com- 
plex including D. tenia, D. co/isobriria and D. 
planula, D. confusa is isolated from the others in 
tJ>e fofm of the genae. which resemble those of 
D. hackeri, and in the long St VII of the $ . The 
furumen between the base of the genae is usually 
obscured by dicbris in freshly collected speci- 

Drakiessa Massellt sp nov. 
(Figs 4M. 4K 43D. 44D.U,g> 

TYPE. Holotype 6 , Rocky River, via Coen. Cape York 
Peninsula. N Qld., 14-I6.xii.1964. G.B. MomeilJi. 

MATERIAL EvXAMTNED. Holotype and 35 paratypes: 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: West Claudie R., Iron 
Range- 2d . 3-IO.xii.1985, GBM & DJC. in QM, I ?, 
2.vii.I986, TAW. in ANIC; Iron Range, Cape York 
K^n„ \6 J 2. 5-10.V.1968. GBM, ^S 19. Jl- 
37.V.1968GBM, \S 1$. 2g.iv.-4.v.l968. GBM, 4J 
19. l2-18,ii.l976.GBM, 2d 1 ?, 25-31.V.1971: Ml- 
Tozer. Iron Range, 1,500'. Id, 30.W.I973. GBM, in 
QM; Ml. Lamond, south slope. Iron Range. ANIC Berl 
314, 19.,inANIC.Leo 
Creek. 500 m, McIIwraith Range, 2 5. 2-3.xi.l969. 
BKC 3d. 29Ai,-4.v!i.l976, GBM & SRM; Upper 
Lonkclly Creek, via Coen. 9d 39, 10-1 Ivi 1971. 
GBM; Rocky River, via Coen. Id, I4-I6.xii.1964. 
GBM, in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, DJ, 

FIG 41 Dorsa] visw of hoIoC>pe d of Drakiessa 

SAM. EH. HUB, HNHM.UQIC) (paraiypcs: 


DESCRIPTION. Moderate-sized, 8.5-9.0min 
long, with pointed antenniferous luhcrcles and 
capitate slcmal tubercle in c . 

MALE. Head slightly wider than long, its dorsum 
with pale, curled setae: vertex with l^vi irregular 
/nwR of granules: postocular tubercles apicalJy 
acute, directed postero-laterully> surpassing outer 
profile of eyes: head margin excised mesally of 
postocular tubercles; eyes with a wide, deep dcA 
between ihera and antenniferxnis tubercles; an- 
tenniferous tubercles long, tapenng, apically 
acute, extending beyond e>es by almost 2 eye 
diameters: genal processes long, subcylindricid. 
tK)t or almost contiguous, apicaJlv sub-acuic. 
Rostral groove closed posierinrly. Anienni»e 
about 1 . 15- 1 . 1 7 limes head length, with segments 
II and 111 slen<JeT and wiih adprcssed setae; scg- 
roent 111 13 times length of segtnent IV. 

Pronotum with projecting, c.xplanatc antero- 
laict^al lohc^ which terminate 1/2 the distance to 



hind angles; sublateral elevations low, in form of 
granular ridges running anteriorly to oppose 
against collar; midline of pronotum with 2 short, 
longitudinal ridges; posterior margin straight, 
bordered. Mesonotum with scutellar area raised, 
rugose, with a median longitudinal groove; sub- 
lateral elevations of meso- and metanoia low, 
rugose. Metathoracic scent gland orifice nar- 
rowly open. 

Abdominal tergal disc flat, with pattern of gla- 
brous areas marked by weak ridges obsolescent 
along lateral regions; inner glabrous areas of Tg 
III subdivided by two ridges, those of IV, V and 
VI subdivided by one ridge; lateral margins of Cx 
11-V straight; postero-lateral angles of Cx VI 
strongly protruding; margins of Cx VII with 
prominent angulations; paratergites of VIII nar- 
row, cylindrical, truncate. St VII with a small, 
capitate tubercle 0.1mm in diameter situated on 
midline at anterior third of sternal length. 
Parameres as in Fig. 44U. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: posterolateral angles 
of Cx VI not protruding; margins of Cx VI with 
small, acute angulations; Tg VII with a quadrate 
elevation depressed in middle; St VII shorter than 
combined lengths of V and VI. Spermatheca with 
a small dilation in its short duct (Fig. 44g). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 2d and 25. L: 8.33, 8.33, 
9.00-9.17; W: 4,17, 4.00-4.25, 4.58-4.83; HL: 
2.12, 2.20-2.24, 2.32-2.48; HW: 2.32, 2.28, 2.44- 
2.60; PL: 0.76, 0.84-0.88, 0.88; PW: 2.76, 2.68- 
2.80, 3.00-3.25; AS: 1, 0.84, 0.90-0.92, 0.90- 1 .00; 
II, 0.46, 0.44-0.48, 0.46-0.50; III, 0.64, 0.66-0.68, 
0.70; IV, 0.52, 0.50-0.54, 0.52-0.60. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Rainforests of low- 
lands and mountains of Cape York Peninsula 
from the Mcllwraith Range north to Iron Range. 

REMARKS. This species is named after the late 
Lea Wassell, bushman, naturalist and gentleman, 
who led the author on his first visit to the 
rainforests of Cape York Peninsula in 1964 when 
the species was first encountered. 

Drakiessa wasselli is the only apterous mezir- 
ine of the endemic Australian group of genera to 
be found in Cape York Peninsula north of the 
major biogeographic discontinuity at Princess 
Charlotte Bay. This barrier is one of considerable 
antiquity (Kikkawa et al., 1981) and hence this 
species can be considered a relict. It is isolated in 
the genus but may have some affinities with the 

sybilae-virago species-pair from further south in 

Drakiessa virago sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotype d, St Margaret's Creek, 2-3,000', Mt 
Elliot, via Townsville, Qld, 8-9. vi. 1972, G.B. & S.R. 
Monteilh.QMT 11672. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 45 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: St Margaret's 
Creek. Mt Elliot, 2-3,000\ via Townsville, 16. 1 9, 1972, GBM & SRM; Mt Elliot NP (Upper North 
Ck, lOOOm), 6(5 19, 2-5.xii.1986, GBM, GIT & 
S.Hamlet, 1 1(5.1 69, 25-27.iii. 1991, GBM &DJC;Mt 
Elliot (summit area, 1000-1 200m), 2c? 3 9 , 3.xii. 1986, 
in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, DJ, SAM, 
EH, NMNH, HNHM, MNHG, UQIC) (paratypes: 
QMT14176-14183, QMT14185-14199, QMT14204, 
QMT 14208- 14209, QMTI421 1-14212, QMT14214- 
14217. QMT22361-22362). 

DESCRIPTION. Large, 9-1 1.2mm long, flat- 
tened, with convex scutellum and erect setae on 

MALE. Head broad and flattened, a little wider 
than long, its dorsum with scattered erect setae; 
vertex with obsolescent granules; eyes small, 
strongly stylate, with poslocular tubercles nar- 
row, apically acute, projecting posterolaterally 
from stylate bases of eyes; cleft between eyes and 
antenniferous tubercles wide and deep; an- 
tenniferous tubercles long, divergent, apically 
subacute, extending beyond eyes by iVi eye di- 
ameters; genal processes very long, separate, 
slightly divergent, apically acute and each with a 
lateral tubercle at mid length. Rostral groove 
closed posteriorly. Antennae 1.1-1.2 times head 
length, all segments with erect, straight setae; 
segments II and III slender; segment I longest, 
twice length of segment II; segment III longer 
than segment IV. 

Pronotum transverse, with width more than 3 
times median length; anterolateral angles with 
rounded explanate lobes extending posteriorly 
almost to hind angles; sublateral elevations high, 
rugose, extending obliquely forward to oppose 
against collar; midline of pronotum with a row of 
crowded granules; hind pronotal margin sinuate 
in middle, bordered. Mesonotum with scutellar 
area inflated above level of lateral elevations, its 
surface rugose; sublateral elevations low, rugose; 
metanotal elevations smooth. Metathoracic scent 
gland orifice short, rather widely open. Legs with 
erect setae on femora and tibiae. 



Abdominal tergal disc with pattern of glabrous 
areas marked by smooth ridges; inner glabrous 
areas of Tg III subdivided by 2 ridges, those of 
IV, V and VI subdivided by 2 ridges, those of IV, 
V and VI subdivided by 1 ridge; side of abdomen 
a little rounded; posterolateral angles of Cx VI 
slightly protruding; margin of Cx VII with acute 
angulations; paratergites of VIII moderately 
prominent, cylindrical, with mesal side of apices 
produced. Meso-, meta- and abdominal sterna 
with median impressions weak; St VII without 
median polished boss. Parameres as in Fig. 44W. 
FEMALE. As in 6 except: body broader, with 
sides rounded; posterolateral angles of VI not 
protruding; margins of Cx VII not angulate; me- 
dian length of St VII longer than combined 
lengths of V and VI. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then ad- 
ditionalM and 1 9 paratypes.L:9.17,8.83,lL17; 
W: 4.75, 4.58, 6.00; HL: 2.68, 2.60, 3.08; HW: 2.72, 
2.68, 3. 16; PL: 0.96, 0.92, 1.08: PW: 3.08, 3.08, 3.75; 
AS: I, 1.18, 1.16, 1.30; n, 0.56, 0.56, 0.60; m, 0.76, 
0.74, 0.84; IV, 0.60, 0.M, 0.64. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Mountain rainforests 
on Mt Eliott, an isolated mountain peak a little S 
of Townsville in N Queensland. 

REMARKS. This striking species is related to the 
even more modified D. sybilae, and shares with 
it the broad, deeply incised head which gives the 
2 species their bizarre appearance. The type lo- 
cality has been little collected but is known to 
have a number of other endemic flightless 
rainforest species. 

Drakiessa sybilae sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotype d, Eungella National Park, Qld., 
10.xii.l965, G.B. Monteith, QMTl 1673. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotvpe and 33 
Macartney, Cathu SF, 1 .^ 3 9 , 700-850m, QM Berl.54, 
21.iv.l979, GBM, 19, 600-850m. 20-21.iv.l979, 
GBM, 2d 1 9 , 750m, QM BerL54, 22.iv.1979, GBM, 
\6 29, 750m, QM Berl. 43, 20.iv.l979. GBM; Eu- 
ngella NP, Upper Cattle Ck, 900m, \6. 19, 
17.xi.l992, GBM, GIT, DJC, & HJ; Eungella NP, Ml 
William, 1200m, QM BerL37, 3d, 19.iv.l979, GBM; 
Eungella NP, Dalrymple Heights, 29, 19.iv.l979, 
GBM; Eungella NP, 3d 29, 10.xii.l965, GBM, 3d 
39. 2.1.1965, GBM. Id 19, 18.iv.l968. GBM; Finch 
Halton Gorge, via Finch Halton, 300m, 19, 19.iv.68, 
GBM, 2d, 18.xi.l992, GBM, GIT, DJC & HJ, in QM. 

FIG. 42. Dorsal view of holotype d of Drakiessa sybilae. 

(QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, SAM, EH, NMNH, 
UQIC) (paratypes: QMT29806-29827). 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 8.2- 10.2mm 
long, flattened species with depressed sculellum 
and erect setae on antennae and body. 

MALE. Head very broad and flattened, with 
width a little more then length; vertex smooth; 
hind margin of head with a prominent, rounded 
lobe on each side of neck; eye small, extremely 
stylate, with postocular tubercles present as 
posterolaterally directed, acute processes on the 
slylate bases of eyes; cleft between eyes and 
antenniferous tubercles very wide and deep; an- 
tenniferous tubercles broad, flattened, sub- 
rectangular, with apices obliquely truncate; gcnal 
processes long, separate, apical ly sub-acute and 
with angulate lateral margins. Rostral groove 
closed posteriorly. Antennae 1 . 1 5- 1 .3 times head 
length, all segments with long, erect, straight 
setae; segment I longest, a little less than twice 
length of II; segment III 1 .3 times length of IV. 

Pronolum a little narrower than head, with erect 
setae on elevations, collar and margins; lateral 
margins straight, with explanate edges which 
project forward as rounded lobes and continue 
p{)steriorly to hind angles; sublaleral elevations 



present as high ridges which project freely over 
hind pronotal border to oppose againsc the 
mesonotal elevations; middle of pronotum de- 
pressed and flat; hind pronoial margin with a pair 
of median projeclions opposing weak tubercles 
on the scutellar area. Mesonotal elevations with 
2 anterior tubercles and 1 posterior; scutcllararea 
flat, with a median longitudinal depression; 
nictanotal elevations each with a prominent ante- 
rior tubercle and 2 iJmallef posterior ones. 
Mctathoracic scent gland omfice short, straight, 
rather widely open. Legs with dense, erect setae 
on femora and tibiae- 

Abdominal tergal disc fiat, with scent gland 
scar forming a large, smooth, median longitudi- 
nal region; pattern of glabrous areas poorly de- 
fmed by low ridges; ridges subdividing inner 
glabrous areas of tergal disc obsolete. Sides of 
abdomen straight, with apex truncate at right 
angles; Cx of II short, broad, slightly projecting; 
margins of Cx Vll straight; paratcrgites of Vlll 
long, cylindrical, truncate St VII with a median, 
raised, flat boss; all abdominal spiracles raised on 
low tubercles. Paiameres as in Fig. 44M. 
FEMALE. As for S except: Tg VII with a low 
quadrate elevation depressed in middle; St Vn 
with median length greater than that of V and VI 
combined. Spermathecal duct slightly dilated and 
sclerotised (Fig. 44i). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotvpc 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 29. L; 8. 17. 1^.33- 
8.83. 9.50-10 17; W- 4.17. 4.33-; 
HL: 2-24, 2.32-2.40. 2.68; HW: 2.48, 2.52-2.60. 
2.80-3.00; PL: 0,80, O.SO-0.88, 0.96: PW: 2.48. 
2.48-2.64, 2.80-3.00; AS : 1, 0.90, 0.9O- 1 .00, 0.96- 
I.IO; n. 0.54, 0.50-0.56. 0.58-0.60; lU, 0,78. 
0.80. 0.80-0.84; IV, 0.62. 0.58-0.60. 0.64-0.66. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Motiiuaifl rainforcMs 
iji the Clarke Range region w^c^l of Mackuy, 
centra] Queensland. 

REN'IARKS. This is one of Australia's mosc un- 
UMial aradid^ and I am pleasied to name it for my 
wife, Sybil, who has joined rae in manv a wet 
foivsi 10 collect these curious creatures, and 
whose illu5;trarive skill lightens my task in de- 
scribing liicm. D. ribliae exhibits the iiwst ex- 
iremc case of detwcssed form in a genus of 
olIicTWise moMly stoiu. robust species. Its stylatc 
eyes ami attenuated head processes give it a bi- 
zarre apj>eafance. D jyhiuie ami \\s relative D. 
manir^rc found on small, little-decayed togs and 

Drakie&sa arelimlra sp. nOV. 

(Fig. 40D) 

MATERIAL. Holotypc <S . QLD.2P34'S. I49*>I2'E. 
UoperE. Funnel Ck, 200-450m, 15-16.xi.l992, Mon- 
leith-Thompsofl. Cook & Janetzki. QMT26089. 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 6 8.78mm 
loTig, flattened, with depressed scutellum. ereci 
setae on body and appendages, and toothed outer 
margins to the gcnal processes. 
MALE. Head broad and flattened, width slightly 
greater than length; vertex with several laige 
surface granules; hind margin of head with a 
prominent, backward! y directed lobe on each side 
of neck; eyes small, extremely stylatc. with 
postocular processes as flattened, triangular pro- 
jections from the stylale babies of the eyes; cleft 
between eyes and antenniferous tubercles wide 
and deep; antenniferous tubercles reaching abuul 
1/3 length of antennal segment L their apices 
rounded; genal processes broad, contiguous in 
front of clypeus, then with apices broad and di- 
vergent, their lateral margins irregularly toothed. 
Rostral groove closed posteriorly. Antennae 1.2 
times head length, all segments with long. 
straight, erect setae; segment I longest, a little less 
than twice length of II; segment III 1 .2 times 
length of rv'. 

Pronotum a little wider than head, with erect 
setae on elevations and margins; anterolateral 
angles in form of large, flattened, rounded lobes 
which terminate before the hind angles; sub late- 
ral elevations raised, linear, running obliquely the 
whole length of prothorax and prc>jecling forward 
lo oppose the tubercles on the collar; middle of 
pronotum depressed and flat; hind pruncrtal mar- 
gin almost straight Mesonotal elevations with 
only a posterior opposable tubercle, scutcllararea 
depressed and sniooth. Metanotal elevations each 
with an anterior tubercle and two posteriorly di- 
rected ones. Mctathoracic scent gland orifice 
short, straigh!, narrow. Legs with erect setae on 
femora and tibiae. 

Abdominal tergal disc ftal. with pattern nf gla- 
brous areas well niaikcd. Margin of CxVIl 
strongly angled; paratcrgites of VTIl cylindrical, 
slightly pointed with spiracle subtcrminal. St VU 
smooth and polished in cenlie. Abdominal spira- 
cles not raised on ttibercles. 
FEMALE. Unknown. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype i , L: 8.78; W: 
4-06; HL: 2,18; HW: 2.54. PL; 0.H5; PW: 2.%; 
AS: 1, 0.83; 0, 0,48: IH. 0.7 1 ; IV, 0.60 



FIG. 43. Drakiessa spp., abdominal apices, dorsal (d) and ventral (v); A, D, tenia 6 v; B. D, sybilae 6 v; C, D. 
minor S d; D. D, wasselli S v; E, D. virago 6 v; F, D. tertia S d; G, /). consobrina 6 v; H. D. minor S v; I, 
D. cantrelli 6 d; J, D. confusa 6 v; K. D. planula 6 v; L, D. confiisa 6 d; M, D. glaebula 6 v; N, D. parva 
d v; O, a parva 6 d; P, D. hackeri 6 v, Q, D. virago 6 d; R, Z>. hacked 6 d; S, a hackeri 9 v; T. D. virago 9 d. 



FIG. 44. Drakiessa spp.; A-L, $ abdominal apices, dorsal (d) and ventral (v); A, £). sybilae d; B, D. confusa d; 
C, D. parva d; D, D. wasselli d; E, A consobrina d; F, D. planula v; G, A tertia d; H, /). mmor d; I, D. sybilae 
v; J, D. planula d; K, A glaebula d; L, A confusa v; M-X, left parameres, inner view; M, A sybilae; N, D. 
rerrw; O, A hackeri\ P, A consobrina; Q, A pan>a; R, A rerr/a; S, A planula; T, A minor; U, A wasselli; 
V, A glaebula; W, A virago; X, A confusa; a-j, spermathecae; a, A confusa; b, A minor; c, A /err/a; d, A 
hackeri; e, A cantrelli; f, A consobrina; g, A. wasselli; h, A glaebula; i, A sybilae; j, A parva. 








tortia ^ confusa^ 


FIG. 45. Records of Drakiessa species in easiem Australia. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 45). Rainforest on the 
western fall of the coasi range, known there as 
Black Mountain, a little S of Sarina, Central 

REMARKS. This rare species is named for Areli 
Mira, entomologist, formerly of El Salvador, who 
has mounted untold numbers of insects as pan of 
our rainforest surveys at the Queensland Mu- 
seum. It forms a clear link geographically and 
morphologically between the more normal 
Drakiessa of S Queensland and the bizarre, spe- 
cialized D. sybilae of the Clarke Range. 

Drakiessa unnamed species 
(Fig. 4UEj 

LAND: 2.5km N Mt Lewis, via Julallen, 1040m. I 
nymph, 3.xi.l983. DKY & GIT. QMT29293. 

REMARKS. This nymph belongs to Drakiessa 
bui no adult has yei been collected. It has short 
antennae, large angular postocular tubercles, and 
prominent, backwardly curved, pointed pro- 
cesses projecting laterally from the margin of 
each thoracic and abdominal segment. Nymphs 
are available for most of the described species in 
the genus but none bear pointed lateral body 
processes. It appears most similar to nymphs of 

the Drakiessa cantrelWglaebula pair which show 
disjunct distributions S of the locality of this 
problematic nymph. There are no other species of 
Drakiessa known from the whole complex of 
mountains forming the Mount Carbine, Cape 
Tribulation and Mt Finnigan mountain massifs 
north of Caims. This species fills that niche. The 
striking appearance of the nymph indicates that 
the adult will prove to be a bizarre species. 

Chelonoderus Usinger. 1941 

Chelonoderus\}'i>\r\gQX, 1941: 179(descr.); Usinger & 
Matsuda, 1959: 197, 228 (redescr; incl. m key); 
Kormilev. 1971: 6 (incl in key); Kormilev & 
Froeschner, 1987: 122 (catalogue of spp.). 

TYPE SPECIES. Chelonoderus stykM Usinger. 
1 94 1 , by original designation. 

DESCRIPTION. Moderate to large, dark col- 
oured, apterous, with sparse surface vestiiure. 

Head elongate with posterior half tapering rap- 
idly behind eyes to a long cylindrical neck; 
postocular tubercles absent; eyes small, slightly 
exserted, without prominent cleft separating 
them from anienniferous tubercles; antcnniferous 
tubercles long, blunt, strongly divergent with 
straight outer margins; genal long, par- 
allel, and fused for most of length beyond cly peal 



apex; ro&lial groovccloscd bchand; rostral alriuru 
closed. Antennae with segments 11 and III of less 
diameter than i and IV; segment in longer than II 
or IV. 

Pronotum with median, longitudinal sulcus; el- 
evations at both submedian and sublateral re- 
gions; pronutal collar distinct and bearing dorsa] 
and ventra] opposable tubercles; hind margin of 
pronotum bordered except at sides. Scuiellar re- 
gion olmesono(um forming a median iongitudi- 
na! ridge extending across metanotum to 
abdominal Tg 1; mesonotujn with discrete eleva- 
tions each side of midline which each subtend 
opposable tubercles against scutellar ridge; 
meianotal elevations each side of midline and 
stibletiding opposable tubercles to raised median 
plate of abdominal Tg 1; inflected cavities be- 
tween mesonotum and metanotum each side of 
midline. Legs not bicoloured. Tarsal pulvillipres- 
enl. spaiulaie 

Fused abdominal tergal disc not prominently 
elevated: its pattern of glabrous areas disUnct and 
demarcated by ridges with inner glabrous areas 
of Tg III and IV subdivided; prominent opposable 
tubercles between posterior angles of median 
plate of abdominal tergum I and anterior margin 
of Tg 11; 3 pairs of intersegmental opposable 
tubercles at junctions between Tg III. IV, V and 
VI along lateral margins of abdominal tergal disc. 
Lateral margins of Cx VI and Vll lobed m d . 

Median impressions on meso- and raetasterna; 
patterns of glabrous areas deeply impressed on 
abdominal sterna. 

Spermatl^eca and its ducts without nKXJifications. 
Paramcres with a tow of fine teeth on inner face. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. lOc), An Australian en- 
demic LOnllned to the region between CooktoWn 
and Ingham, N Queensland. 

REMARKS. Chelonoderus. Pseudoargocoris 
and Aegisocori.s form a compact group of small 
genera from N Queensland which share several 
features of the pattern of thoracic opposable tu- 

Chelonoderus, was one of the earliest apterous 
genera described (1941) and its name suggests, 
erroneously, some relationship with ihe S.E. 
Asian Chelonocoris whose description by Miller 
(1938) a few years earlier first set hemipterisls 
thinking seriously about apterous Aradidac. 
Chelonodems became a repository for the unre- 
lated Chelonoderus hackeri Drake and Ch. 
fctisi/^vj^'/Hoberlandl, but these have now been 
made type-species respectively of Drakiessa 

Usingei & Matsuda. 1959 and Neochelonoderus 
Hoberiandt, 1967. 

The 4 species now known to belong lo 
Chelonodems have an inicr-ielated puttem of 
distribution in N Queensland. They are readily 
separable from other Australian Mezirinae by the 
lack of postocular tubercles and the long, tapering 
posterior portion of the head. Curiously, the 
nymphs of Chelonderus have well -developed 
postocular tubercles so the striking adult condi- 
tion is presumably secondary. This supports the 
view that Chelonoderus is more closely related lo 
Pseiidoargocons and Aegisocoris than first ap- 
pearances suggest. 



I . Genal processes wider at apex than sub-apically. 
with apex of each process obliquely truncate and 

notched iO'/ar/Ji Usinger 

Genal processes parallel-sided in apical hall and 
With apices not notched or truncate - 2 

2(1). Lateral margin of Cx V!l of both sexes pro- 
duced into a prominent, rounded lube much 
larger than the lobe on Cx VI; posterolateral an- 
gles of Cx V not produced . 3 

Lateral margin of Cx Vll forming a small angu- 
Icitc lobe subequal in size to lobe of Cx VI; 
posterolateral angles of Cx V strongly angulaie 
ill 6 and weakly so in female 

minor^ &p. nov. 

3(2). Lobatc margin of Cx VI! jn male strongly in- 
clined laterally so it projects laterally beyond the 
profile of the much smaller lobe of Cx VI; lat- 
eral elevations of pronotum with outer margin 
slightly higher than mesal portion 

farfe.K. sp. nov, 

Lobale margin of Cx Vll in male directed ob- 
liquely backwards, not projecting laterally be- 
yond the profile of the slightly smaller lobe of 
Cx Vl; lateral elevations of pronotum with outer 
margins lower than mesal portion 

thornpsoni, sp. nov.. 

ChtilonodetnisstylatusUsinger, 1941 
(Fig. 47B-C,H,1,P) 

Chelonoderus srylatus L' singer, 1941: 179 (dcscr.; 
fig); Usmger'& Matsuda. 1959: 229,230 (Fig); 
Kormilev. 1963: 446 (locality records); Kormilcv. 
1967a: 519 (locality records):' Kormilev & Frocsch- 
ner, 1987: 122 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype d, N. Queensland, Ausiraha-Ociober 
4, 1920. J. A. Kiische. CAS. 5225. Not examined, but 
goodconditionascenainedby DrP.H. Amaud. Figured 



QUEENSLAND: Shipton's Flat, via Helenvale, in QM 
and ANIC; Moses Ck, 4km NE Ml Finnigan; Mt 
Finnigan, 350-400m, in ANIC; Ml Finnigan summit, 
1 100m; Ml Hartley, 35km S Cooktown; Mt Boolbun 
South; Gap Ck., 8km N. Bloomfield River; Windsor 
Tbld, 1050m, in QM; Cape Tribulation, in UQIC; 
Cooper Creek, 16km N. Daintree River; Roaring Meg 
Valley, 720m; Ml Pieter Botle, 950m; Mt Sorrow, 
300-800m; Cape Tribulation; 3km W Cape Tribula- 
tion, 500m; 3.5km W Cape Tribulation, 680m, in QM; 
Table Mm, 10km. S Cape Tribulation. 320m, in QM; 
Noah Creek; Thomion Range; Mt Lewis, 10km above 
Bushy Creek, in ANIC; Ml Lewis; 1 0km N of Mt 
Lewis; 2.5km N Mt Lewis, 1040m; Mossman Bluff 
track; Mossman Gorge; Devil's Thumb, 10km NW 
Mossman, 1000- 1 1 80m; 2km SE Mt Spurgeon; 7km N 
Ml Spurgeon, 1 200m; Pauls Luck, Carbine Tableland; 
Roots Ck-Francis Ck Divide, 1250m; Kuranda, in QM; 
6km SW Kuranda, in MDPI; Cairns district; Cairns 
vicinity; Mulgrave River, in SAM; Davies Ck, 20km 
SE Mareeba, in ANIC; 22km SE Mareeba, 900m; 
Upper Isley Creek, 750m; Ml Williams, 900- 1000m. 
in QM; Danbulla SF, 1 3km NE Yungaburra, in MDPI; 
Upper Mulgrave River; Murray Prior Range, via 
Yarrabah; The Boulders, via Babinda; Bellenden Ker 
township; Bellenden Ker Range, Cable Tower 7, 
500m; Graham Range, via Babinda, in QM: 
Gordonvale, in QDPl. NORTHERN TERRITORY (?): 
Port Darwin, in SAM. (QM duplicates lodged in 

DESCRIPTION. Large, 1 1 - 1 2.5mm long, uniformly 
black, with short, sparse, adpressed vestilure. 

MALE. Head length 1 . 1 - 1 .2 limes width, its sur- 
face smooth; anlenniferous tubercles strongly di- 
vergent, with outer margins continuous with 
profile of postocular portion of head, and with 
length beyond exserted eyes about twice eye di- 
ameter; apices of anlenniferous tubercles weakly 
notched; cleft between anlenniferous tubercles 
and median process of head wide and deep, with 
2 pairs of prominent opposable tubercles in cleft; 
genal processes long, with apices flared, ob- 
liquely truncate, and usually notched. Antennae 
a little longer than head, segment I longest. 

Proihorax with sublaleral elevations larger, 
high and more rugose than submedian elevations 
which partly occlude median sulcus; pronotal 
collar smooth dorsally, with dorsal opposable 
tubercles reduced. Median ridge of meso- and 
melanota smooth, depressed. Legs slender, un- 

Abdomen with tergal disc elevated slightly at 
middle of Tg II, at position of scent gland scar and 
sublaterally on Tg III. 

Lateral margins of Cx VI and VII produced into 
subequal, rounded lobes; paratergites of VIII 

short, cylindrical, truncate with spiracles apical; 
parameres as in Fig. 47H. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: Outer connexival 
margin of VI slightly angled posterolaterally, and 
that of VII angled in middle; Tg VII with a pair 
of quadrate elevations near posterior margin; 
spermalheca as in Fig. 47C. 

MEASUREMENTS. Ranges of 26 and 2 9. L: 
11.20, 12.30-12.50; W: 5.00, 6.16-6.66; HL: 
3.16-3.20, 3.30-3.41; HW: 2.66-2.75, 2.91-3.08; 
PL: 1.25-1.32, 1.41-1.50; PW: 3.20-3.50, 3.66- 
3.75; AS: 1, 1.08, 1.16-1.20, II, 0.60, 0.56-0.60, 
III, 0.92-1.00, 0.88-LOO, IV, 0.60-0,64, 0.60. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 48). The type locality is 
specified only as *N. Queensland' and since the 
species is common in and adjacent to rainforest 
in the coastal region from Cooktown to Babinda 
it is probable that the holotype came from the 
vicinity of Cairns. Kormilev (1967) recorded 
specimens from the South Australian Museum 
labelled as Tort Darwin, W.D. Dodd'. Examina- 
tion of these specimens shows them to be identi- 
cal with specimens from the Caims-Kuranda 
region within the confiimed range of the species. 
Since it is inconceivable that an apterous aradid 
could occur in undifferentiated form al such dis- 
junct locations as Cairns and Darwin, and since 
Kuranda was the residence of the collector, I 
prefer to regard the alleged Northern Territory 
specimens as being mislabelled. 

REMARKS. C. stylatus was the first apterous 
aradid described from Australia and is one of the 
largest species known from the continent. It oc- 
curs, singly and in small colonies, on large logs 
in rainforest but seems rather eurytopic and may 
occur in cleared and disturbed areas. Its altitudi- 
nal range varies within its distribution; in the 
northern sector it ranges from sea-level to 1 250m, 
but in the south it has not been taken higher than 
the coastal plain and low foothills. This may be 
due 10 competition, in the south, from the other 3 
species of the genus which inhabit mountain 
rainforests in the south but not in the norlh. 

Chelonoderus forfex sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotype 6, Palmerston Nat. Park, via In- 
nisfaii. N Qld, 23.iv.1968, G. Monleith. QMT11674. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 43 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Baldy Mtn, via 
Atherlon, pitfall trap, 1$, ii-xi.l977, RlS,in MDPI, 



\6, I200ni, 10.x. 1980, GBM; Upper Plath Road, 
1100m,QMBerl.908, ld,8.xii.l996,GBM;Malanda 
Falls, Malanda, 2d 19, 11. v. 1970, GBM, 46 29, 
8- 12.x. 1980, GBM; Palmerston NP, via Innisfail, 36 
I9,23-24.v.l970,BKC, 19,7-8.viii. 1968,BKC,ld, 
9.xii.l995, pyrethrum on logs, GBM; Mt Fisher, 7 km 
SW Millaa Millaa 1050-1 lOOm, 56 19, 27- 
29.iv.1982, GBM, DKY & DJC, Id, QM Bed. 888. 
17.V.1995, GBM; Downey Creek, 25km SE Millaa 
Millaa, 400m, 16 69, 7.xii.l988, GBM & GIT; Mt 
Father Clancy, 900- 1000m, 2d, 6.xii.l988, GBM & 
GIT; Vine Creek Rd, 1100m, Id, 24.xi.1994, GBM, 
in QM; Tully Falls, pitfall trap, 19, 12.xii.l976- 
15.1.1977, RIS, in MDPI. (QM duplicates lodged in 
(paratypes: QMTl 4042-1 4062, QMT14067-14070, 
QMT22364-22367, QMT14073-14084). 

DESCRIPTION. Large, 10-12mm long, uni- 
formly black, elongate, with truncate abdominal 

MALE. Head length 1 .25 times width, with elon- 
gate neck region, surface with short, dense vesli- 
ture; antenniferous tubercles divergent, 
straight-sided, extending beyond eyes by a dis- 
tance equal to eye diameter, apices subacute, not 
notched; genaj processes long, parallel, with 
evenly rounded apices; 2 pairs of opposable tu- 
bercles in cleft between antenniferous tubercles 
and median process of head but not prominent. 
Antennae slightly longer than head, segment I 

Prothorax with sublateral elevations lower than 
lateral margins; submedian elevations smoothly 
continuous with pronotal collar; dorsal opposable 
tubercles of collar reduced; median ridge of 
meso- and metanota smooth, depressed in mid- 
dle. Legs slender, unarmed. 

Abdominal tergal disc slightly elevated at mid- 
dle of Tg II, at scent gland scar and sublaterally 
on Tg III; lateral series of opposable tubercles 
weak; lateral margins of Cx II-V not lobed and 
progressively narrowing posteriorly, that of VI 
with a small, round lobe in posterior half, and that 
of VII strongly produced into laterally projecting, 
rounded lobes; paratergites of VIII short, cylin- 
drical, U^uncate, with spiracles apical. Parameres 
as in Fig. 47F. St of VII with a subquadrate, 
smooth, glabrous area medially. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: Sides of abdomen 
convex; lobes of Cx VI and VII much smaller 
than in cj , with those of VII directed more poste- 
riorly; median disc of Tg VII with quadrate ele- 
vation bearing 2 low tubercles posteriorly. 
Spermatheca as in Fig. 47E. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 29 paratypes. L: 
10.66, 10.00-10.16, 10.66-12.16; W: 4.83, 4.58. 
5.42-6.42; HL: 3.00, 2.92, 2.92-3.33; HW: 2.42, 
2.33, 2.42-2.66; PL: 1.42, 1.16-1.25, 1.33-1.50; 
PW: 3.25, 3.00-3.08, 3.17-3.75; AS: 1, 1 .00, 1 .00- 
1.04, 1.08-1.20; II, 0.60, 0.56-0.6, 0.60-0.68; IH, 
0.92, 0.92-1.00, 0.96-1.00; IV, 0.60, 0.60-0.64, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 48). Mountain rainforest 
above 350m on the S Atherton Tableland with 
several records from the Walsh Range (Baldy 
Mtn) at the N end of the Tableland. 

REMARKS. C. forfex is related to the type spe- 
cies but is easily separable by the shape of the 
antenniferous tubercles, genal processes and ab- 
dominal apex. The 2 species are not known to be 
sympatric although their distributions overlap a 
little latitudinally at different altitudes. 

Chelonoderus thompsoni sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotype 6, Wallaman Falls Rd, 600m, RF, 
N.E.Qld. 14 Dec 1986, Monleith, Thompson & Ham- 
let, QMTl 1829. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 23 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Kirrama SF, via 
Cardwell, 19, 17-18.viii.1966. GBM, Id, 700m. 2- 
3.x. 1980. GBM, \6 19, 650m, ll.v.1983, DKY; Mt 
Hosie, 800-930m. Kirrama SF, 3(5 3 9, 10.xii.l986, 
10.xii.l986; Douglas Ck Rd, 800m. Kirrama SF. I d, 
9-12.xii.1986, GBM, GIT & SH; Cardwell Ra., Upper 
Broadwater Ck valley, 700-800, 3d 19, 17- 
21.xi.l986, GBM, GIT & SH; Cardwell Range, 28km 
W of Kennedy, 19,, R. Bell; Ml Graham, 
8km N Abergowrie, 600-700m, Id, 26-30.xii.1986, 
SH; Wallaman Falls, via Ingham 2d 2 9 , 7.viii. 1 968, 
BKC, 3d 19,600m, 14.xii. 1986, GBM, GIT & SH, 
in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, ANIC, EH) 
(paratypes: QMT14088, QMT141 lO-I 4126, 

DESCRIPTION. Large, 9- 12.5mm long, uni- 
formly black, elongate, similar to C forfex but 
differing in the following respects. Pronotum 
with outer edge of sublateral elevations slightly 
lower than the mesal portion of the elevation. 
Male: with margin of Cx VII produced into a 
smaller lobe which is directed obliquely back- 
wards so that its lateral margin does not extend 
laterally beyond the profde of the smaller lobe of 



FIG. 46. Dofsai view of holotype of 6 Cheionoderus 

MEASUREMENTS Holoiype 6 firsu then 
range of 26 and 2$ paratvpes. L: 9.12, 10 37- 
10.5a 10.62-12.50; W: 4.25, 4.75-4.90. 5.58- 
6.50: HL: 2.65. 3.00-2.75, 3.05O.50: ITW: 2.10, 
2.30^150, 2.40-2.75: PL: 1.00. 1.20-1.10, 1.25- 
1 .50; P^- : 2.60, 2.90-3,00. 2.95-3.75; AS: 1, 0.90, 
IJ5-I 06, 1.05-1.15: IL 0.52, 0.55-0.58, 0.55- 
0.61: in. 0.86, 1 00-1.06. 0,96-1.06: I\'. 0.58, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 48). Mountain rainforests 
cm the Kirrama, Cardwell and Seaview Ranges. 
N Queensland. 

REMARKS. Thi^ species is named after Geoff 
Thompson, Queensland Museum, who has co) 
lecicd many tropical Aradidae and illustrated 
many species for this revision, 

C thompsam is the geographically isolated, 
.southern member of llie group of 3 larger species 
which occur as allopatric derivatives in rainforest 
tracts of the wet tropics. It is clo.Kelv related to C 
forfaj^ but 6 lack the flared apicaJ abdominiil 

segments of that species. 5 ol ihc 2 species arc 
difficult to separate. 

Chetonoderus minor sp. nov. 

TYPE Hoioiype S. MiJlaa Millaa Falls. N. Qltl, 
4.xii.l965. G.B. Monteith. QMTl 1675. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holoiype and 16 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Lake Eacliam 
NP. 7fiOm. ANIC Bcil.S'jy. rauifoicsl, 19, 3- 
7,xi 1976. R,W Tflylorand TAW; L5km E ofPalm- 
crsion. J d. (i,xi.l966. E.B. Briiion, in ANIC. Crait-r 
NP, Atherton Tableland. I J. 25.iv.I970. GBM. iS, 
5.xii.l988. GBM; Malanda. 19. 9.xi.l989, TAW; 
Malanda Falls. 2<5, 29. 9.xii. 1989-1 4.1.1990-. GBM, 
GIT&HJ; Upper Mulgravc River, i 9.26.27.xii.l967. 
GBM; Mt Bartle Frere. West Slopes. 800- 1 000m, 2if , 
30.xii.!989, GBM; Palmcrston NP. 3d 29, 
23.iv. 1968. GBM: 1 <5 1 9, 7-8. viii. 1968. BKC; Henri- 
etta Ck, Palmerston NP, Id 19, 12.xiiJ966. BKC: 
Millaa Millaa Falls. Id. 23.iv.1968, GBM. in QM. 
(QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, ANIC, SAM. EH) 
(paralvpes: QMT14089- 14102. QMT141f)4- 

DESCRIPTION. Medium sized. 8.8-IO.,3mm 
long, black, with contntsdngly pule abdojninal 
scent gland sc^ir. 

Male. Head length 1 .25 times width, its dt>rsuni 
rugose in middle; antenniferous tubercles long, 
divergent, with sides straight, extending beyond 
eyes by a distance equal to more than twice eye 
diameter^ apices subacute, not notched; genal 
processes long, parallel-sided, with apices sepa- 
rate, subacute and not individually notched; op- 
posahle tubercles in cleft between antennifcniu.s 
tubea-tes and median head process small. Anten- 
nae slightly longer than head, segment 1 and U 
longest. Mibequal. 

Proiiotum with sublaieral elevations slighily 
higher than lateral margins; .submedian eleva- 
tions not continuous with collar; dorsal opposable 
lubea'les of collar well developed, median rid^ie 
of rocsonutum coarsely wrinkled. Legs slender, 
often with a small, subapical peg on ventral side 
of hind femora. 

.Abdominal tergal disc broadly elevated antcri- 
c>riy and along the lateral margin^ where the 
:veries of opposable tubei'cles arc promiaeni; 
disc depressed in posterior half except for 
raised, pale scent gland scar; margins of Cx 
IMV not lobed, limse if V. VI and VII each 
with a pointed, triangular projection on poslc- 
ni>r half; parateTgnesofVnishorL cylindrical, 
with slightly oblique apices, Parameres a& in 




FIG. 47. Chelonoderus spp.; A, C.forfex S\ B, C. stylatus head; C-E, spermathecae; C, C. stylatus; D, C. minor, 
E, C.forfex; F-H. left parameres, outer views; F, C.forfex', G, C minon H, C. stylatus: I-P, abdominal apices, 
dorsal (d) and ventral (v); I. C. st^'latus 6 d; J, C. thompsoni 6 d; K, C. /niVior $ v; L, C. minor 6 v; M, C. 
mmar 9 d; N, C.forfex 9 v; O. C./o//^.r 9 d; P, C OT/am^ 9 d. 





• C. stylatiis 
*■ C. forfex 

• C. thompsoni 

• C. m/nor 


s^,^^ I owns 


FIG. 48. Records of Chelonodems species in nonhem 

Fig. 47G. St VII smooth and glabrous medially 
and with a semicircular impression near anterior 
margin; Si VI narrowed medially hy forward 
extension of St Vn. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: Abdomen broad, 
whh convex margins; angles of Cx V, VI and VII 
much reduced; median disc of Tg VII with pro- 
nounced quadrate elevation and 2 high, trans- 
verse tubercles near posterior margin. 
Spermatheca as id Fig. 47D. 

MEASUREMENTS. Hololype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional IS and 2 9 , L: 9.17, 8.83- 
9-17. 9.67-10.33; W: 4.17, 4.08, 5.17-5.42; HL: 
2.50, 2.50. 2.58-2.75; HW: 1. 92 J .92-2.00, 2.08- 
2.17; PL: 1.17, L08-1.17, 1.25; PW: 2.92, 2.75- 
2.83, 3.00-3.1 6, AS: 1. 80, 0.80-0.84, 0.80-0.88; 
11. 0.60. 0.56, 0.56-0,60; UI, 0.84. 0.80. 0.84- 
0.88; IV, 0.48. 0.52, 0,52. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 48). Mountain rainforest 
on the S Alherton Tableland with one specimen 
from low altitudes in the same region (Mulgrave 

REMARKS . C. minor is distinct within the genus 
by its smaller size and angled margins of Cx V. 
It is commonest in belter developed rainforest on 
red, basaltic soils where it occurs on slicks and 
logs. It coexists with C. forfex at several localities 
in the northern portion of the range of the latter 

Pseudoargocoris Korrailev, 1992 

Argocoris Komnilev. 1967a: 519 (descr.); Komi tic v, 
1 97 1 : 6 ( key); Kormiiev & Froeschner. 1987; 
103 (catalog, of spp.). 

Pseudoargocoris Kormiiev, 1992: 184 (n. name for 
preocc, Argocoris Komiilev) 

TYPE SPECES. Argocoris grossi Kormiiev, i967a, 
by originai designation. 

DESCRIPTION. Moderate-sized, ovate, apter- 
ous, with convex dorsum and coarsely granular 
body surface. 

Head about as wide as long: postocular tuber- 
cles small, u-iangular; eyes large and sessile, sep- 
arated from antenniferuus tubercles by a weak. 
shallow cleft; antenniferous tubercles blunt, 
weakly divergent; genal processes short, blunt, 
fused anterior to apex of clypeus; rostral groove 
not closed posteriorly; rostral atrium closed. An- 
tennae with segments II and III of less diameter 
than I and IV; segment III longer than II or IV. 

Pronotum with median, longitudinal sulcus: el- 
evations at both submedian and sublateral posi- 
tions, the submedian ones with a smooth, 
glabrous area surrounded by granules; pronoial 
collar very distinct and bearing dorsal and ventral 
opposable tubercles. Scutellar region of 
mesonotum elevated into a median ridge extend- 
ing posteriorly to abdominal Tg I; opposable tu- 
bercles on each side of base of scutcllarclcvation. 
mesonotal wing vestiges defmed by sutures. 
Smooth, glabrous areas on each side of middle of 
meso- and metanota; metanoium with low gran- 
ular, sublateral elevations which subtend oppos- 
able Tubercles against lateral angles of median 
plate of abdominal Tg I. Legs not bicolourcd. 
Tarsal pulvilli present, spatulate. 

Abdominal tergal disc inflated, granular, with 
pattern of glabrous areas defined by ridges; inner 
glabrous areas of Tg IH and IV subdivided, suture 
between Tg I and 11 distinct m middle and oblit- 
erated laterally; a pair of opposable tubercles 
between posterior angles of median plate of ab- 
dominal Tg I and anterior edge of Tg 11; 3 pairs 
of intersegmental opposable tubercles at junc- 
tions between Tg III, IV. V and VI along lateral 
margin of abdominal tergal disc. 

Median impressions on mcso- and metaslerna; 
glabrous areas and intersegmental sutures 
strongly impressed on abdominal sterna. 
Parameres with a row of fine teeth on their inner 



DISTRIBUTION (Fig. IOC). A monotypic, Aus- 
tralian endemic known only from coastal central 

REMARKS. Pseudoargocoris occupies an inter- 
mediate position between Aegisocoris and 
Chelonoderus, having the postocular tubercles 
and ovate, convex body shape of the former and 
the distinctive pronotum of the latter. 

Pseudoargocoris gross! (Kormilev, 1967) 

Argocoris grossi Kormilev, 1967a: 521 (descr., figs); 

Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 103 (listed). 
Pseudoargocoris grossi: Kormilev, 1992:184 


TYPE. Holotype 9 , Bowen, Queensland, A. Simson, 
SAM 120,342. Examined. The specimen also bears an 
old label with the numbers 1531-3550. The type lacks 
left aniennal segments II and IV, right antennal seg- 
ments II, III and IV, left fore tibiae and tarsi of fore and 
middle legs. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 17 speci- 
mens: CENTRAL QUEENSLAND: Brandy Creek 
Road, Conway SF, via Proserpine, lOd 49 3N, 23- 
25.iv.l979. GBM, in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in 

DESCRIPTION. Moderate-sized, 9.00mm long, 
sub-circular, reddish, with coarsely granular, gla- 
brous body surfaces. 

MALE. Head length 1. 06- 1. 11 times width, with 
median ridge raised and bearing large, rough 
granules; postocular tubercles small, flattened, 
triangular; eyes sessile, smooth; antenniferous 
tubercles granular, blunt, extending beyond eyes 
1.5 times eye diameter; opposable tubercles in 
cleft between antenniferous tubercles and median 
head process large, distinct; genal processes 
short, broad, granular, fused for full length ante- 
rior to clypeus and with apices expanded, conflu- 
ent, and with front margin truncate. 

Pronotum with sides converging anteriorly; 
submedian elevations each with a laterally atten- 
uate glabrous area surrounded by a granular patch 
anteriorly and a coarse carina posteriorly; sub- 
lateral elevations higher than submedian eleva- 
tions and roughly granular; pronotal collar 
smooth, distinct. Mesonotum with scutellar re- 
gion raised, granular, flanked by a pair of granu- 
lar, triangular tubercles; mesonotal wing 
remnants with a granular lateral lobe and a 
smooth mesal disc; metanotum with raised me- 
dian ridge continuous with transverse median 


FIG. 49. Dorsal view of holotype 6 of Pseudo- 
argocoris grossi. 

elevation of abdominal Tg I; lateral metanotal 
elevations coarsely punctate, separated from me- 
dian ridge by a smooth gutter beneath the en- 
larged opposable tubercles; meta-thoracic scent 
gland openings straight, slit-like. Legs slender, 

Abdominal tergal disc broadly inflated over 
whole area, most of pattern of ridges prominently 
raised and granular; scent gland scar pale with 
several patches of raised granules; postero-lateral 
angles of Cx V and VI each with small triangular, 
blunt lobes; margin of Cx VII with a small angu- 
lation; paratergites of VIII short, cylindrical, 
truncate with spiracles terminal. Abdominal 
sterna coarsely impressed, punctate, median im- 
pressions distinct; St VI greatly narrowed in mid- 



die by forward extension of St VII; Si VII with a 
large polished ilat area m centre bounded by a 
fine impressed line. 

FEMALE. As for d except: all connexival mar- 
gins smooth, unlobed and continuous, except for 
that of VII which has a faint angulation; median 
disc of Tg VII quadraieiy elevated with a piiir of 
transverse posterior tubercles; St VI grcxjvcd sub- 
parallel to hind margin; divided platen of St VII 
intlated, granular; spiracles of VII raised on low 
tubercles; paratertgites of VIH low* blunt. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 9 finvt followed 
bv ranges of 26 and 29. L: 9.O0. 7.92-7.93, 
8.37-8.75; W: 5.00. 3.75, 4.5(M.75; HL: 2.24 
2.09-2.10. 2.10. 2.25; HVv': 2.08, 1.87-1.88,2.00- 
2.03; W-: l.OO, 0.85-0.94, 90-1.00; PW: 3.16. 
2,72-2.87. 2-90-2.97; AS:I,0.66. 0.60. 0.62-0.63, 
n. 0.44. 0.42, 0.44-0.46, UI, lost. 0.84, 0.86-0.90. 
IV. lost, 0.52-0.56, 0.56-0-60. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig 52). Coastai central 
Queensland near Proserpine. 

REMARKS. The unique type from Bowen was 
collected by local collector August Simson 
around 1870 (Musgrave, 1 932 ). The Bowen vicin- 
ity, though coastal, is rather arid and without 
rainforest vegetation in which such an apterous 
aradid would be expected lo occur. Il is known 
diat Simson ranged quite far afield from Bowen, 
including as far as the rainforested Mt Dryander. 
near Proserpine (Fletcher, 1929), which is on the 
southern side of Edgecumbe Bay. Several mod- 
em auempts were made to rediscover the species 
on Ml Dryander without success. In 1979 a col- 
ony was taken on a large log in lowland rainforest 
at Brandy Creek, E of Proseipine and a little south 
of Ml Dryander This proved that P. gross! is a 
rainforest species, making it unlikely that the type 
came from Bowen. 

Aegisocoris Kormilev, 1967 

Aegisocoris Kormilev, 1967a: 521 (dcscr.); Kormilev, 
1971: 6 (incl. in key); Komiilcv <S: Fnieschncr. 
1987: 96 (catalogue oYspp.). 

TYPE SPECIES. Aegisocoris gmnulauts Kormilev. 
1967 by original designation. 

slightly exserted, separated from antennifcroas 
tubercles by a small cleft; antenniferous tubercles 
divergent, blunt; genal processes short, blunt, 
without bases contiguous in front of clypc^gs; 
rostral groove not closed behind; rostral atnurn 
dosed, Aniennae with segments II and HI of less 
diameter than 1 and IV; segments II, III aiKi IV 
subequal in length. 

Pronotum with median longitudinal sulcus bor- 
dered by 2 pair^ of prominent granular tubervlcs 
in submcdian region; without subiatcral eleva- 
tions; anterolateral angles of pronotum with 
semicircular, explanate lobes. Scutellar region of 
mcsonotum forming high, granular clcvaiion, 
sulcate medially; opposable tubercles wi each 
side of base of scuiellai lobe; mesonolal wing 
vestiges defined by distinct, semicia^ular sutures; 
metanotum with a large, smooth, glabrous plalc 
on each side of median elcvauon; a set of 3 
opposable tubercles between mclanotum, ab- 
dominal Tg I and fore margin of fused abdominal 
tergal disc. Legs not bicoloufed. Tarsal pulvilli 
preserti, ^pa^alate. 

Abdominal tergal disc highly inflated, granu- 
lar, with pattern of glabroas areas largely obliter- 
ated; suture between Tg 1 and II distinct in middle 
and obliterated laterally. Cx VII not lobcd in c^ . 

Meso- andmelasiema w ith median impression; 
pleural regions coarsely granuliir; metathoracic 
scent gland canals .short and widely open; puuem 
of glabrous areas deeply impressed on abdominal 

Sperraalheca! duct with inflaled, ihick-wallcd 
bulb. Paramcfcs with row of fine toclh or inner 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. lOD). An Australian en- 
demic confined lo tropical northern Queensland 
between Cape Tribulation and Inmsfail. 

REMARKS. Af^'/5ocom parallels the AustraUart 
carveniine Glyptooptera Kormilev in its highly 
convex thoracic and abdominal noia (Monieuh* 
1967). The prothorax is unusual in having 2 pairs 
ol submedian tubercles; this results from the dis- 
placement of the sublateral elevations into the 
submedian field. The vestigial hemelytral bases 
ore better developed in Aegisocoris than in olbex 
Australian flightless genera. 

DESCRIPTION. A genus of medium-sized, 
ovate, convex, apterous Mezirinae with granular 
body surface. 

Head about as long as wide; postocular tuber- 
cles present as narrow triangular lobes; eyes 


1 . Eiich antcrolaterai angle of pronoiiim wirh n 
small, tlanened, semi-ereci lohc iibout ilic size of 
the eye; width of pygophorc of 6 more Ihan one 



third max««um width of abdomen 

g raniikifu^ Kom\iic\ 

Each anterolateral angle of pronotuni with a sub- 
drcular, flattened lobe about twice si/c of Ihe 
eye; width of pygophore of 6 less than one third 
maximum width of abdomen 

kormtlevi, sp. nov. 

Aeglfsocoris granuJatus Kormiiev, 


Argisororis groiiuhms KarraUcv, 1967a: 522 (descry 
figs); Kormilev <& Froc^hnw. 1987: 96 (Usied). 

TYPE. Holoiype V. Calms dist. A.M. Lea. SAM 
120,243. Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holoiype and 58 speci- 
mens NORTH QUEENSLAND. Upper Plaih Rd, 
JlOOm. 2d, 49. S.ii,I996, GBM; Upper Mulgrave 
River, IJ.26-27.xii. 1967. GBM;BeUenden Kerlown- 
ship, ld,7.viii.l966,GBM;BeilendenKerRa., L5km 
S Cable Tower 7, 5(.K)m> pyrcthrum knockdown, 17d 
79, 25-31.x.ly8]. Earitiwalch/QM; Henriella Ck. 
Palmersion NP, 1 cl iV, 29.xii.iy64, GBM, ^6 
23.iva970. GBM: Palmcrston NP. 350-4O0m, 19. 
2,!. 1990, GBM: Palmerbioa NP, East Margin. I d J 9, 
9.xii.l995, GBM, DJC. GIT: Malanda Falls, 750m. 
rainforest log littci and fungi, M, 22.vii. 1982, S&JP; 
Millaa Millaa Falls, 26 39. 4.xii.l965. GBM; 19. 
12.viii.l968, BKC. 19. 7.xiil989, GBM, GIT, HJ; 
Bartle Frere track. 17km W. Maianda. 7C>0rn. 8d 19. 
8.xit.!988. GBM & GIT; Boonjie, 13km ESE 
Malanda. 700m. I d. 8.XU.1982. GBM. DKY & DJC; 
Ml Fisher, 7km SW Millaa Millaa, 1 050- 1 1 00m. pyre- 
xhrum knockdown, 19, 27-29.iv.l982. GBM.DKV & 
DJC; Graham Range, 550m, pyrethnim on logs, I d, 
1 9 . 8 xii,ix.l995. GBM. DJC. GIT. in QM. fQM du- 
plicates lodged in BMNH. ANIC, MDPI, UQIC, EH, 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 6-7.2mm long, subcircu- 
lar, reddish, convex, with enlarged pygophore 
in d. 

MALE- Headwiilih L05 limes length, its surface 
covered with fine granular and with about 6 large 
granules in 2 rows on vertex ; postocular tubercles 
small, flattened, triangular; eyes large; an- 
tenniferous tubercles short, blunt, weakly diver- 
gent, extending beyond eyes 1V5 limes eye 
diameter; genal processes shcm. divergent, com- 
pletely separated on side's of clypeus and barely 
surpaNsing its apex. Antennae slender, about 1-2 
uracs length of bead; segment II shortesc, seg- 
ments 1 and H longest, subequal. 

Pfonoiuui alrnosc 3 times as wide as long, with 
scattered gninules; submedian elevations com- 
plex, each consisting of a smooth, glabrous area 

Fig. 30. Dorsal v»ew Qf S holotype of Aegu^KH^ns 

sloping into the median sulcus and flanked ante- 
riorly and posienorly by a pair of proniincni, 
granular tubercles bearing sparse, curled vcsli- 
turc: anterior pair of tubercles closer together 
than posterior pair and forming a pair ot oppos- 
able iut>eTcles across the median sulcus; anlcru- 
laieral angles of pronotum each with a small, 
flatteneil, semicircular, semi-erect lobe about the 
size of eye; posterolateral pronotal angles ecich 
witli a small, submargmal granular luhcrclc- 
Mesonotalscutellar area highly elevated, smooth, 
with a pair of elongate, granular elevations ou 
top; mesonool wing vestiges broad, granular, 
with lateral margins elevated into a granular tu- 
bercle on c^ch side; meianotum laterally with 
circular, granular areas separated from the ine^ 
dian ridge by smooth, polisbed afea. LegN short. 
contrastingly paJe, with femora stightly incrass- 

Abdominal tergal disc broadly and wrongly 
convex, with 4 obtuse peaks in anterior half bear- 
ing lufts of curled vestiture; enlarged, shining 
granules along lateral margins of tergal disc; pos- 
terior margins of dorsal connexivaJ plates thick- 




FIG. 51. A-C, Pseudoargocoris grossi; A, 9 lateral view; B, 6 abdominal apex, dorsal; C, 9 abdominal apex, 
ventral, D-N, Aegisocoris spp.; D, A. granulatus, 6 lateral view; E, A. granulatus, head and prothorax; F-J, 
abdominal apices, dorsal (d) and ventral (v); F, A. konnilevi 2 v; G, A. granulatus 9 d; H, A. konnilevi 6 d; 
K A. konnilevi S v; J. A. granulatus 6 v; K-L spermalhecae; K, A. granulatus: L, A- konnilevi', M-N. left 
parameres, outer view; M, A. granulatus; N, A. konnilevi. 



ened and bearing curled vestiture; paratergitcs of 
segment VIII small, inconspicuous, bearing spi- 
racles on mesal side of apex. Pygophore enlarged, 
width more than 1/3 maximum width of abdo- 
men, with a longitudinal ridge along its dorsum. 
Parameres as in Fig. 51M. St VII broadly and 
roundly inflated with central area, smooth, matt- 
surfaced, contrasting with the coarsely granular 
lateral areas. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: Abdominal tergal 
disc with an inflated area in posterior half, bear- 
ing curled vestiture; Tg VII with a pair of widely 
spaced, low tubercles near hind margin; divided 
plates of St VII coarsely granular; paratergites of 
VIII pointed. Spermatheca as in Fig. 5 IK. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 9 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 29. L: 7.17, 6.17- 
6.67, 6.83; W: 3.92, 3.33-3.42, 3.75-3.83; HL: 
1.83, 1.56-1.64, 1.67;HW: 1.92, 1.67-1.72, 1.75- 
1.80; PL: 0.8. 0.76, 0.68-0.72; PW: 2.33, 2.17- 
2.24, 2.25-2.40; AS: I, 0.56, 0.54-0.56, 0.56-0.6; 
II, 0.44, 0.36, 0.4; III, 0.56, 0.52-0.54, 0.56; TV, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 52). Rainforests of low to 
high altitude on the closely adjacent Atherton 
Tableland, Graham Range and Bellenden Ker 
Range, N Queensland. The locality of 'Cairns 
district' of the holotype is further north and has 
not been confirmed by modern collecting. 

REMARKS. This distinctive species occurs on 
sticks and small logs where it rests in crevices and 
small depressions. Its highly inflated and tuber- 
cular dorsum provide effective camouflage. A. 
graniilatiis is closely related to the new species 
described below which occurs north of its range. 

Aegisocoris kormilevi sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotype 9 , Churchill Ck, Mt Lewis Road, via 
Julatten, N Qld., 27.xi. 1964, G. Monleith. QMTl 1 676. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 32 paratypes: 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: Mt Halcyon, 870m, M, 
22-24.XL1993, GBM, DJC, LR, HJ; 3.5kni W Cape 
Tribulation, 680m, pyreihrum knockdown, lc5^, 
2.x. 1 982, GBM, DKY & GIT; Stewart Ck, 4km NNE 
Ml Spurgeon, 1250-1300m, 1 5-20. x. 1991 , 
GBM,DJC,LR,HJ; 7km N Mt Spurgeon, 1 200- 1 250m, 
6(5, 69, 17-19.X.199K GBM,DJC,LR,HJ; Mossman 
Blufftrack. 1000m, 29. 17-19. xii.l988,GBM&GIT, 
I100-1300m, 19,17-18.xii.!988,GBM&GIT;2.5km 
N Mt Lewis, 1040 m, 1 d 1 9 , 3.xi. 1983, DKY & GIT; 
lOkmNMtLewis, 1100m, Ic^, 19, 25.xi.1990.GBM. 

/ 146"E 

r ♦ P. grossi 

41 cairns AEGISOCORIS 

*V • A. granulatus 

M ^ A. kormilevi 

j (*" Townsville 

1 ^J\_ nntc 


FIG. 52. Records of Pseudoargocoris and Aegisocoris 
species in northern Queensland. 

DJC, GIT, RS, HJ; Churchill Ck, Mt Lewis Road, via 
Julatten, 66 39, 27.xi.1964, GBM, in QM. (QM du- 
plicates lodged in BMNH, ANIC, SAM, EH, NMNH, 
UQIC) (paratypes: QMTl 4000- 140 19, QMT14025- 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 6-7.50nim long, elon- 
gate-oval, reddish, convex, with pygophore of 
normal proportions. Closely related to the type 
species but differing as follows: Body form more 
elongate; head with large granules on posterior 
dorsum of head not in 2 rows; pronotum with 
antero-lateral lobes much larger than eye, di- 
rected laterally, not semi-erect; scutellar eleva- 
tion of mesonotum lower, with narrower median 
sulcus; abdominal tergal disc less inflated; 6 with 
pygophore not enlarged, its width less than 1/3 
maximum width of abdomen; dorsum of pygo- 
phore evenly convex, without median ridge. Para- 
meres as in Fig. 5 1 N. Spermatheca as in Fig. 5 1 L. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 9 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 2 9. L: 6.67, 6.0, 
6.5-7.5; W: 3.5, 2.92-3.08, 3.42-4.08; HL: 1.6, 
1.52, 1.6-1.8; HW: 1.8, 1.6, 1.76-1.88; PL: 0.68, 
0.72-0.68, 0.72-0.8; PW: 2.32, 2.08, 2.32-2.60; 
AS: I, 0.56, 0.48-0.52, 0.52-0.58; U, 0.36, 0.34, 
0.38; m. 0.5, 0.5, 0.50-0.52; IV, 0.52, 0.48-0.50, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 52). Rainforest at moder- 
ate to high altitude from Cape Tribulation to the 
Carbine Tableland, N Queensland. 

REMARKS. The two species of Aegisocoris rec- 
ognized here are allopatric segregates of a former 
widespread species. The several collections of A. 
kormilevi however are uniform in the characters 



used to separate them from A. granulatm. The 
differential size in the pygophoreof the 2 species 
is striking. 

The new species is named for Nicholas A. 
Kormilev, who described the genus and so many 
other Aradidae around the world. 

Neophloeobia Usinger & Matsuda, 1959 

Seophloeobia\}^\ngtx &i Matsuda, 1959: 232 (descr.): 
Konnilev, 1967a: 523 (comments on definition); 
Kormilev. 197!: 7 (incl- in key); Komiilev & 
Froeschncf. J 987; 163 (catalogue of spp.). 

Si'irrhocom Kormilev, I965a:26 (descr.); Kormilev, 
1971: 6 (incl. in key); Kormilev & Froeschner, 
1987: 191 (calalogucof spp.) 5y/i. now 

Schinhocoris. Kormilev. 1965a: 27 (incorreci spelling 
Xor Scinhocom). 

TYPE-SPECiES. Of Neophloeobia: Ntophloeohiu 

fmvutnu:Jeri Usingcr & Maisuda, 1959, by original 


O f Scirrhocoris: Woodwardiessa ausiraliensis 

Kormilev, 1964 by ariginal designaliun. 

DESCRIPTION. Small to medium-sized, apter- 
ous, with bicoloured legs and flattened appear- 

Head generally longer than broad; postocular 
tubercles present, forming narrow, acutely 
pointed, conical or cylindrical processes; eyes 
sessile or moderately exserled; anlenniferous tu- 
bercles well-developed, usually divergent; genac 
long, fused in front of clypeal apex, msiral groove 
closed pcisteriorly; rostral atrium closed. Anten- 
nae with segments II and III of lesser diameter 
than that of I and IV; antenna! segment III usually 
lunger than U. 

Pronotum with a median, longitudinal sulcus 
and without prominent elevations in either sub- 
median or suhlalera! positions; anterolateral an- 
gles of pronotum with explanate lobes whose 
outer margins are continuous posteriorly to 
posterolateral angles; pronotal collar, delimited 
by a dorsal furrow, and bearing dorsal and ventral 
Opposable tubercles; posterior pronotal margin 
bordered except at lateral extremities. ScutcUar 
region of mesonolum elevated and subcontinuous 
posteriorly to the tlrst abdominal lergum; neither 
mesonolum nor metanotum with distinct eleva- 
tions laierad of median ridge; opposable tubercles 
absent from meso- and meianota except occa- 
sionally small tubercles subtended towards ante- 
rior angles o\' median plate of abdominal Tg 1 
Legs with tibiae and femora bicoloured- Tanial 
pulvilli present, spatulatc. 

Fused abdominal tergal disc never inflated; pat- 
tern of glabrous areas distinct and marked by 
ridges; median portion of Tg III usually forming 
a slightly elevated, trapezoidal or hexagonal area 
rcachmg posteriorly to tubercle of nymphal scent 
gland scar; suture between abdominal Tg 1 and 11 
disliiKi medially and obliterated laterally, oppos- 
able tubercles present between Tg I and II; mar- 
gins of Cx IV angled m 6 . and usually also in 9 . 

Median impressions not distinct on rneso- and 
metastema; pattern of glabrous areas prominently 
impressed on abdomiitaJ sterna. 

Spermatheca and its duel not modified. 
Parameres with ^ row of fine teeth on their inner 

DISTRIBUTION (Hg. lOE). An Australian en- 
demic along the east coast from Cookiown to N 

REMARKS. Previously 3 species were attributed 
to Neophloeobia, viz. montrouneri (typc)> inn- 
tralica and tuberculatQ. Analysis of the 14 spe- 
cies now known to be allied shows that 3 geiKrric 
groups can be recognized, each including one of 
the three species originally in NeophloeobUv, t, 
Neophloeobia, based on jV- mon1rouzieri\ 2^ 
Mesophloeobia gen. nov., including N. aus- 
tralica: 3. Granulaptera gen. nov., including N, 

Scirrhocoris, which Kormilev based on 
Woodwardiessa australiensis and in which he 
later included Scirrhocoris mirabilis, has been 
found to be synonymous with Neophloeobia. 

The species here included in Neophloeobia 
occur as an allopatric series from N N.S.W. to 
tropical N Queensland. They fall mio 3 wull 
defined groups: the southern monirouzieri -aits- 
tral tens is-mirabil is group, the central incisa-pal- 
uma-cataracto group, and the taxonomically 
isolated northern species, elongata. N. hidbtmna 
is intermediate between the southern and central 
groups as discussed later. 


1 . Male with Si VI not narrowed in middle by far- 
ward extension ofSt VII; 6 Sr Vll usually with- 
out a median, polished callosity; 9 with median 
length ofSi Vll longer than combined length of 
St V and VI; clefl between c>c and anicnniter- 
ous tubercle deep, extending beyond inner mar- 
gin of eye 2 

Male with St VI narrowed in midline by angulate 
forward extension of Si VII: male usually with a 
median, raised, polished, callosity on Si VII; 9 



•WithmcciuTn length of St VT( not longer than 
CbwhlftCil teiigih ot V aiid VI; deft between eye 
and antenniferous tubercle usually shallow, 
largely occluded 5 

2(1). Fcmoro and tibiae not bicoloured; antennifer- 
ous tubercles and gcual processes usually 
acutely pointed: pollcm of glabrous areas not 
deeply impressed on abdominal sterna; total 
head-body length at least twice maximun^ Width 
(North Queensland) .... ehngata, sp. nov- 

Femora and tibiae dark with pale bands; an- 
tenniferous tubercles and genal processes apt- 
cally blunt; pattern of glabrous areas deeply 
impressed on stenia; total head-body length less 
than twice maximum width (South Queensland 
.and Nonhent New SouUi Wales) 2 

3(2). Sides of abdomen concave so that width across 
segment V! is greater than width across segment 
V; anlennal segment 111 with erect setae as long 

as its diamelei - . . . ausiraliensis (Konnilcv) 

Side;* of abdomen not concave, width :u:ross seg- 
ment V! less than width of segment V; antcnnid 
segment III with short, adpressed setae ... - 4 

4(3). Femora and tibiae with, long, erect setae over 
whole surface; male with a small, elongate* pol- 
ashed callosity on midline of Si VII (New South 
Wales} . . . mon/rowjicWLlsinger&Matsuda 

Sciac 01* legs short and adpresscd. with a few 
erect selae on distal half of tibiae; male without 
apoli&hed callosity on St VU (Queensland) 

mirabilis {KoTmi\cv) 

S{i). Front half of mediati portion of abdominal ter- 
gal disc forming a raised, flat, more or less hex- 
agonal area, of which the middle of tergura D is 
smooth bulburina,sp.r\0'v. 

Fronthalf of median portion of abdominal tergal 
disc not uniformly flat and raised; middle of ter- 
gum II raised, coarsely tubercular, semi-coniluem 
with similar Tubercular portion of tergum I . .6 

6(5). Sublatcral elevations of pronotum distinct wid 
slightly highci than lateral pronoial margins; 
male with suture between Si VI and VII simngly 
angulate anteriorly so that St VI is almost bi- 
sected medially; male wiih Cx margins of VI 
wceikly produced incisa^ sp. nov. 

Sublateral elevations of pronotum absent, or 
much lower than pronotal margins; male with St 
VI narrowed, but not almost bisected, male with 
Cx margins of VI acutely anguhiic . • - . t * 7 

7(6). Pronotum with lateral margins flanencd and ic- 
flexed; 9 with margins of Cx VI and VII an- 
guiately !o6ed palunnhsp.m\. 

Prouoium with lateral maiglns not flattened and 
reflexcd; 9 with maigin of Cx VI not lobcd.thai 
iifVII weakly so ..»,.- r«/ararr«, sp. nuv. 

Neophloeobia montrouzieri liMnger & 
Maisoda ]959 (Figs 7F, 53F,UOA'. 54E.UR) 

Neophioeobia montrouzieri \J$\ngQr&,MAliia<iii, 1959: 

234 (descf.. fig.); Kormilev. 1965a: 26 (misidcnt, of 
Mesophloeohia vetusuij sp- nov.); Kormilev, 1 <:>67a: 
524. (misjdcm. of Mesophloeobia vetusta, sp. nov.); 
Kumar, 1967: 21-24 (internal anatomy): Kormilev 
& Froeschner, 1987: 163 (listed). 

rVTE. Holoiype 6, N. Di>rTigo, Australia. x.lO. SF.l 
Helms Coll.. in BPBM. Type not ex.imincd but gCHxl 
condition and label data confirmed by Gordon M, Nishida. 

SOUTH WALES: Barringion House, via Sali.sbury, 
56 29, 8-11. ii.l965. GEM. Ij. 14.viii.l970, GBM; 
Ml AUyn. Barrington Tops, 26. \ '?, 8.i.iy67. GBM; 
Chichester SF. via Dungog, 1 9 . 23. xi. 1 989. J. Slanisic 
& D. Potter; 3km N Lansdowne, via Taree. 19. 
2. VI. 1990, G.A. Williams: 'Wingham Bmsh'. 
Wingbam, 3.5 4V, I5.viii. 1970, GB.M. 19, 
21.xi.l989, J. Slanisic & D. Potter; Carrai Plateau, via 
Kcmpsey. 39, 3-5. i 1967, GBM, IcJ 19, 14- 
I5.iv.t9<i8. GBM; Bcllbrook. via Kempsey, 36 19, 
2i 1967. GBM, in QM; New England NP, 4.7O0\ 
ANIC Bed. 56, 1 9. 2.ii.l968, R,W, Taylor, in ANIC; 
Styx R. 15km SSW Fbor, \6 19, l4.xii.l9S4, DKY, 
ill UQIC; New England NP, 39. 22-23.1.1966, B. 
Cantrell. 45 19. 22-23.i.l966. TAW, 2rf 19, 
30.xii.l973, GBM in QM: Doirigo NP. 4d 69. 
l9.xi.l979.D. Doolan. 19. IOx.1977, D. Dtx>lan.2d 
3 9, 29.iK.I979. in AM. 19, 27.ui966. TAW. IcJ. 
9-lO.iv.1966.TAW.25 39, lO.iv. 1966, GBM; Brux- 
nor Park, via Coffs Harbour, 3c? 19. 16viii.l970. 
GBM. Id, 25.ii 1967. GBM, 26 19, 16.iv.l96K. 
GMB; Wilson River Reserve, via Waachope, 240m, 
46 39 2N. I3.i.I986, GBM: Ml Banda Bunda, via 
Wauehope. 1 lOOm, 15, 13.1.1986, GBM; Lome SF. 
SW Wauchope. 19, 18.i.l995. StanisicA Chaseling, 
in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH. DJ, SAM, 

DESCRIPTION. Medium sized. 6.1-9.7nim 
long, broad, depressed, brown, with truncate hind 
body and setose legs. 

MALE. Heud length 1 .1-1.2 times width, iu dor- 
sum with dense vcstiturc of straight setae anil 
with an irregular, double row of granules oit 
postetiof haif;postocular tubercles slender, curv- 
ing posterioxly. often surpassing outer profile of 
eyes; eyes small, s^ylaic, cleft between them and 
iintcnnilcrous tubercles deep and wide; ai>^ 
ien»ifer*:>u$ tubercles granular, blunt apically. 
bent; gcnal ptx)ccsscs llailened. ^ratuilur, ex- 
panded laterally before blunt apices. Antennae 
sborl. about 11. limes heaJ length; segment IT 
shOTtesi. slightly more than half length of IIT; 
setae on II and III short, inconspicuous. 



PrOnolum about 2.6 times as wide as long; hind 
margin convex posteriorly in middle, distinctly 
bordered; lateral margins flattened and reflexed 
dorsaily; submedian elevations forming conical 
lubcn:lcs bearing selae. Mesonotum with scutel- 
lar region moderately raised, granular, continu- 
ous posteriorly to abdominal Tg 1; lateral areas of 
mesonotum tlai, with large sparse granules. 
Metanotum with low sublaterai elevations sepa- 
rated from median ridge by glabrous region on 
each side. Legs with long, erect setae on femora 
and tibiae; colour irregularly bicoloured, femora 
d;irk with pale median rings, tibiae pale wilh famt 
dark rings 

Abdominal tergal disc with middle of anterior 
half with a transverse, rhomboidal. raised area 
containing the glabrous areas of Tg 11 which are 
divided into 2. scent gland scar a raised tubercle; 
a pair of weak opposable tubercles across suture 
between Tg I and II; sides of abdomen sub- 
parallel; margins of Cx VII bluntly angulate; 
paralcrgites of VLD subcylindricai, with spiracles 
displaced laterally. Glabrous area pattern of 
sterna strongly impressed; midline of St II to VI 
with median impressions; St VII with a small, 
elongate, polished median callosity on anterior 
half. Poramercs as in Fig. 54L. 
FHMALE. As for d except: abdominal tergal 
disc with pattern of glabrous areas more coitrscly 
imprinted; Tg Vll quadrately raisetl, with a pair 
of transverse, posterior tubercles; paratergites of 
VllI blunt; median lengdi of St VII longer than 
that of V and VI combined* Spermaihcca simple^ 
with short duct (Fig. 54R). 

^iE.\SUR£NffiNTS. Ranges of wo i and two 
S. L: 6.17-6.67. 8.5-9.67; W: 3.16-3.25. 4.17- 
4.33; HL: 1.6-1.92. 2.08-2.12: HW: 1.6, 1.88- 
1.92: PL: 0.8, 0.88-0.96; FW: 2.08-2.12. 
2.52-2,56; AS: 1. 0.56-0.66. 0.68-0,70, IL 0-28- 
0.38. 0.38 UL 0.60-0.66, 0.64-0.76. IV. 0.44-0.5. 

gregariously on stic'ks and smaD logs in 
rainforests from lowlands to temperate 
Nothofagus forest at 1 .500 metres near Ebor. It 
has a close superHcial resemblance \o the even 
more common Mesophloeobia vetusla, wilii 
which it has a narrow sympatric overiap in the 
Donigo region. The 2 species were confused by 
Kormilev as pomled out above and it is probable 
[hat the species whose internal anatomy was stud 
ied by Kumar < 1 967) as N. montrouzieri was also 
M. vetusta since most of Kumar's material came 
from southern Queensland where N. 
montrouzieri docs not occur. The species un; 
easily separated by the simpler prothorax and the 
lack of the rhomboidal elevation on the base of 
the tergal disc in M. vesxista 

Neophloeobia australiensijs (Kcwmilev, 1964) 

comb, fiov iFLgs 53A,M,U, 54G,I,Q) 

WoodM'ardiessa aussraUensis Kormilev, 1954: 27 

Scirrhocoris au^traliemis: Kormilev, 1965a. 26 

(descf. of d): KorraUev & Frocschner, 1987- 191 


TYPE. Holotvpc V. Cunningham's Gap. June, 1960, 
I.B. Stephens. OMT62 10 Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED Holotype and 136 sped- 
mens: SCJUTH QUEENSLAND; Misiake Mounuins. 
via Laidley. 3.000-3,500'; Bare Rock. 2km N Mt 
CordeauK; Cunningham^s Gap: Mt Mitchell; Spiccrs 
Peak. I2lX)m; Ml Asplcnium. 1290m; Bald Mountain 
area, 3.000-4.0CK)' . via Emu V^Ie, GBM; Mr SupcrSiis, 
via Boonah; The Head', via Boonah; Nothofagus Mmt 
1200m. Lever'.s Plateau, via Ralhdowne>. Ml 
Chinghce. 12kni SE Rathdowney. 720m; Mt Gipp«, 
750m; Laminglon NP; Tamborine Mountain; 4 nil. S 
of Canungra. 1000'. NEW SOUTH WALES: Ml 
Clunie. 2000 ". M( Gknnie. 16km E Wc»odenbong. 
90(>m; Tooloom Plateau, via UrbenviJIe; Richnioiut 
Gap, via Grevlllea, Wiangaree SF, Via Kyogle, in QM. 
(QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, DJ. SAM. Etl, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 56). Common in rain- 
forests at high and low altitudes in N.S.W. from 
Barringion fops to the Domgo region. Queens- 
Uind localities of Tamborine and Lamington 
(Komulcv, l%5a, 1967a) are incorrect, being 
based on misidenlified Mesophloeobia vetusta 
sp. nov. 

REMARKS. N. montrouzieri is the southernmost 
Sjiccies in us ^enus and shares with Mesophloeo- 
bia australica the distinction of being the south- 
ernmost apterous mc/ifinc in Australia. It occur^i 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 6.6-8.7mm 

long, quadrate, depressed, with smooth dorsal 
surface and concave aKIominal margins. 
M.ALE. Head length 1 2- 1 .3 titnes width, its dor- 
sum rather smooth, wiih sparse vesiiiureof curlcU 
selae and a double row of reduced granule> on 
venex; postocular lubeTcIes slender. cur\'ed pos- 
teriorly, usually stiTpassing outer profile of eyes; 
eyes \veakly exserted, cleft between iheni and 
antenniferous tubercles deep but narrow; an- 
tenniferous tubercles divergent, straight, hluni^ 
extending beyond eyes by distance equalling 



wicc eye diameter; genal processes long, paraJ- 
Icl-Mdcd. wiih blunt apices. Antennae 1.3-1.4 
times head length; segment III longest, twice 
length of n. 

Pronolum much narro\^*er than hi nJbody, width 
2.^ limes length, with lateral margins strongly 
converging anteriorly; laterally with weakly ex- 
planate. reflexed margms; submedian areas de- 
pressed. With glabrous disc usually large, 
sublatcral areas with a weak, longitudinal ridge; 
hiiKl prono^al margin conveJi postcrioriy. mar- 
gined. M€^-»nutuni with scutelLar region barely 
elevated, granular, sublatcral areas granular, 
jticianoiura with sublaieral areas weakly ele- 
vated. Legs occasionally with sparse erect setae. 
best developed near tibial apices; bicolourcd, 
each femur with two pole rings, each tibia usually 
widx basal and median pale rings 

Abdominal tergal disc largely depressed, with 
pattern of ridges inconspicuLHi^; a rhombi^idal 
area weakly defined in region of inner glabrous 
areas of segment m, the latter being subdivided: 
scent gland scar depressed; a pair of opposable 
tubercles across suture betweeti segment I and 11 
on each side; Cx of segment 11 broad, extending 
laterally beyond prot'ile of other Cx; sides of 
abdomen concave in region of Cx 111, TV and V 
and markedly widening at C\ VI; Cx margin on 
VII weakly angled; paratergiies of Vni sub- 
cylindricaL with apices truncate and spiracles 
displaced slightl> laterally; St MI without a me- 
dian, polished callosity, midline of Stlll-VIwiUi 
w»eak median impressions. Parameres as in Fig. 541 . 
FEMALE. As fox <J except: abdomen with lateral 
margins less concave; abdominal tergal disc with 
rhomboldal anterior area usually more clearly 
defined; Tg Vn i^uadralely raised, with a pair of 
transverse, posterior tubercles; paraieTgites of 
Vin reduced, blunt; median length of St VII 
longer than that of V and VI combined. SperOia- 
iheca simple, duct short with proxiraal region 
thickened (Fig. 54Q). 

MEASUREMENTS. Hololype 9 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 22. L: 8.67, 6.67- 
6.83. 8 17-8.67; W: 4.42. 3.42. 4.33^.42; HL: 
2.08, 1,84-1.92, 1.88-2.16; HW: 1.80, 1.44-1.52. 
1.56-1.68; PL: 0.92. 0.72-0.80, 0.80-1.0; PW: 
2-52, 2.(H-2.28, 2.24-2.48; AS: 1 0.70. 0.64-0.68. 
O.W-0.70: n. 0.50. 0.38-0.42, 0.44-0.46; UL 1.0. 
0.78-0.88. 0.9-0.96; IV. O.M. 0.64- 0.60. 0.62- 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 56). Macphcr>ion Range 
on the torder between Queensland and N,S.W 

including Tamborine to the north and Toolooni 
Plateau to the south. It also spreads on to the Great 
Dividing Range proper where ii occurs as far 
north ds the Mistake Mountains, slightly north ui 
the type locality of Cunningham's Gap. 

REMARKS. After first placing it in 
WoodM'ordiessa Kormilcv later (1965a) Oiade 
this specie.s the type Scirrhocoris. Its llal form, 
broad connexiva of >egmenl U and concave ab- 
dominal margins give it a distinctive appearance 
but closer examination shows this to be due to 
superficial modificauon of a typical member of 
the Neophioeobia group. The species is constant 
throughout its range and is geographically dis- 
crete from its closely adjacent congeners. N. 
montrouzieri and N, mirabilis. 

Neophioeobia mirabilis (Kormilcv. 1965) 
comb. ;wv. (Figs 53G J. 54B-C,P.N) 

'Schirrhocoris mirabilis Kormilev. 1965a: 27, (descr. 

under mis.spelt gcitcf ic name); 
Scirrhocoris mirabilis: Kumar. 1967; 2 1 -24 (inlcmal 

anatomy); Kormilcv & Froeschner, 1987: 192 


TYPE. Holotype <5, Highvaie, Qld., L'i.ix.1964, G. 
Monteiih. QMT6326- Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotvpc and 33 Jipcci- 
mens: SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Mt Bauple, via 
Miiryborough, 1. 5. 6x11.1966, GBM;2cf, 13. xii. 1965; 
Cooran Tableland, via Gympie, 1,300'. 4S 2?. 10- 
Il.iii.I972. GMB; Imbii. tS 35, 6.xir.l966. GBM; 
KenilworthSF,^ 1 9. 5.xii.l966.GBM; Little Yabba 
Creek, via Kenil worth. Ic?, I l.ii.l973,[.Naumann;Mt 
MecSF, 1(5. 20.ii.lQ65, GBM, 1 d. 3 1 x 1978. GBM; 
Neumm Ck, Mt Mee, ! 9, 28.iL1979, GBM. Mt Glo- 
rious. 15 J3.ix. 1966, GBM. 1 9. 9.i- 1972, GBM. Id. 
19JX.I964, in QM; Maiala NP, Ml Giono*i5. ANIC 
Bed. 451. rainforest. 1 9. 13jii.l973, R.W. Taylor in 
ANIC; Highvale, via SamfoTd, 9 allotype QMr264y^, 
\6 l$.15.ix.]964.GBM/mQM. 1(5 1 9. 15.ix.l964. 
GBM. in ANIC. 1 9, 28.ii.1965, GBM, in QM. iQM 
duplicates lodged m BMNH, SAM, Ol, UQIC). 

DESCRIPTION. Small. 5.5-7.5mm long, oval, 
with broad, blunt g^nal processes and scalloped 
abdominal margins. 

MALE. Head length 1 .05 limes width, its dorsum 
with dense, curled setae; posterior half with palch 
of large granules, sometimes in two rows; 
postocular tubercles straighi. barely reaching 
oulCTprofileof eyes; eyes moderately stylaic with 
wide, deep cleft between ihcm and v^menniferous 
tubercles; antenniferous lubeaies short, bluht^ 
extending beyond eyes by a dislance equal (o 



V/i eye diameters; genal processes flat, very 
broad before apex, blunt. Antennae slender, 
about 1 .3- 1 .4 times head length; segment III long- 
est, a little less than twice length of II. 

Pronotum 2.5-3 times as wide as long; sides 
narrowing anteriorly, with margins explanate and 
reflexed; submedian areas with low, seta-bearing 
tubercles; sublateral areas each with a faint, gran- 
ular ridge; hind border of pronotum convex pos- 
teriorly, bordered. Mesonotum with scutellar 
region raised into a median, granular ridge con- 
tinuous posteriorly to abdominal Tg I; sublateral 
regions of metanotum each with a circular de- 
pression open posteriorly to the vicinity of the 
opposable tubercles across the suture between Tg 
I and II. Legs with short, adpresscd setae except 
a few erect setae near apices of tibiae; legs 
bicoloured, each femur dark with a narrow pale 
ring, each tibia with basal and subapical pale 

Abdominal tergal disc with pattern of glabrous 
areas distinct; a rhomboidal, raised area on ante- 
rior half which includes the inner glabrous areas 
of segment III, the latter being subdivided; scent 
gland scar a small tubercle; Cx margins of seg- 
ment IIMV concave, giving sides of abdomen a 
scalloped appearance; Cx VII angulate; paraterg- 
ites of Vin subcylindrical, obliquely truncate api- 
cally, spiracles slightly displaced laterally. 
Abdominal St with strongly impressed glabrous 
area pattern; St III-VI with median depressions; 
St VII without a median, polished callosity. 
Parameres as in Fig. 54N. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: abdominal tergal 
disc with patterns more strongly impressed; 
rhomboidal area on anterior half more raised, 
usually glabrous and contrastingly pale; Tg VII 
with quadrate median elevation bearing a pair of 
prominent, subcontiguous, transverse, posterior 
tubercles; median length of St VII longer than that 
of V and VI combined. Spermatheca simple, its 
duct short, slightly dilated (Fig. 54P). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 2?. L: 6.50, 5.58- 
5.75, 6.17-7.50; W: 3.50, 3.08, 3.58-4.58; HL: 
1.60, 1.32-1.52, 1.68-1.8; HW: 1.52, 1.36-1.44, 
1.44-1.64; PL: 0.8, 0.72-0.8, 0.8-0.96; PW: 2.08, 
1.72-1.88, 1.92-2.28; AS: I, 0.54, 0.5, 0.54-0.6; 
II, 0.38, 0.34-0.36, 0.36-0.44; IE, 0.72, 0.6-0.64, 
0.64-0.78; FV, 0.44, 0.44, 0.46-0.54. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 56). Rainforests of low to 
moderate altitude in the coastal range of S 

Queensland from near Brisbane north to Mt Bau- 
ple near Maryborough. 

REMARKS. N. mirabilis forms, with N. 
montrouzieri and A', australiensis, a group of 3 
related, though very distinct species of 
Neophloeobia which occupy strictly allopatric, 
but adjacent, rainforest distributions in N NSW 
and S Queensland. In many respects A^. mirabilis 
and N. montrouzieri are more similar to each 
other than to N. australiensis which occurs be- 
tween them. Since both A^. mirabilis and N, 
montrouzieri tolerate lower altitudes than N. aus- 
traliensis they may be relicts of a once more 
widespread species from which originated N. 
australiensis as a specialized high altitude fonn 
on the Lamington-Macpherson massif. 

Neophloeobia bulburina sp. nov. 
(Figs 53E,S, 54H) 

TYPE. Holotype c?, Bulburin SF, 9km E Many Peaks. 
600m, C.Qld., 17 Sept 1989, G.B. Monteith, 
QMT 11832. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holoiype and 8 paratypes: 
SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Bulburin SF, 9km E Many 
Peaks, 56 19, 17. ix. 1989, GBM; Granite Creek, 
700', Bulburin SF, via Many Peaks, 19, 7.iv.l972, 
GBM; Mt Fort William, 700m, 6km NE Kalpowar, 1 S , 
18.ix.l989, GBM,, in QM. (QM duplicate lodged in 
BMNH) (paratypes: QMT29868-29874). 

DESCRIPTION. Very small, 5.6-7.4mm long, 
broad, with narrowed St VI in the cj, with raised 
trapezoiodal plate on tergal disc. 
MALE. Head length 1.04-1.16 times width; dor- 
sum with sparse setae, its vertex with irregular 
double row of granules; postocular tubercles nar- 
row, straight, pointed, reaching to a little beyond 
the outer profile of eyes; eyes somewhat exserted, 
separated from antenniferous tubercles by a deep 
cleft; antenniferous tubercles straight, tapering, 
subacute apically, extending beyond eye by about 
1 .5 eye diameters; genal processes flattened, ap- 
ices separate, rather blunt, reaching to just be- 
yond apex of first antennal segment. Antennae 
long, slender, about 1 .4 times head length; seg- 
ment III longest, II shortest. 

Pronotum about 2.6-2.9 times as wide as long, 
sides converging anteriorly; margins weakly ex- 
planate, not reflexed; hind border con vex, weakly 
margined. Submedian elevations raised, sublate- 
ral elevations almost absent. Mesonotum with 
scutellar region raised and granular, running pos- 
teriorly to join with elevated abdominal Tg I. 



FIG. 53. Neophloeobia spp.; A, hJ. australiensis S;B,N. incisa S;C,N. cataracta\ D, M paluma\ E, N. bulburina; 
F, N. montrouzieri; G. N. mirabilis; H-V, abdominal apices, dorsal (d) and ventral (v); H, N. cataracta S d; I. 
N. mirabilis 6 d; J, N. elongata 6 d; K, N. paluma i d; L, N. montrouzieri 6 d; M, A^. australiensis S v; N, 
N. elongata 6 v; O, M montrouzieri S v; P, M cataracta S v; Q, N. paluma 6 v; R, M mcwa 6 v; S, M 
bulburina 9 d; T, N, cataracta 9 d; U, N. australiensis 9 d; V, M montrouzieri 9 d. 



Metanotum with shallow glabrous channels be- 
tween median ridge and granular, sublaleral 
swellings. Legs with sparse, adpressed setae ex- 
cept for erect setae on distal half of tibiae; legs 
strongly bicoloured with pale coxae, a wide pale 
band on each femur and with subbasal and apical 
pale rings on tibiae. 

Abdominal tergal disc with a large hexagonal 
(trapezoidal), smooth, raised elevation occupying 
anterior half; large, undivided, inner glabrous 
areas of Tg III included on this elevation. Scent 
gland scar pale with a median, dark, anterior 
tubercle. Connexival plates with pale semicircu- 
lar patterns usually evident; Cx II narrow, elon- 
gate; lateral margins of Cx V and VI weakly lobed 
posteriorly, that of VII with a prominent, blunt 
angulation; paratergites of VIII clavate, apices 
oblique. Abdominal St II-V with shallow median 
depressions; suture beteween St VI and St VII 
angled anteriorly so that median width of St VI is 
narrowed to half width of St V. Patterns of ventral 
glabrous areas wekly impressed on sterna. 

FEMALE. As for S except: abdominal tergal 
disc elevated posteriorly, the elvation overhang- 
ing suture between Tg VI and VII; Tg VII with a 
quadrate elevation depressed in centre. Paraterg- 
ites of VIII small, pointed. Median length of St 
VII shorter than length of St V and VI combined. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
range of 2c? and 2? paratypes. L: 5.83, 5.66- 
6.08, 6.17-7.33; W: 2.75, 2.63-2.87, 3.16-3.75; 
HL: 1.47, L46-1.62, 1.52-1.81; HW: 1.41, 1.31- 
1.41,1.36-1.56; PL: 0.72, 0.62-0.66, 0.68-0.78; 
PW: 1 .87, 1 .78- 1 .97, 1 .96-2.34; AS: 1, 0.47, 0.50- 
0.53, 0.56-0.60; n, 0.37, 0.38, 0.42-0.44; III, 
0.75,0.69- 0.71, 0.80-0.81; IV, 0.47, 0.42-0.46, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 56). Two nearby rainfor- 
est systems in the Dawes Range of S central 
Queensland. Surprisingly it is not known at 
nearby Kroombit Tops which has been inten- 
sively collected. 

REMARKS. This species is from a locality mid- 
way between the range of the southern 
montrouzieri-australiensis-mirabilis group and 
the northern incisa-paluma-cataracta group and 
shows some intermediate features. The promi- 
nent trapezoidal elevation at the base of the ab- 
dominal tergal disc and the large eye clefts agree 
with the southern species, while the short St VII 
in the 9 and narrowed St VI in the d agree with 

the northern species. N. bulburina is the smallest 
member of its genus. 

Neophloeobia incisa sp. nov. 
(Figs 53B,R, 540) 

TYPE. Holotype d, Eungella Nat. Park, Qld., 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 31 
paratypes: CENTRAL QUEENSLAND: Eungella NP, 
Id, 19.iv.l968, BKC, Id, 2.i.l965, GBM, 16. 
10.xii.l965, GBM, Palm Lookout, QM Bed 32, 5d, 
18.iv.l979, GBM, Dalrymple Heights, QM Bed 39, 
Id, 19.iv.l979, GBM, in QM, nr School, 3d, 
9.V.1980, I.D. Naumann & J.C. Cardale, in ANIC; 
Eungella NP, Upper Cattle Ck, 900m, 1 d . 1 7.xi. 1 992, 
GBM, GIT, DJC & HJ; Finch Hatton Gorge, via Finch 
Hatton, 2d, 6.viii.l966, GBM; Mt Macartney, Calhu 
SF (20.51S X 148.33E), QM Berl. 43, 750m, Id, 
20.iv.l979. GBM, QM Berl. 46. 700-800m, 3d 1 9, 
21. iv. 1979, GBM, QM Berl. 49, 690m, Id, 
2 1 -iv. 1 979, GBM, QM Berl 54, 750m, 1 d , 22.iv. 1 979, 
GBM, 3d 19, 19.xi.l992, GBM, GIT, DJC & HJ; 
Springciiffe, 2d, 12.1,1965, J.E. Dunwoody; Can- 
nonvale, QM Berl 64, Id, 25.iv.1979, GBM; Mt 
Dryander, 500-600m, QM Berl 59, Id, 24.iv.1979, 
GBM, in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, EH, 
NMNH. UQIC) (paratypes: QMT29875-29901). 

DESCRIPTION. Small 6.3-8.1 mm, elongate, 
with abdominal St VI deeply bisected by St VII 
in the d. 

MALE. Head elongate, 1.2-1.38 times as long as 
wide; dorsum with sparse vestiture of curled 
setae, its vertex with a double row of crowded 
granules; postocular tubercles small, straight, di- 
rected at right angles to head, often not reaching 
outer profile of eyes; eyes sessile, separated from 
antenniferous tubercles by a shallow cleft; an- 
tenniferous tubercles straight, tapering, subacute 
apically, extending beyond eyes by slightly more 
than twice eye diameter; genai processes long, 
flattened, apices separate, subacute. Antennae 
long, slender, about 1.4 times head length; seg- 
ment III longest. 

Pronotum about 2.5 times as wide as long, sides 
narrowing slightly anteriorly; margins weakly 
explanate, not reflexed; hind border weakly con- 
vex posteriorly, margined. Mesonotum with scu- 
tellar region forming a depressed ridge running 
posteriorly to abdominal Tg I. Metanotum with 
smooth, glabrous channels between median ridge 
and granular, sublateral swellings; the latter with 
oval depressions which open posteriorly to vicin- 
ity of opposable tubercles spanning the suture 
between Tg I and II. Legs with sparse, adpressed 
setae except for a few erect setae near tibial 



FIG. 54. Neophloeobia spp.; A-H, 9 abdominal apices, dorsal (d) and ventral (v); A, M paluma d; B, N. mirabilis 
d; C, N. mirabilis v; D, N. paluma v; E, N. montrouzieri v; F, M cataracta v; G, N. australiensis v; H, N. 
bulburina v; I-O, left parameres, outer view; I, N. australiensis; J, N. paluma; K, A', cataracta; L, N. 
montrouzieri; M, M elongata; N, M mirabilis; O, M mcija; P-R, spermathecae; P, N. mirabilis; Q, M 
australiensis; R, M montrouzieri. 

apices; legs indistinctly bicoloured with a median 
pale ring on femora and subbasal and apical rings 
on tibiae. 

Abdominal tergal disc broadly raised with inner 
glabrous areas of Tg III large and undivided; 
incipient opposable tubercles along lateral mar- 
gins at junctions of Tg ni, IV, V and VI; scent 
gland scar contrastingly pale, with a median tu- 
bercle; Cx of segment II narrow, elongate; lateral 
margins of Cx V and VI weakly lobed posteriorly, 
that of VII with a prominent, blunt angulation; 
paratergites of VIII clavate, apices strongly 
oblique, with spiracles laterally displaced. Ab- 
dominal St II-V with shallow median depres- 
sions; St VII triangular, with anterior suture 
strongly angled anteriorly, almost bisecting St 
VI; St VII with a median, polished callosity at 
apex of angulation of anterior suture, callosity 

tapering posteriorly as an unpolished ridge. 
Parameres as in Fig. 540. 
FEMALE. As for S except: abdominal tergal 
disc elevated on its midline posteriorly, the ele- 
vation overhanging suture between Tg VI and 
VII; Tg Vn with a quadrate elevation which is 
depressed in the centre and has two elevations on 
its posterior margin; lateral margin of Tg VII with 
a small, blunt angulation; paratergites of VIII 
produced as a small triangular projection mesal 
of each spiracle. Median length of St VII sub- 
equal to length of V and VI combined. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of 2 paratype 6 , then a single available ? 
L: 6.67, 6. 17-6.33, 8.08; W: 3.25,2.83-3.08,4.00; 
HL: 1.88, 1.64-1.76, L95; HW: 1.36, 1.32-1.36, 
1.44; PL: 0.8, 0.72-0.76, 0.78; PW: 1.96, 1.80- 
2.00, 2.19; AS: I, 0.66, 0.64-0.66, 0.75; II, 0.46, 



0.46-0.48, 0.34; III, 0.92, 0.78-0.88, 1.00; IV, 
0.54, 0.48-0.50, 0.47. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 56). Rainforests of high 
and low altitude in the high rainfall region around 
Mackay-Proserpine, central coastal Queensland. 

REMARKS. This is the southernmost member of 
the group of species in which 6 have a median 
callosity of St VII and which are found as allo- 
patric forms in coastal N central Queensland. 
The distinctive, deeply incised St VI in the i sets 
this species apart and is the origin of its specific 
name. Of the 32 specimens available only one is 

Neophloeobia paluma sp. nov, 
(Figs 53D,K,Q, 54A,D,J) 

TYPE. Holotype 6. Mt Spec, via Paluma, N Qld., 
8.xii.l965, G.B. Monteith, QMTI 1678. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 8 paratypes: 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: Mt. Spec, via Paluma, 1 6 
holotype, 8.xii.I965, GBM, \6 19 paratypes, 
21.iv.l968, GBM; 2.7 ml. W of Paluma, ex leaflilter. 
1 S paratype, J.G. Brooks; Bluewater Range, 45km 
WNW Townsville. 600-700m, 46 19, 6-8.xii.1986. 
GBM, GIT & SH, in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in 
BMNH, EH) (paratypes: QMT14878-14884). 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized. 6.5-8.3mm 
long, elongate, with acute head processes and 
angled connexival margins at rear. 
MALE. Head long, length 1 .25-1 .36 times width; 
dorsum with sparse curled vestiture and with 2 
rows of granules on vertex; postocular tubercles 
short, straight, usually not attaining outer profile 
of eyes; eyes sessile, with cleft between them and 
anlenniferous tubercles virtually absent; an- 
tenniferous tubercles long, extending beyond 
eyes by distance equal to 2.5 times eye diameter, 
apices acute, slightly curving laterally; genal pro- 
cesses long, parallel-sided with apices acute. An- 
tennae long, 1.25-1.35 times head length, 
segment III longest; antenna! setae, short, sparse, 

Pronotum 2.5 times as wide as long, its lateral 
margins explanate, reflexed and narrowing ante- 
riorly; submedian areas with large glabrous discs, 
weakly elevated, sublateral areas each with a 
granular ridge lower than lateral, pronotal mar- 
gins; hind border of pronotum slightly convex 
posteriorly in middle, margined. MesontMum 
with scutellar area distinctly raised, densely gran- 
ular, with median longitudinal groove. 

Metanotum with sublateral areas granular, with 
central shallow foveae which open posteriorly to 
vicinity of opposable tubercles on Tg I. Legs with 
inconspicuous, adpressed setae; legs bicoloured, 
femora each with a median pale ring, tibiae each 
with sub-basal and apical rings. 

Abdominal tergal disc broadly raised on ante- 
rior half; inner glabrous areas of Tg III large, 
undivided; opposable tubercles present along 
sides of tergal disc at junctions between Tg HI, 
IV, V and VI; scent gland scar contrastingly pale; 
Cx II long and narrow; lateral margins of Cx V 
weakly angulate, those of VI and VII strongly so; 
paratergites of VIII clavate, mesal side of apices 
pointed spiracles lateral. Pattern of glabrous areas 
strongly impressed on abdominal sterna; Si II-VI 
with median depressions; St VI slightly narrowed 
by anterior introgression of VII on its midline; St 
VII with a small, polished, median callosity near 
anterior margin, callosity extending posteriorly 
as an unpolished ridge. Parameres as in Fig. 54J. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: abdominal tergal 
disc elevated on its midline posterioriy, the ele- 
vation overhanging suture between Tg VI and 
VII; Tg VII with high quadrate elevation and a 
pair of posterior, transverse tubercles; paraterg- 
ites of VIII pointed; median length of St VII 
shorter than that of V and VI combined. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 2 (J and 1 9 . L: 7.00, 6.5-7.5, 
8.33; W: 3.33, 3.08-3.75, 4.5; HL: 1.84, 1.76- 
2.08, 2.08; HW: 1.48, 1.40-1.52, 1.6; PL: 0.84, 
0.8-0.88, 0.92; PW: 2.00, 2.0-2.2, 2.36; AS: I, 
0.72, 0.66-0.76, 0.80; II, 0.46, 0.40-0.48, 0.50; 
III, 0.82, 0.72-0.84, 0.92; IV, 0.50, 0.46-0.50. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 56). Mt Spec plateau and 

the Bluewater Range a little N of Townsville, N 

REMARKS. N. paluma is a rare rainforest spe- 
cies of which few specimens have been taken 
despite intensive search within its range. The 
rainforest tract it inhabits is depauperate in many 
other groups of insects. 

Neophloeobia cataracta sp. nov. 
(Figs 53C,H,P,T, 54F,K) 

TYPE. Holotype c?, Wallaman Falls, via Ingham, N 
Qld., 7 Aug., 1968, B. Canirell, QMTI 1679. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holoiype and 5 paratypes: 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: Wallaman Falls, via In- 



tiham. 26. 39.7.viii.]968. BKCirt QM. (pafatypes: 

DESCRIPTION, Medium-sized, 6.5-7.83inm 
lung, eloog^dte, vuiually glabrous, without expla- 
nate pronoiai margins. 

MALE. Head long, length 1.25-L3 iim<?s width; 
dorsum almost glabrous, with 2 indistinct rows of 
graiiules on venex; postocular tubercles very 
.short, straight, not reaching ouier profUc ol eyes; 
eyes sessile, with deft between eyc^ and an- 
tenniferous tubercles almost occluded; an- 
^enniferous tubercles short, straight, divergent, 
extending beyond eyes by diSWrtce equal to I '/^ 
times eye diameter; equal processes long, 
siruighi. parallel-sJdcd, with apices subacute. 
Antennae long, without erect .setae. length 1.35- 
1 .4 times head lenglln segment ITI longest, al most 
twice as long as 11. 

Pronotum wide. 2.8 lime* as wide as long; 
lateral margins without cxplanatc extensions. 
subparalle); suhmedian arta> with large glabrous 
discs; sublaieral areas granular, slightly raised, 
but lower than pronotal margins; hind pronotal 
margins convex posteriorly, bordered. 
Mesonotum with scuteDar region elevated, gran- 
ular, with indistinct median groove: sublatexal 
areas of meianotum rugose, each with a small 
central fovea which leads posteriorly to vicinity 
of opposable tubercles on suture between Tg I and 
II. Legs almost glabrous, bicoloured, with a sin- 
gle median pale nng on each femur and with 
tibiae pale with a median dark ring. 

Abdommul tergal disc raised along anteriof 
edge; inner glabrous areas of Tg in largc^ undi- 
vided; scent scar elevated and contrastingly pale; 
3 |"»aiis of small opposable tut>eT^:les along lateral 
edges of tergal at junctions of Tg IIL I^^ V 
and VI; Cx n long, narrow; Jatexal margins of Cx 

V and VI weakly iobed, those of VII angulately 
so; paratergites of Vlll clavaie with mcsal side of 
apices slightly produced- Glabrous area pattern of 
abdominal sterna distinct; St U-VI with iftedian 
dcprcssions; St VI slightlv narrowed by forward 
extension ot midline of VII; St VII with a small. 
median, polished callosity extending posteriorly 
iis a tapering ridge. Parameres as m Fig. 54K. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: Abdommal tergal 
disc elevated medially at rear, elevation over- 
hanging suture between Tg Vi and VII; Tg Vll 
with quadrate elevation deptcssed in ccnuc and 
with a pair of posterior tubercles; mai^ins of Cx 

V and VI not lobed. that of Vn wilh a small 
angulation; paratcrgiicsof VUI subacute; median 

length of Si Vtl shorter than length of V and VI 
combined. Spermaiheca and its duct simple. 

MEASUREMENTS- Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional Id and 29 L: 7.50, 6.50, 
7.67-7.S3; W; 3.58. 2.92, 3.83-4.08; HL: ]M, 
1.72, 1.80-1-88; HW: 1.48. 1.36, I 44-1.52, PL: 
0.80. 0J2, 0.80; PW: 2.24, 1 .96, 2.32-2.36; AS: 
L 0J2, 0.70, 0.70-0.72; II, 0.52. 0.48. 0.48; UI 
0.92, 0.86. 0,90; VI, 0.50, 0.46, 0.48. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 56)- Single scnes from h 
rainforest plateau at the head of Wallaman Falls. 
near Ingham, N Queensland. 

REMARKS. *V. caiaracra is the noriheminost of 
3 closely related, allopatric species (including M 
incisa and N. palutna) occurring in coasttil N 
(Queensland, it is named in reference to the spec- 
tacular Wallaman Falls, the tallest uninterrui)ted 
falls in Australia, at the i>pe locality. 

Neophloeobia elongata sp. nov. 

(Figs 4K, 53J,N, ii4M, 55) 

TYPE. Holotype d, Crystal Cascades, via Caims. N 
Qld.. 9.xii.I964, G. Monleiih. QMTl 1680. 

paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND Blooinlictd Rd. 
9 mi S Helenvale. 19. 21. v. 1972. J.G. Bmoks. In 
ANiC; Cape Tnbuiation. 50m, Qm Bcrl 479. 1*5. 
22.ix-7-x I9S2, GBM, DKY A GIT. lOm. QM Bcrl 
254, Ic- 13.X.1980. GBM. in QM, ANIC Berl 93V. 
940.2c? l9,21-28,iii.l984,AC&TAW.inANiC;Ml 
Sorrow, via C.Tribulailon, 300-800m, \6 19, 
15.X.1980, GBM, iq QM; Cooper Creek. [8ml. N of 
Daimree River. I 9., GBM; Nouh Ck. 
ANIC Berl 946. 4tJ. 27.iii.l984. AC & TAW, in 
.\KIC; Mos^man Gorge, via Mossman, 26 t9, 25- 
26.xii.1964. GBM, Crystal Cascades, vi.i Qiinis, 5tJ. 
8.xii.I964, GBM, Id 19, 8.vii.l966. GBM: Davics 
Creek Rd. 750m, 1<5, 17.xii,t989,GBM A:G1T; Ntm- 
paraivpes. Upper Mulgravc River, I9v 30.iv I97t). 
GBM, inQM, 3c?. ANIC Bed 951. 2.iv.l984. in ANIC; 
Lacev'sCreek,Mission Beach. IJ I 9.21,iv 197().GBM, 
in QM. (QM duplicates iodgoci iii BMNH. SAM. UQIC) 
(paraiypcs. OMT14860-14868. Q\m487M4^75). 

DESCRIPTION. Small. 5.83-7.67mm long, 
elongate, without callosity on 6 St VII and wilh 
unhanded legs, 

MALE. Head relatively bTLKid. M.2 tiroes ;is 
long ;ts broad; dorsum wilh sparse, scmi-ctcct 
setae; double row of granules on venex indistinct; 
postocular tubercles small, suhlriangular. di- 
rected slightly posteriorly, usually attaining outer 
pmfde of eyes; eyes small, exscrtcd, separated 



FIG. 55. Donal vie* of 5 paratype ol Neophloeobta 


from anienniferous tubercles by a broad deep 
cleft; anienniferous iubercle*> long, apices acuie. 
divergent, extending beyond eyes by distance 
equal to almost 2 eye diameters; genaf processes 
long, parallel-sided, apices attenuate and acute. 
Antennae long. 1 .3-1 ,45 times head length, seg- 
ment ni longest, about 1 .7 times length of n 

Pronotum 2.5-2.7 times as wide as long; lateral 
margins weakly explanate, narrowing anteriorly; 
submedian areas forming indistinct tubercles; 
sublateral areagranular, not raised; posterior pro- 
noial margin almost straight, weakly bordered 
medially. Mcsonotum with scutellar region 
strongly elevated, granular, extending posteriorly 
to midline of Tg 1; sublateral areas granular. 
setose; melanotum with channels runnmg ob- 
liquely from median ridge to vicinity of oppos- 
aiile tubercles at suture between Tg 1 and II. Legs 
^iih adprcsscd setae and widioui banding. 

Abdominal tergal disc with a defined, trapezoi- 
dal area on anterior half enclosing inner glabrous 
a/eas of Tg III which are undivided; scent gland 
scar with a weak tubercle centrally; 3 pairs of 
weak opposable tubercles along lateral margins 
of tergal disc at junciions of Tg III, I\'. V and VI; 

Cx plates of Tg n not broadened; margms of Cx 
n-V not lobed, those of VI and VIl prominently 
angulaic; paraiergiies of VHIclavate with mesi 
side of apices produced. Glabrous area pattern of 
abdominal St weakly impressed; St II-VI with 
median depressions, St VII with anterior suture 
not bent forward anierioriy and without a median, 
polished callosity. Parameres as in Fig. 54M. 
FEMALE As for 6 except: Abdominal tergal 
disc slightly raised in midline posteriorly. Tg VII 
with quadrate elevation . depressed in centre; mar- 
gins of Cx VI and VIl angulately produced, those 
of VII strongly so; median length of St VIl longer 
than length of V and VI combined. Spennaiheca 
and its duct simple. 

MEAvSUREMENTS. Holotvpe 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 2(? and 29 L: 6.33, 5.83^ 
6.33. 6.67-7.67; W: 2.92, 2.75-2.88, 3.33-3.83: 
HL: I 76. L56, 1.68-2.20; HW: 1.48, 1,40-1.52. 
1.60-1.72; PL: 0.64. 0.68, 0.80-0.84: PW: L76. 
1 .64-LS8. 1 .96-2. 1 2; AS : 1 0.70, 0.68-0.70, 0.72- 
0.82; n, 0.44. 0.40. 0.42-0.46; III, 0.72, U.66- 
0.72, 0.72-0.8; IV, (1.48, 0.42-0.44, 0.42-0 44. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 56) Lo\vland rainfofcsis 
of the main wei tropical belt of north Queensland 
from Cape Tribulation to Mission B^ach. 

REMARKS. This is the only species of 
Neophloeobia which is restricted lolow altitudes, 
all specimens having been taken virtually at sea 
level. There is no complementary species known 
from the adjacent highlands of the Adicrton Ta- 
bleland and there the ecological role of the genus 
seems to be taken by Cramdaptcra. 

N, elongata is not related to the 3 other species 
known from the oortliem half of Queensland but 
shows several features in common with the ihrcc 
species in southern Queensland and N N.S.W. 
(see Key). There is some variation within the 
species, with specimens from the southern part of 
its known range having much blunter he^ pn>- 
cesscs; for this reason the specimens listed 
above from Upper Mulgrave River and Mission 
Beach have been occluded from the paraiypc 

MesophloeobJa gen. dov. 

DESCRIPTION Sm.all to mcdium-sizod. apter- 

Head about as long as wide: postoculat tuber- 
cles narrow, painted" dirxictcd at right angles to 
head; eyes sessile or moderately esscrled, sepa- 






monirpuziert / ,\) 




FIG. 56. Records of Neophioeobia species in eastern 

rated from antenniferous lutcrcles by a variable 
clell, usually sballow; antenniferous tubercles 
long, divergent, with straight external margins; 
genal processes sometimes not fused at base an- 
terior to clypeal apex; rostra) groove closed pos- 
lerioriy; rostral alriutn closed. Antennae with 
segments II and III of lesser diameter than that of 
I and IV; segments D, III and IV usually subequal 
in length, 

Pronotum with median, longitudinal sulcus and 
wiihuutprominenielevalions in either submcdian 
or sublateral positions; antero-lateral angles of 
prothorax with explanaie lobes whose outer mar- 
gins are continuous posteriorly to postero-iatcrai 
angles; pronotal collar distinct, delimited dor- 
sally by a furrow, but lacking dorsal and ventral 
opposable tubercles. Meso- and melanota with- 
out, elevations laterad of midline; suture often 
present medially between meso- and mctanota; 
thoracic and abdominal terga without any oppos- 
able tubercles developed Legs rarely bicoloured. 
TLirsal pulvilli present, spatuiate. 

Fused abdominal tergal disc nut inflated: pat- 
tern of glabrous areas usually indistinct; suture 
between Tg I and n complete for full width; 
lateral tnargin i;)f Cx VII angled in d. 

Median impressions indistinct on meso- and 
metastema; pattern of glabrous areas weakly im- 
pressed on abdominal sterna; ? with median 
length of St Vn longer than combined length of 
V and VI. 

Spcrmathcca and its duct without modifica- 
tions Parameres with a row of fine teeth on inner 

TYPE SPECIES. Mesophloeobia vetusta, sp. rtoV. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig lOF). Australian endemic 
from N N S.W. to N Queensland. 

REMARKS. The 4 species here included in 
Mesophloeobia comprise a closely related pair 
(M. veiitsia and M. aiisTralica) which are rather 
remotely related to M. kirranw.Thc rcladonships 
of M. yecuesi, remain unclear because it isknown 
from a single ? All species show relictual and/or 
disjunct distributions in E Australia and this, to- 
gether with their primitive retention of a complete 
suture between abdominal terga I and IL indicates 
that Mesophloeobia contains some o( the earliest 
slocks of Australian apterous Aradidac. M. 
kirrama has discrete wing vestiges and signifi- 
cant retention of the pronotal hind lobe, charac- 
ters by which it could conceivably have been 
separated generically. 


1. Spiracles of abdotninal segment VII placed al lat- 
eral edge and visible from above; gcnal pro- 
cesses pointed; 9 with margin of Cx VII angled 

,,,.,... kirrama, sp.nov. 

Spiracles of Vll ventral, not visible from above; 
genal processes blunt; 9 with margin of Cx VII 
straight 2 

2(1). Lateral margins of pronotum straight, converg- 
ing posteriorly; melapleural scent giand widely 

open . yeatesi, sp. nov. 

Lateral margins of pronotum convex for whole 
length, not converging posteriorly; rneuipleural 
scent gland opening a narrow slit 3 

3(2). Legs and antennae clothed with long erect 
setae; a deep cleft present between eye and an- 
tenniferous tubercle; male usually with subapi- 
cat ventral spinules on femora 

vetitsta, sp. nov. 

Legs and antennae clothed with short, adpressed 
setae; notch between eye and antenniferous tu- 
bercle inconspicuous, male never with subapicaJ 
ventral spinules on femora 

. . aiixtralica (Lfsinger & Matsuda) comb' nov. 



Mesiophtoeobta vetusta sp. nov. 


NevphloeobiafnonirouzJenUsxngcT&Muisuda, 1959; 
Koi'iuikv, iy65a (misidenl. of Mesophloeobia 
vcmsta, sp. nov.}; Komukv. 1967a: 524 (misident. 
ofM. vetusia,sp. nov.). 

TYPE. Holoiype S. LadutiKion Nat. Wc, SE Q]d, 

formvpes: SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Mt Tdmborine. 
1 9. A.M. Lea, in SAM; 4 ml, S of Canunera, 1,000\ 
«J 49, lO.xii 1972. GBM; Upper Canungra Creek, 
2a. 25.xii.i97l. GBM; Springbrook. 56 19, 
22.V.1965, BKC 26 19. ili;(.1965. GBM. in QM; 
Liraingion NP. 33S 19 9, 5.xi. 19S9, E.Hciss, in EH, 
:d, ANICBerL460, 21.iii.l973, R Kohout, in ANIC. 
\c 19. 4.1.1968. BKC. 6S 49, i9iii.I966. GB.M. 
5ci, 23.ii.1965, GBM. 19» 2J xi.l965, BKC. 19. 
25.\.1966, GBM. 46 29. 8.V.I965, GBM, 36 39. 
Noiht^fugus, 3.800". 30.1.1965. GBM. I*?, 17- 
24.V.I965. GBM. 19. 15. vl. 1^63. GBM. Id. 
26.vii. 1970. GBM, 3J 1 9,28.ix-I975.GBM. 1 o IV. 
4.1x1966, GBM, 56 39, 8 x 1979. GBM. 56. 
28.xii. 1971. GBM, ]6, I7.viii.l965. GBM. 56. 39. 
3.xi.I979, GBM. 66 19. 23.m.l992. GBM; Mt 
Chinghec. 720m. I2km SE Raihdowney. lie 79. 
I7.xii.I982. GBM. DKY & GIT; Upper Tallebudgera 
Ck. 500m, 66 I 9. 1 l.ii.l989, GBM. 56 1 9. 600m. 
9.xii.l984. GBM & DJC. 56 3 9, 20.vii. 1984, in QM. 
NEW SOUTH WALES: Wiangaree SF, via Kyogle. 
IJ,2.?(i.J970,GBM. Id 29. lO.xi- 1974; Bar Moun- 
l^in, via Kyogle. 3.50*r. 8(5 29. 7.ii.l978. GBM; 
Nighicap Track, Via Dunoon. 2,700', 26 49, 
25 xi.l972, GBM; Broken Head, ex pitfall trap. Id. 
CiBM; Boatharboui, via Lismore, 16. 23.vii.1982, 
S&JP; Bruxner Park, via Coffs Harbour. 76 29. 
J6iv.l968, GBM, 26 19. 25.ii.1967, GBM in QM; 
DoTTigo NP. 36 19. I9.ix.l979, D. Doolan, 19, 
10.\.I977. D.Doolan. 19. l8.iv.I975. D. Doolan. in 
AM. 16 29, I0.iv.1966. S.R- Curtis, 3d 19, 
10.iv.l966. GBM, Id, 10. iv. 1966, BKC. 3c?, 
21.1.1966, BKC, Id, 10. iv. 1966. TAW, id, 
1 6. ii. 1957. E.N. Marks; Moonpah SF. via Dorrigo. 4d 
39. n.xii.l97l, GBM; Buladeiah SF, via Buladclah, 

1 d 29 I N. 7.i.l967. GBM. in QM, Siyx R.. 15km 
SSW EbOT. Id. 14.xii.l984. DKY. in UQIC: Bnixnex 
Park, via Coffs Harbour, rainforest log litter. Id, 
9.vii.l97S.S&JP: Gloucester R. Barriiigton Tops, Id. 
12 I4.xi-1981,TAW& AC. in ANIC. (QM duplicates 
lodged in BMNH. DJ.SAM. EaNMNH,NRS, HUB. 
IINHM, MNHG, UZ\LH) tparatypes: QMT29905- 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized. 6-3-7.8mm 
liing, broad, with erect setae on legs and atitemiae. 
MALE. Head longer than wide, length 1.11-1.17 
times width; dorsum with sparse, erect setae and 

2 icfiegular« widely spaced ix>ws of granules on 

vertex; postocutar tubercles narrow, apically actile, 
directed laterally and reaching beyond outer pn>- 
file of eyes; eyes exsened, separated from an- 
tennifcrous tubercles by a deep cleft; anienniferous 
tubercles long, divergieni, apiciilly ^ubacutet ex- 
tending beyond eyes by 2\^ eye diameters; gcnal 
processes bniud. flattened, with apices rounded^ 
Ajitennae 1 . 1 5- L2 1 times head length; segment I 
and ni longest, subequal; segment TV' longer than 
IJ; all segments with long, erect setae. 

Pronotum transverse, width 2.8-3.1 times me- 
dian length: antero-latcral angles with semicircu- 
lar, explanaic lobes about 4 limes the size of an 
eye; pronolal surface with scattered shining gnin- 
ules; submcdian areas w ilh glabrous discs sloping 
upwards laterally: sublaieral areas with row of 
granules fonTiing a weak . longitudinal ridge; pos- 
terior pronolal margin weakly convex. 
Mesonolum separated from nxjwnotum by a 
complete posterior suture; scuicllararca not cU>- 
vaicd; sublaieral areas each with a crcsccntic, 
longitudinal ridge. Meianotura and abdominal Tg 
1 fused, the latter with a ridge fiMming an inverted 
V on nndline. Legs seiose.notbicolourcd; fenKua 
usually with a patch of subapical. ventral spi- 
nules, sometimes specialized into a single proiJH 

Abdominal tergal disc flai, with pattern of glu 
brous areas strongly defined by ridges in middle 
and by raws nf close-packed granules laterally; 
anteriorly with a median ridge leading along mid- 
line to a raised, setose tubercle of the scent glal>d 
scaxs posterior to latter tubercle is a contrasiinply 
pale, triangular scar. Side of C\ It, UI and IV 
saraighi, side of Cx VU with angled margin; 
paratct^iies of Mil clavate. with mesal side of 
apices bluntly produced. Mcso. mcia- and ab- 
dominal sterna with median impressions alniosi 
obsolescent, sterna! pattern of glabrous area 
barely discernible; St VI not narrowed by St VIT. 
the latter smooth and polished medially. 
Paramere as in Fig. 58Q. 
FEMALE As for d except: Tergal disc with a 
granular tubercle on midline behind anterior ma/ 
gin; Tg VII weakly elevated and bearing 2 prom- 
inent, circular tubercles near po.sterior margin; 
sterna with median impressions and glabrous aa*a 
pancm more distinct; femora without subapical, 
ventral spinules; spennaiheca as in Fig. 5SO. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holoiype 6 Ficsr. then 
ranees of additional 2<S and 29. L: 7.17, 6.33* 
6.67, 7.67-7.83, W. 3.5S. 3.3-3.42. 4.17-4.67; 
HL: 1.96, 1.76-1 .88. 2.00; HW; 1.68. L56 1.68, 
1.76-1.80; PL: 0.76, 0.72-0.80, 0.80-0.84; PW: 



2.40, 2.20, 2.44-2.48; AS: I, 0.60, 0.60-0.66, 
0.70-0.74; II, 0.46, 0.44-0.46, 0.44-0.50; III, 0.68, 
0.60-0.64, 0.64; IV, 0.56, 0.50-0.54, 0.52-0.54. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 59). Common in wet 
rainforests from the Lamington, Tamborine and 
Springbrook Plateaus, SE Queensland to Har- 
rington Tops in N N.S.W. It usually occurs at 
higher elevations but there are several records 
from lowlands close to the coast (Bruxner Park, 
Tallebudgera Ck, Boat Harbour, Buladelah, Bro- 
ken Head). 

REMARKS. M. vetusta has a close superficial 
similarity in overall facies to Neophloeobia 
montrouzieri and has been misidentified as that 
species several times in the literature (Kormilev, 
1965a, 1967a). It is closely related to M. aus- 
tralica from low elevations adjacent to parts of its 
range. The ranges of the 2 species overlap slightly 
near the coast in N N.S.W. The principal differ- 
ence between the two species is in the surface 
setae of the antennae and legs which are long and 
erect in M. vetusta. This character often correlates 
with high altitude habitat in apterous mezirines. 
For example, in 2 closely related species of 
Gramdaptera from N Queensland, the high alti- 
tude species, G. alticola, has similar erect setae 
while its lower altitude relative, G. spiniceps, has 
short adpressed setae comparable with those of 
M. australica. 

Mesophloeobia australica 

(Usinger & Matsuda, 1959) comb. nov. 
(Figs 5U-V, 58C-E,H,N,P) 

Neophloeobia australica Usinger & Matsuda, 1959: 
322 (descr., fig.); Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 
163 (listed). 

TYPE. Holotype 9, Byron Bay, Australia, xii.1904, 
Helms Coll. Originally lodged in Bishop Museum, 
Honolulu, but transferred by exchange to the Queens- 
land Museum, Brisbane (QMT6689). Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 96 speci- 
mens. NORTH QUEENSLAND: Broadwater SF Park, 
35km NW Ingham, 1 d 1 9 16.xii.I986, GBM, GIT & 
SH; Wallaman Falls, via Ingham, 3d. 7.viii.l968, 
BKC, Id, 6.viii.l968, TAW, 4d 39, 12.V.1970, 
GBM, 20d 1 1 9 , 1 .x. 1980, GBM; Wallaman Falls Rd 
Junction, 29. 5.ii.l996, GBM; Mt Fox Rd, Seaview 
Range, rt'. 600m, 5d 29, 15.xii.l986, GBM, GIT & 
SH, Id, litter berlesate, 15.xii.l986, GBM & GIT, in 
QM. CENTRAL QUEENSLAND: Cape Hillsborough 
NP, Andrews Pt. 2d, I5.iv.l979, GBM. SOUTH 
QUEENSLAND: Kroombit Tops. 1000-1 100m, 2d 
29, 22-26.ii.l982, GBM,DKY & GIT; Kroombit 

Tops, Three Moon Ck, Id, 9-19.xii.l983, GBM & 
GIT; Kroombit Tops, Beauty Spot 98, lid 69, 9- 
19.xii.l983, GBM & GIT; Forest Station 2,000', 
Bulburin SF, via Many Peaks, 4d 1 9, 2-5.iv.l972, 
GBM, 4d 29. 12-15. iv. 1974, GBM, Id 19, 
17.ix.l989, GBM; Granite Creek, 700', Bulburin SF, 
Id, Liv.1972, GBM, in QM. NEW SOUTH WALES: 
Whian Whian SF, 700', via Dunoon, 3d 19, 25- 
26.xi.1972, GBM, in QM. (QM duplicates lodged in 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 5. 3-6. 5mm long, 
smooth, with surface setae short and adpressed. 

MALE. Head length 1.1-1.13 times width; dor- 
sum granular, with scattered short selae; postocu- 
lar tubercles straight, apically acute, reaching 
slightly beyond outer profile of eyes; eyes sub- 
sessile, separated from antenniferous tubercles by 
a narrow cleft; antenniferous tubercles slightly 
curved laterally, apices subacute, extending be- 
yond eyes by 2 eye diameters; genal processes 
flattened with sides convergent and apices 
rounded. Antennae with length 1.25-1.5 times 
head length, with vestiture of sparse, adpressed 
setae; segment III longest. 

Pronotum transverse, with width 3 times me- 
dian length; median sulcus bordered by 2 short 
curved carinae; submedian areas with flat gla- 
brous areas; sublateral areas virtually flat; antero- 
lateral angles with narrow explanate margins 
which extend round to anterior margin where 
they are truncate; hind pronotal margin convex in 
middle, bordered. Mesonotum with scutellar re- 
gion slightly elevated and with a median groove; 
sublateral areas somewhat inflated and granular; 
metanotum depressed medially and slightly in- 
flated laterally; suture between meso- and 
metanotum complete. Legs usually obscurely 
bicoloured, with short adpressed vestiture, lack- 
ing spinules on subapical region of femora. Ab- 
dominal tergal disc flat, its glabrous areas poorly 
defined in middle and indicated by rows of gran- 
ules laterally; scent gland scar consisting of a 
short, dark ridge superimposed on a pale scar; 
lateral margins of Cx U, III and VI straight, that 
of V flared posteriorly so that maximum body 
width is across segment V; margin of Cx angled. 
Paratergites of VIII clavate with mesa! side of 
apices slightly produced. Meso- and metastema 
and trochanters pale; thoracic sterna without me- 
dian impressions; pattern of glabrous areas mod- 
erately impressed on abdominal sterna; St VI 
narrowed slightly by forward extension of VII, 
the latter with a small, polished, median callosity 
near anterior margin; this callosity absent in some 
populations. Parameres as in Fig. 58P. 



FIG. 57. Dorsal view of 6 hololype of Mesophloeobia 

FEMALE. As for i except: Margin of Cx VII 
straight; Tg VII with quadrate elevation and a pair 
of indistinct posterior elevations; paratergiles of 
VIII blunt; St VII with median length 1.5 times 
that of V and VI combined. Spermatheca as in 
Fig. 58N. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype $ first, then 

ranges of additional 2d and 2$. L: 6.50, 5.35- 
6.17, 5.33-.6.33; W: 3.67, 2.72-3.25, 3.00-3.58; 
HL: 1.72, 1.28-1.67, 1.36-1.68; HW: 1.52, 1.16- 
1.48, 1.20-1.48; PL: 0.68,0.60-0.72,0.64-0.72; 
PW: 2.32, 1 .84-2. 1 6, 1 .92-2.24; AS: 1, 0.56, 0.50- 
0.56, 0.50-0.58; II, 0.44, 0.38-0.40, 0.36-0.44; III, 
0.64, 0.60-0.64, 0.60-0.66; IV, 0.54, 0.44-0.50, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 59). A diverse assem- 
blage of disjunct populations from near Ingham 
in N Queensland to Byron Bay and Lismore on 
the northern N N.S.W. coast. 

REMARKS. Most collections of M. australica 
arefromrainforestofpoorquality. In the northern 
part of its range (Wallaman Falls, Bulburin) it 
occurs on plateaus but is solely a lowland species 

in N.S.W. Were it not for these indications of 
broad habitat tolerance allowing wide dispersal I 
would have separated off the northern popula- 
tions as a separate species. They are smaller, 
smoother and with less surface vestilure than 
topotypic material. Future collecting will as- 
suredly reveal intermediate populations of this 
widespread species and formal subdivision of the 
taxon seems undesirable in the meantime. 

Mesophloeobia kirrama sp. nov. 
(Figs 57, 58F,J,K,M,R) 

TYPE. Holotype d, Kirrama Stale Forest, via Car- 
dwell, N Qld., 17-18.viii.1966, G.B. Monleith, 
QMT 11682. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 23 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Kirrama SF, via 
Cardwell, 26 29, 17-18.viii.l%6, GBM, 26 2$, 
5.V.1983, DKY; Douglas Ck Rd. Kirrama SF, 8(X)m, 
26 2$, 9-12.xii.1986, GBM, GIT & SH; Ml Pers- 
house, Kirrama SF, 900m, 2d 1 9. 12.xii.l986.GBM, 
GIT& SH; Cardwell Ra., Upper Broad water Ck valley, 
700-800m,3d 2$ J7-21.xii.l986,GBM,GIT& SH; 
Cardwell Ra., Ml Macalisler Area, 900m, Id 29. 
18-19.xii.1986, GBM, GIT & SH, in QM. (QM dupH- 
cate specimens lodged in BMNH, EH, UQIC) 
(paratypes: QMT14832- 14849, QMTl 485 1-14852). 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 6.5-7.7mm 
long, dark, with lateral spiracles on segment VII. 
MALE. Head slightly longer than wide, its dor- 
sum with scattered erect setae; postocular tuber- 
cles narrow, directed laterally, apical ly acute, 
reaching outer profile of eyes; eyes small, ex- 
serted, separated from antenniferous tubercles by 
a shallow cleft; antenniferous tubercles almost 
parallel-sided, apically acute, extending beyond 
eyes by 3 eye diameters; genal processes long, 
apically acute, parallel-sided. Antennae 1.2-1.5 
times head length, bearing long erect setae; seg- 
ment I longest, segments II and III subequal, 
segment IV shortest. 

Pronotum rather short and broad, with width 
2.5-2.7 times median length, apparently with 
some trace of posterior lobe retained; anterolat- 
eral angles with narrow, forwardly projecting 
explanate lobes; submedian areas with large gla- 
brous discs; sublateral areas wilh vestigial row of 
granules forming a weak longitudinal ridge; pos- 
terior pronotal margin almost straight, un- 
bordered. Mesonolum with scutellar area 
moderately raised, granular, with a median line 
devoid of granules; small hemelytral vestiges de- 
fined by sutures; metanotum and Tg I raised 



medially andsubcontinuous with&culclIum.Lc^s 
sciosc, not bicoloured. 

Abdominal tergal disc flat, with glabrous areas 
defined by rows of setigerous granules, anterior 
half of disc with a low. transverse, raised zone 
enclosing median areas of Tg m, sceoi gland scar 
wilh a low. seiose tubercle posteriorly by a con- 
strastingly pale, triangular scar; lateral margins of 
Cx 11, II! and TV straight, those of V with slightly 
produced postenor angles, those of Vll with 
prtmiiaent, acute angulations; paratergiiesof VIII 
clavaic, with niesal side of apices strongly pro- 
duced, acute. Meso-, meta- and abdominal sterna 
with indistinct median impressions; paltem of 
glabrous areas weaVly devek>pt:d; spiracles of 
segments II- VI ventral, those of VII lateral, visi- 
ble from abt»ve. Parameres as in Fig. 58R. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: Tg VII widi a low, 
quadrate elevation; lateral margin of VII acutely 
angulate; paratergites of VIII pointed. Spcrma- 
iheca (Fig. 58M) with duct widened for of 
its length. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype d first, then 
ranges of additional 2i and 19- L: 6 83, 6.50. 
7.33-7.67; W: 3.50. 3.16-3.25, 3.83-3.92; HL: 
1.60. l.6G-l.m 1.88-1.96; H>\': 1.60. 1.56-1.60. 
1.64-1 .76; PL: 0.84. 0.84, 0.88; P\V: 232, 2.04- 
2.08, 2. 1 2-2.44; AS: 1. 72, 0.64-0.70. 0.70-0.74; 
11.0.60, 0-50-0.56,0,52-0,54; 111, 
0.52-0.54; IV, 0.52, 0.42-0.48, 0.42-0.44. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 59). Mountain rainforest 
on Ihc Kinama aivd adjacent Cird^vell Ranges in 
Ihc hinterland of Card well, N Qucen.siand. 

REMARKS. This problematic species has the 
facies of Neophloeobia and since its distribution 
lies in a zone unoccupied by a species of 
Neophloeobia it would make some distributional 
sense if it were regarded as a member of 
Neophloeobia, thus filling the geographic hiatus 
between N. elon^ata and .V. catamcta in north 
Queensland. However it appears m'^re closely 
allied with Mesophioeobia as indicated by die 
key to genera. Additionally it has other features 
which .set it apart from the other species in 
Mesophioeobia, iiwluding the distinct wing ves- 
tiges and the lateral spiracle on segment VII. The 
latter character is .seen in ihc New Zealand 
WfwdmiaJwsso and, in a less pronounced form, 
in Unwulaptera spiniceps. 

Mc!sophiocobttt ytii(«»i Sp AOV. 

(Fig. 58A) 

MATERIAL. Holotype 9, Mt Pieter Boitc, 7km W 
Cjpe Tribulation, 800m. 22 iv 19S3.G.B. M()meiili<!fc 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized. 7.2mm long. 
blown, with a large, widely-open scent gland 
orifice and hairy tibiae. 

FEMALE Head length about 1.25 limes width 
across eyes, its dorsum with scattered, curled 
setae and round, polished granules; posttxular 
tubercles narrow, rod-like, directed laterally, al- 
most reaching outer profile of eyes; eyes small, 
spherical, exserted, separated from antcnnilc^aius 
tubeaMes by a shallow cleft; antenniferous tuber- 
cles divergent, apically sub-acute, extending be- 
yond eyes by 2 eye diameters; genal processes 
long, parallel, their apices subacute, reaching 
apex of first antenna) segment. Antennae 1.13 
times head length, bearing long curled setae on 
segment I and short adpressed setae on segmci\is 
II and ni; segments II and IV subequal in length, 
shorter than segments I and HI which are also 
subequal. Neck region rather long. 

Pronotum with width 3 times median length; 
anterolateral angles prominent, smoothly 
rounded; lateral margins straight, converging 
posteriorly; submedian areas with glabrous discs 
each bounded laterally by a low diagonal swell- 
ing beset by polished granules; subiateral regions 
Hal, depressed; hind margin of pronotum straight, 
unbordered. Pronota! collar narrow. Mesonolum 
with scutellar area weakly convex and with a lew 
large, polished granules; laterad of midline a 
short, raised, granular, oblique ridge on each side; 
hemclytral vestiges evident as a small, angular 
projection on each lateral margin. Mctanoiuin 
and Tg I raised medially, subconliguous with 
scutellum; lateral regions of metanotum some- 
what swollen, bearing large, close-set punctures. 
Meiapleural scent gland orifice large, widely 
open,runningobliquely forward from behindmid 
coxae to the upper edge of the body, visible in 
dorsal view Legs wilh femora pale, indistinctly 
bicoloured; libiae with long setae on apical 2/3. 

Abdominal tergal disc with glabrous areas de- 
fined by low ridges; Tg III transversely elevated, 
the elevation with a rugose, sparsely setose tuber- 
cle at each lateral extremity. Lateral margins of 
Cx EI-VII all .slxaight and unmodified; atxlomen 
ba^adest across segment V; Tg VII with a setose 
tubercle each side of midline: paratergites of VIII 
triangular spiracles on external margin ai half 
length. Spiracles of segments II-Vl placed well 



FIG. 58. Mesophheobia ^pp.: A, M.yeatesi 9; B,M. \'erusra 6; CM, australica\ D-L, abdominal apices, dorsal 
(d) and ventral (v); D, M australica 6 d; E. M. australica 6 v; F, A/, kirrama 9 v; G. M. vetusta 9 v; II, M. 
australica 9 d: 1, M. vetiista 9 d; J, A/, kirrama 9 d; K. M. kirrama 6 v; L, M. vetusta 6 v; M-O, spcrmalhccac; 
M, A/, kirrama: N, A/, australica: O. A/, vetusta: P-R, left parameres, outer view; P. A/, australica: Q, A/, vetusta; 
R, A^. kirrama. 



ventral of margin, those of VII close to the poste- 
rior margin but not visible from above. Meso- and 
metastema smooth medially; abdominal sterna 
weakly impressed medially. 

MEASUREMENTS, Holotype 5: L: 7.20; W: 
3.50; HL: 1.63; HW: 1.31; PL: 0.77; PW: 2.34; 
AS: 1, 0.54; II, 0.38; HI, 0.52; IV, 0.40. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 59). Wet rainforest on the 
E slopes of Mt Pieter Botte, a remote granite peak 
which forms the highest point of the mountain 
massif behind Cape Tribulation, N Queensland. 

REMARKS. This species is named for David 
Yeates who participated in its collection. In the 
absence of the <? its relationships to the other 
species are a little hard to estimate. However, it 
is specifically distinct in the shape of the prono- 
tum and especially in the hypertrophied scent 
gland orifice. It occurs a considerable distance 
north of the nearest other member of the genus at 
Kirrama Range. 

Granulapteragen. nov. 

DESCRIPTION. Small to medium-sized, apter- 
ous, with granular body surface. 

Head about as wide as long; postocular tuber- 
cles present as narrow, pointed, conical or cylin- 
drical processes; eyes not strongly exserted, 
separated from antenniferous tubercles by a weak 
cleft; antenniferous tubercles divergent, often 
long and pointed; genal processes basally fused 
anterior to clypeus and with divergent apices; 
rostral groove open or closed posteriorly; rostral 
atrium closed. Antennae with segments n and HI 
of lesser diameter than segments I and IV; seg- 
ments n, in and rv usually subequal in length. 

Pronotum depressed in middle, with a median, 
longitudinal sulcus which may be indistinct and 
defined by a double row of granules; pronotum 
without prominent elevations at either submedian 
or sublateral positions; if anterolateral pronotal 
angles with explanate lobes then their lateral mar- 
gins terminate anterior to posterolateral angles; 
pronotal collar not distinct dorsally and without 
dorsal or ventral opposable tubercles; discrete 
border to hind pronotal margin absent. Scutellar 
region of mesonotum elevated and continued 
posteriorly as a raised ridge to abdominal Tg I; 
neither mesonotum nor metanotum with discrete 
elevations laterad of median ridge; thoracic and 
abdominal terga without any opposable tubercles 
but with numerous small, round granules on sur- 

FIG. 59. Records of Mesophloeobia species in eastern 

face. Legs often bicoloured. Tarsal pulvilli pres- 
ent, spatulate. 

Fused abdominal tergal disc not inflated; pat- 
tern of glabrous areas largely obliterated; suture 
between Tg I and II fused medially and laterally; 
lateral margin of Cx VII not angled in 9 . 

Median impressions indistinct or absent on 
meso- and metastema; pattern of glabrous areas 
weakly impressed on abdominal sterna; ? with 
median length of St VII longer than combined 
length of V and VL 

Spermathecal duct entering a large, sclerotised 
bursa in vaginal wall. Parameres with a row of 
fine teeth on inner face. 

TYPE SPECIES. Gramlaptera verrucosa, sp. nov. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. lOA). An Australian en- 
demic with its centre of diversity in the Cook- 
town-Kirrama region, N Queensland and with 
one outlying species at Bulburin, southern 

REMARKS. The 6 species of Granulaptera form 
a close-knit group linked by their granular body 
surface, their lack of dorsal opposable tubercles 



and their possession of a remarkable, sclerotised 
bursa at the point where the spermathecaJ duct 
enters the vaginal wall. 

The genus is virtually confined to the wet trop- 
ical portion of north Queensland but evidence for 
its origin from a formerly more widespread slock 
is given by the single species in S Queensland. 
Granulaprera is the commonest apterous aradid 
in N Queensland and forms large colonies on 
small sticks and logs of the forest floor. Up to 3 
species may be sympairic within their range and 
sometimes aggregations are found to cnniain 
more than one species. The widespread range, 
geographic vaiiability and plasticity of such spe- 
cies as G. spiniceps suggest that Granulaptera is 
undergoing rapid evolution in N Queensland 


I . Rostral gnx»ve closed behind; genai processes api- 
cally acute, sometimes very attenuate; antenna! 
segment Hi usually more than 1.5 times length 

of segment IV 2 

Rostral groove open behind: genai pn^ccsses with 
blunt apices i except verrucosa'), not attenuaie; 
antcnnal segment lit less than 1 5 (imes length 
of segment IV 4 

2( I). Antenna! segments 11 and Ell with long erect 
hairs; spiracles of segment VII not close to exter- 
nal margin of body; anterolateral explanate iobes 
o\ prothorax large, usually ai least two to three 

times larger than an eye 3 

Haini on anicnnal segments It and HI short and 
adpressed; spiracles of segment Vll ver>' close 
to lateral margin of body; anierolateraJ explanate 
lobes of prothorax small, barely larger than an 
eye spintceps^ sp. nov- 

3(2). Genal processes very attenuate, almost reach- 
ing apex ofantennal segment II; paratergites of 
segment V HI of both sexes drawn out into a ta- 
pering process beyond the spiracle (N of Dainiree 

River) cooki. sp. nov. 

Gcnal processes not so aaenuaie. rarely reaching 
beyond half length of anlennal segment 11; 
paratergites of segment VIIl not conspicuously 
extended beyond the spiracle (S of Dainiree 
River) . . . ♦ i i i * . ♦ . 4 ■ alticola, sp nov. 

4(1 ). Lateral margins of anienniferous tubercles con- 
cave, mate with external margm o(Cx Vll an- 
gled 5 

Lateral margins of antenniferous tubercles 
straight; male with external margin of CX VII 
straight 6 

5(4). Apices of antennifcrous tubercles and genae 
pointed: i? with median length of St V[l shorter 
than that uf i V, V and VI ;:ombLned 
.,.,.,.,. x'errucosa, sp. nov. 

Apices of antenniferous tubercles and genae 
blunt; female with median length of Si Vll 
longer than that of IV, V and VI combmed 

tuberculaia (Kormilcv) 

6(4). Antennal segments and legs with long erect 
setae; explanate lateral lobes of pronotum large, 
extending posteriorly almost to hind angles oi 

prunotum . remota, sp. nov. 

Antennal segments and legs with short, adpressed 
setae, explanate lateral lobes of pronotum small, 
extending posteriorly only about '/li length of 
pronotal margins . , . j. , , .. , ovata, sp. nov 

Granulaptera tuberculata (Konniiev, 1967) 
comb. nov. (Figs 61E.L,0, 63A,E,J,N) 

SeopMoeobia tuberculata Kormilev. 1967a: 524 
(descr-, figs,); Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 16,1 


TYPE. Holotype 6\ Cairns disl., A.M. Lea, SAM 
J20.344). Examined. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 80 specr- 
mens: NORTH QUEENSLAND: BaJdv Mountain Rd, 
5 ml SW of Allierton. 4,000'. \6A r.v.l970. GBM; 
Crater Nl'. 950m, 35. 28.xii. 1989. GBM: Lake Barr- 
ine. \6, 18.iv.l9S4, LG. Pendergrasi: Hughes Rcod, 
Topaz. 650m. 2 5. 4-5.xii.I993. GBM, DJC. HJ; 
Boonjie, I3km ESE Malanda, 700m. I 9. 8.xii.l988;. 
GBM & GIT; Millaa Miliaa Falls, via Millaa Millaa. 
2^. 23 iv.l968. GBM. 56 I V\ I2.viii.l968. BKC, 
Palmersion NP. via Innisfail, 3d 39, 7-8.viu-1968. 
BKC.2c? 45, 2.i.l990,GBM;Hugh Nelson Ri,21kni 
S AthcrtonJ9. i.xii. 1983^9 iJ984.RlS& J Bn.wn; 
Mt Father Clancy. 9km S Millaa Millaa. 900-1 OCOm. 
15 J 5V. 6.xii 1988, GBM & GIT. \6 \9. SN)inA, 
4.V.1983, GBM & DKY; Bdlenden Ker Ra.. Catokr 
Tower 3. iOOOm. 15, 25.Lx.1981. GBM & DJC; 
Bellenden Ker Summit TV Sm. !500m. 19. 29.iv- 
2.V.1983. GBM & DKY, I ?. 10-J2.iv.l979, GBM; 
Massev Range. 4kin W BelJenden Ker Centre Peak, 
I250m\ 3(5 2v. 9-11 \.!99!. GBM.DJC.HJ. Nonh 
Bell Pk. 20km S Cajms, 9tXi-IOOOm, Id 2?. 15- 
I6.xi.l9Sl. OBM & DJC. inQM: McNamee Ck, W of 
Innisfail, 400m. I 9.S.V!i.l97L Taylor & Feehan, in 
ANIC; Uppcc Boulder Creek. IOOOm, Id I i\ 5- 
7.xii 1986. OBM. GIT. HJ; Tully River Xing, lOkm S 
Koomboolnomba, 750m, 9o 2 9,4o.i.]990, 
GBM.SRM. Kirrama SF. via Kennedy. 19. 17- 
LS.viii. 1966, GBM, I :?. 2-3 x.i980, GBM: M? Pers- 
housc.900m.KiTTainaSF. 1 1?, 12.xii.l986.GBM.G!T 
<fe SH; Mt Hosie. Kirranu SF, 8(y>930ni, 19. 
ia.xii.l986,GBM,GIT(S:SH.inQM iQMdupiicates 
lodged in B\fNH. ANIC. MDPt. UQIC. DJ. liH. 

DESCRIPTION. Small. 6-8nun long, yellowish 
brown, with blunt head pnxesses and open rr»c>tral 



FIG. 60. Dorsal view of holotype d of Granuiopfem 

MALE. Head aboul as wide as long; dorsiun 
smooth, with several longitudinal rows of small 
granules on vertex; ^>oMcKular tubercles straight, 
flpically acute, directed |>oscerolateral1y, reaching 
outer profile of eyes; eyes not st>'laie. wneakly 
exserted, separated from antenniferous tubercles 
by a w«ak, shallow cleft; antenniferous tubercles 
biunu curved lateTally, extending beyond e>^ by 
ii^ e>ie diameters; genaJ processes blunt, paraU 
lel-sided. Ro&tral groove not closed posteriorly. 
Ajilennae 1 . 1 5-1 .25 tiines head length; segment 1 
longest, segments HI and IV subequal; setae on U 
and II short, adpressaJ. 

Pruootum transverse, 3.1-3.5 limes as wide ajv 
long; median longiludinal sulcus shallow, de- 
fined by 2 curved rows of shining granules; sub- 
median areas slightly elevated with large 
glabrous disc; sublatera! areas not raised; anlero- 
laieral angles of prothorax with scmicircuJar. ex- 
planate lobes, each about 3-4 limes $ize of an eye; 
posterolateral angles of pronotum each with a 
small sela-beanng tubercle; hind pronotal margin 
slightly convex posteriorly, without distinct bor- 
der. Mesonotum with scutellar region raised inio 
a low ridge extending posteriorly to abdominal 

Tg I, ridge with a Fongitudioal groove devoid of 
shining granules; Hublatcral areas densely gnwiu- 
lar- Melanotum with sublaleral Jireas swollen, 
each with a shining area free of granules which 
runs along antenor margm and turns posteriorly 
at right angles. Legs not bicoloured; with short 
curled setae. 

Abdominal tergal disc slightly swollen* with 
panem of glabrous areas weakly defined by nu- 
merous shining granules: a prominent, oval are;t 
W!ih mirror-hke surface free of granules prevent 
on midline of anterior half; scent gland scar with 
a central, rugose, setose tubercle; lateral margin 
of Cx Vn strongly angled; paralergites o\' VIII 
short, clavalc. with me;sal side of apices pro- 
duced, spiracles laterally displaced. Sterna 
smooth, with glabrous areas faintly defined; mid- 
line of St IT- VI with median depression.s barely 
distinct; St FV, V and VI narrowed medially; St 
VII broadly inflated, without callosity. 
Paranieres as in Fig. 63N. 
FEMALE. As for o except: Tg VII with u wide? 
quadrate elevation; paratergites of VIII wiih an- 
gular apices and lateral spiracles; St VII as long 
as median lengths of IV, V and VI combined. 
Spermaiheca of Gmrmlaptera type with duel os 
long as 2*/^ bulb diameters (Fig. 63 J). 

ME.\SUREMENTS. Holoiypc o first, then 
ranges of additional 2 c? and 2 9. L: 6.17. 5.92- 
6.E3. 6.0Q-8.00; W: 3.16, 3.0S-3.43, 3.16-4.17; 
HL: L52, 1.52-1.84, 1.52-1.%; HW: 1.64. L52- 
1.72. 1.56-1.S4; PL: 0.6». 0.65-0.6H. 0.72-0.76; 
PW: 2-16,2.00-2.36, 2.08-2.60; AS: 1,0.52,0-50- 
0.64,0.56-0.70;II.0.38. 0.34-0.44,0.36-0.42; III, 
0-50, 0.44-0,54, 0.50-0.62; IV; 0.42. 0.42-0,48, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 65). Rainforests from 
near Cairns south to the Kirrama Range, N 
Queensland. The holotype from 'Cairns dislrict* 
was probably collected on mountains behind 
Cairns, possibly at Kuranda. where Ihe collector 
Anhur Le^ is known to have wtnlced- If this is .so 
then all known specimens are from mountain 

REMARKS. This small species is closely TuhUcd 

to the type^ C. verrucosa. The 2 species arc gw>- 
gmphic segregates of a once more widespread 
species. They are now divided by the lowland 
corridor which sphts the mountain systems be- 
tween Ciiiras andMossman. 



Granulaptera verrucosa sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotvpe d\ Mossman Gorge, via Mossmuji. N 
Qld..9.viii.l966,G. Miinieuh. QMT 1 1684. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 87 
paraiypes; NORTH QL^EENSLAND: Mt Halcyon, 
S70m, 21 6 109, 22-24.xi 1993, GBM, DJC, LR, HJ 
2km W Cape Tribulation. 200m, 19. 25.ix.1982, 
GBM. DKY & GIT; Roaring Meg VaJtey, 720m. 26 
^9. 22x1 1993, GBM, DJC. HJ, LR; Noah Ck, via 
Cape Tribulalion, 19. 16.x. 1980. GBM; Cooper 
Creek. 13ml N ofDaintree River, 96 1 9. 14.xi.l969. 
BKC. 3(5 19, 21-22. vi. 1969. GBM: McDowall 
Ranee. PkmNDaimree, Id I 9.27,xi.I985,GBM& 
DJC; Mossman Bluff. 1000m. 29. I7.19.xii.l988, 
GBM & GIT, 2c? 1 9. 800-1300m, 2.xi.I9S3, GBM, 
DKY & GIT: Mt Demi. 7km SW Mossman. 500m, 1 d 
19, 26,iv.l983. 19, 1100m. 29-x.!983. DKY.GIT, 
59 . I6-I7.xii.1995. GBM.GIT. Mossman Gorge, via 
Mossman.3d l9,9.viii.I966,GBM. Id,28.xii.l967, 
GBM.6d 49, 25-26.xii, 1964. GBM; Rex Lookout, nr 
Mossman. 19, 13.X.I980. GBM; Churchill Ck, Mt 
Lewis Road. 1 d. 27.xi.1965, GBM; Baker's Blue Mtn, 
l7kmwMtMoIlovJd I 9. 12.ix.l98LGBM& DJC, 
III QM. (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH. AN!C. 
MDPl. DJ. SAM, EH. NMNH, HNHM) (paratypes 
14826. QMT25595-25599J. 

DESCRIPTION. Medium-sized, 7-8.5mm long, 
with open rostral groove and pointed genal pro- 

MALE. Head length LO-1.16 times width: dor- 
sum with scattered curled setae, and with several 
indistinct rows of small granules on venex; 
postocuiar tubercles narrow, apically acute, di- 
rected laterally and usually attaining outer profile 
of eye; eyes cxserled with a moderate cleft be- 
tween (hero and antenniferous tubercles: an- 
tcnniferous tubercles long, curved laterally, 
upically pointed, extending beyond eyes by about 
2 eye dlameiers: genal processes long, sides di- 
vergent, apices well separated and acute. Rosiral 
groove not closed bebiiKi Antennal length 1.15- 
K20 limes head length; segment 1 longest, seg- 
ment in longer than II; segments U and III with 
short, curled vestiture. 

Pronotal width a little less than three times 
median length; median sulcus distinct and bor- 
dered by two curv ed rows of granules; subirerdian 
iireas elevated into low tuberclt^s edch with a 
glabrous disc on mcsal face; sublaicral areas 
granular; anterolateral pronotal angles with semi- 
circukr e.xplanaic lobes each about twice the size 
uf an eye; posteralatera] angles eakh wiLli a snuill, 
dof sal tubercle: posterior margin slightly convex. 

Mesonotura with scutellar elevation continued 
posteriorly to abdominal Tg L its ridge with a 
smooth median, longitudinal line devoid of gran- 
ules^ Sublateral areas of metanoium swollen, with 
smooth glabrous region along anlenor marpn. 
Legs largely pale with faint dark bands on ffeTOo* 
ral bases; vestiture short, curled. 

Abdominal tergal disc slightly swollen, without 
ridges defining patterns of glabrous areas; lateral 
areas of Tg III elevated; tergal disc with an ovul, 
smooth, mimor-like patch on midline of basal 
half; seem gland scar bluntly raised, setose; lat- 
eral margms of Cx VII strongly angulate. 
Paratergites of VUl ciavaie with mesa! side of 
apex produced. Sterna smooth, with indistinct 
glabrous areas; midline of St II- VI with weak 
depressions: St V and VI narrowed medially: .St 
Vn without callosity. Paramenes as in Fig 63P. 

FEMALE- As for 6 except: Tg VU mth quadrate 
elevation bearing 2 posterior tubercles; paiatcrg- 
ites of VIII with pointed apices curving laterally; 
sterna more deeplv impressed: median length of 
St vn shorter th'an that of St f\'. V and VI 
combined. Spermatheca of Granuhptera type 
with duct length about^ 3 tin>^ bulb diameter (Fij;. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 

ranges of additional 2$ and 29. L: 7.00. 7.17- 
733, 8.00-8,50: W: 3.50. 3.42. 4,25-4.33; HL; 
1.92, 1.92-2.00. 2.00-2.08; H>A^ 1.72, 1.72, 1.88- 
i.96; PL: 0.8, 0.76-0.8. 0.9-0.92; PW: 2.32. 2.28. 
2-60-2.68; AS: I. 0.6S. 0.f>4-0.68. 0.70^0.74; D, 
0.48, 0.46-0.48, 0.46-0.50: HI. 0.62, 0.62, 0.60- 
0.70; IV. 0.50. 0.50-0.52. JO-034. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig 65). Rainforest in low- 
lands and uplands of the Carbine Tableland and 
Cape Tribulation mountaid niassifs. N Qu*^j;ns- 
latKi. It is one of only two apterous Aratlidae 
known from the isolated rainforest on Baker's 
Blue Mountain in the rainshadow of the Carbmc 

REMARKS. C verrucosa has been chosen as 
type species because it shows several generalized 
features. T?>ese include the angulate margins of 
Cx VII (not seen in C. remota and G. o\^a) and 
the non-narrowed prothorax (not seen in G. 
spinicepi and G. alticola). It is related to C 
tubercuhtQ but lacks the specialized narrowing 
of abdominal sterna in the 9 of that species It is 
also rtiosi common at low altitudes whereas 
mberculata is strictly a nKiuntain species, 



no. 61, Granulaptera spp., A-C, G. spiniceps\ A, Palmerston NP; B, Upper Mulgrave R.; C. Kuranda. D, G. 
alticola, E, G. tuberculata. F. G. remota. G-L, 6 dorsal abdominal apices. G-I, G. spinkeps. G, Upper Mulgrave 
R. H, Cooper Ck. I, Kuranda. J,K, G. alticola. J, Palmerston NP. K, Mossman Gorge. L. G. tuberculata. M-S, 
2 dorsal abdominal apices; M.N. G. alticola. M, Malanda. N, Mossman Gorge. 0, G. tuberculata; P,Q, G. 
spiniceps. P, Kuranda. Q, Upper Mulgrave R. R, G. verrucosa. S, C. remota. 



Granulaptera oi-ata sp. nov, 

TYPE. Holotype d. Ci>-5tal Cas;:ades, >ia Caims, N 
Qld. S.viii t%6. a Monieith, QMTt 16&5. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotypc and 103 
paratypes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Cn'staJ Cas- 
tudcs. via Cairns. \d 2$. 8.viiL!966, GBM. 3d. 
9.xii.l%4.GBM, 16, 2I.x.I980,GBM;Davies Creek 
Rd,75Om.I0c^2 9.I7.xii.l989.GBM.Grr:UmbRa.. 
J9kmSEMareeba, 1200ni,3cJ, n.xn.l98«.GBM & 
GIT: \ftEdrlh. 3.500'. 2mJ N of Tinaroo Dam. I c? i 9, GBM. id 19, 1050m. 11x1982. GBM, 
DKY & GIT; Kauri Creek. Tinaroo Dam. 3^ 19,, GBM; Tolea. 5^? 25, IO.v.1970. GBM: 
Lake Eacham. 19o 129. 24.iv.1970. GBM: Cunain 
Fig. 2km SW Vungaburra. 700m. Id, S.xii 1988, 
GBM & GIT; Upper Mulgrave River. 36 3$, 
I3.\!i.l966,BKC.2r?2 9.25.iv.!96S.GBM. Ic5 19, 
26-27.xii.1967, in QM; Keamevs Falls. Upper Mul- 
graveJOOm, 156-39,10.xiii988,GBM&GIT;2km 
N Keamey s Falls. 2lX)ni, 2r5, l(l.xii.l988, GBM & 
GIT; Mulgrave R.. 7km SW Bcllcnden Ker, 60m. 1 6 
1 9. 2.iv.l984. AC & TAW, in ANIC. (QM duplicates 
lodged in BMNH, ANIC. MDPl. UQIC. DJ. SAM. EH. 
NMNH, HUB- HNHM) fparaiypes: QMTI4448^ 

DESCRIPTION. Small, 5.8'7.5nun long, dartc 
subcircular, with short antennal vesiiuire and 
open ro&tral groove. 

MALE. Head about as wide as long, its dorsum 
rugose and graiiuiar with sparse setae; postocutor 
tubercles small, cyliftdrical, pointed, usually not 
reaching outer profile of eyes; eyes sessile, cleft 
separating ihem from amennifeious tubercles al- 
most occluded; aJilenniferous tubercles granular, 
straight, blunt, extending beyond eyes by dis- 
tance equalling about 1 1/2 eye d!an>eters; genai 
processes short, blunt, laiera] margins strongly 
divergent, apices w-ell separatal. Rostral groove 
open posteriorly. AntenJiae about 1.25 limes head 
length; segment III iongesi, more Uian 1.5 limes 
length of segment n. 

Pronowm width 2.9-3.3 nmes median iength, 
median longitudinal sulcus narrow, bordered by 
two curv^ed rows of close packed granules; sub- 
median areas raised into pncminent, blunt tuber- 
cles, each with a glabrcms disc on mesal face, 
sublateral areas tlai. granular: anterolateral an- 
gles of pronotum bearing small, semicircular, 
serai-erect, cxplanale lobes a little larger than an 
eye and extending posteriorly only l^ length of 
pronotaJ margin. .Mesonotura with sculellar re- 
gion elevated mto a median ridge continuing 
posteriorly to abdominal Tg I, ridge with longitu- 
dinal groove devx)id of granules. Nfclanotumwilh 

RG. 62 Dorsal view of d hc^otypc cf Gmnulaprera 

sublateral areas slightly inflated, granular, with 
smooth zone extending along anieriof margin and 
then posteriorly. Legs bicoloured; femora dark 
with pale median bands; tibiae pale with dark 
median bands; veslilure short, curled 

Abdominal tergal disc weakly elevated, with 
shining granules forming circles around positions 
of glabrous areas; seem gland scar forming a 
median tubercle and a posterior flavous scar; 
anterior to scent gland scans a median, sntouth^ 
oval area devoid of granules; Cx margin of all 
abdominal segments continuous, unlobcd and iKit 
angulatc. Paratergites of VIIT short, clavaic, with 
mesal side of apices produced. Sterna with pat- 
tern of glahfous areas well marked: Si II-VI with 
weak median impressions; Si III-V of equi- 
distant nfKdian length; Si VIT flat, smooth medi- 
ally, wrinkled laterally. Parameres as in Fig, 

FEMALE. As lor d except: Abdominal tergal 
disc elevated along posterior margin: Tg VII widi 
quadrate elevation and a posterior pair of tuber- 
cles; paratergites of VIH pointed: midline of St 
VII longer than that ol V and VI LX^mbincd, 
Spcrmalbcca of Cranuiaptero-iy^^ with pru\i- 

DJC. GIT. RS. HI; Windsor Tabid, 28km NNW Mt |^^, parallel, longitudiaal ridges on middle above 
Carbine, 9»X»m- \d, 15-I8iv 1982. G^M Djc^ & p^g^Uore. Paratergites of VIII clavate. with 
?'^^^9.''^'^1''^^^^^^^ m^afside of apices slightly produc^. Abdomi. 



ma! part ul" duct ihick-wallcd, leading to an in- 
flated bulb in duct (Fig. 631). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype d first, then 
ranges of additional 2c? and 2$. L: 6.67. 5.83, 
7.33-7.50; W: 3.42, 2.92-3.08, 4.17-4.33; HL: 
1.72, 1.56-1.64, l.SO-1.88:HW: 1.64, 1.52, 1.76- 
1 .80; PL: 0.76, 0.6(V-0.64. 76-<].gO; PW: 2.20. 
1 .84- 1 . 92, 2.52-2 .56; AS: 1, 0.56. 0.52-43.60. 0.60^ 
0.64; n. 0.38. 0.40, 0.44-0.46; IH, 0.66. 0.56- 
0.60. 0-70-0.74: IV, 0.54, 0.44^.50. 0.46-0.50. 

DISTRIBUTION (Tig. 65). Highland and low- 
land rainforests from Cairns to the Mulgrave 
River and inland Jo the Lamb Range an ihie ex- 
treme N Alherton Tableland, N Queensland. 

REMARKS. This is a common, dasiinclive spe- 
cies with a very resnicled range of about 50km 
diameter in N Queensland. Neither it nor a com- 
plementary relative occur in the extensive Moss- 
man-Cooktown rainforest complex to the nonh, 
or in the S Athenon Tablelund-Ml Spec region S 
of its range. However, a very close relative. G. 
remora. sp. nuv . is known from the Bulburin State 
Forest more than 1000km further simih. 

Gt-anulaptera remota sp. nov. 

TYPE. Holotypc 5. Forest Station 2,000\ Bulburin 
State Forest, via Many Peai;s. Queensland, 2- 
5.iv.l972, G.B.Monleith, QMTl 1686 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 6 paratvpes: 
SOUTH QUEENSLAND: Forest Station. 2.000', 
Bulburin SF. via Many Peaks, \S holotype 49 
paratvpes, 2-5.iv.l972, GBM: Granite Creek. 700% 
Bulbunn SF. Icf 19 l.iv.i972. GBM. ix\ QM. (QM 
duplicate lodged in B.MNHj <QMT3009 1 -30095>. 

DESCRIPTION. Small 5.8-7.3mm long, dark, 
subcircular, with long antennal vestiture and open 
rostra] groove. This species is very similar to G. 
avaio, and the following description is restricted 
to the difTcrcnces from that species. 

Head with posterior 1^ of dorsum inflated; 
postocular tubercles longer, reaching outer pro- 
file of eyes; antenniferous tubercles apically 
more acute; genal processes more parallei-sided. 
Antennae longer, nx)re than 1.35 times head 
length; segments II and HI with erect setae as long 
as diameter of segments. 

Pronoium with submedian elevations lower; 
aniero-laieral explanaie lobes larger, three times 
size of an eye, reaching almost to posterior pro- 

noial angles. Median groove of scutellar ridge 
shallower, less distinct. Scent gland tubercle 
lower. Hind margin of Cx VI contrastingly pale. 
St VII of £ with central area smooth and shining. 
Legs with long erect setae on femora and tibiae, 
Parameres as in Fig. 63 R. 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, ihcrt 
ranges of additional 1 5 and 2 9. L: 6:33. 5.83. 
6.5Q-7.33; W: 3.33, 3.33, 3.67-4.25; HL; J. 76, 
1.64. 1.72-2.00; HW: 1.56. 1.48. 1.56^1.72; PL: 
0.72. 0.60, 0.64-076; PW: 2.20. 2.12, 220-2.52; 
AS: L 0,60, 0.58, 0.66-0.78: D. 0.48, 0.46, 0.48- 
0.54; m, 0.76, 0.74, 0.74-0.78; IV, 0.56. 0.54. 0.60. 

DLSTRTBUnON (Fig. 65). Vicinity of the type 
locality in Bulburm State Foi'e^l, an isolated 
rainforeM tract SW of Gladsionc, S Queensland; 
high and low altitudes. 

REMARKS. This species is a disjunct, southern 
outlier of Granidaptera and its close relationship 
to G. ovata indicates thai the 2 are remnanl-s of 
the same original stock. It is treated as a separate 
species because of the numerous minor, though 
consistent, differences referred to in the key and 
description, its presence ai the Bulburin State 
Forest accords with the relictual nature of mher 
components of the flora and fauna of this inter- 
esting, isolated rainforest tract. 

Granulaptera alticola sp. nov. 
(Figs 61D,J-K,M-N, 63C.G.M) 

TYPE. Holot\pe d. Palmenston Nai. Pk, vialnnisfail. 
N Qld. 23.ivJ968, G.B. Monieith. QMTl 1687- 

MATERIAL EXAMINED, Holotype and 165 
paratvpes: NORTH QUEENSLAND: Black Mtn, 
17km ESE Julalten, 800- 1000m, 96 9 9. 29- 
30.1V. 1982, GBM, DKY & DJC; Lamb Range. l9kTn 
SEMareeba, 1100-1200m,4<? 19, ll.xii.l98HXiBM 
& G IT; Lambs Head. 1 0km W Edmonton, 1 20ani . I d » 
]2-13,xii.l988.GBM&GlT.5'^ I 9, 10-I2.xii.l989. 
gbm. git.hj; Davics Creek Rd, 750m, 3-5 19, 
i7.xii.l989. GBM.GIT Lanibs Head (cast end)» 
1 1 80m, I d 3$. 29.xi.1993, GBM,D.ICH.I; Ml Wil- 
liams. 100-500m. Id 39. 21 xirl993. 
GBM.DJC,HJ;Chujeba Peak, 1 000m, OMBerI.837, 
\d, J6.xh.l989, GBM, GIT. BaJdy Mtn Road, 5 ml. 
19, 1000m, 10.x. 1980, GBM, 3d IV. ]!50m. 
9.xii.l9S8. GBM & GIT, 19, QM Bcrl, «»K. 
5jcill9S8. GBM.GIT. Lake Eacham. Id. 8.X.1980. 
GBM: Bellenden Ker Ra.. 0.5km S Cable tiiwer 7, 
50C»m. !5 19,25-3LxJ98l.Eanhwatch/QM;Norl>i 
Bell Peak. 20km S Caims, 900- 1000m, 2d 1 ?. I5- 
16.X.198KGBM & DJC id, 13.x.l982,GBM. DKY 



A GIT, in QM; Wongabel SF, 6km S Atherton, 1 9,RlS&J.Brown,inVIDPI;Gadgarra 
Routl700m. 3c5 29, 9.xu.l989. GBM GIT, HJ;ZUUc 
P.-ins.750m. Id^ I $. l.i.l990,GBM;TowerSofCrateT 
NP, 1230ni.OM Berl.878, I 9, 23.xi.l994. GBM. 1<5. 
QM Berl- 886. 16.V.1995, GBM; Upper Plath Road. 
1 lOOm. 2c?. 8.ii. 1996, GBM: Hugh Nelson Ra. 2lkm 

5 Atherton. llOOm. \6 1 9. 5,xi,]983, DKY & GIT, 
Crater NP, 1 c\ 25.iv.l970, GBM: Sluice Creek Rd.. 
East Evelvn. 29 , 1972. GBM; Malanda. 3^19. 
1 6. vi. 1971, GBM; Malanda Falls. 750m. pitfall trap, 
3d, 9x11.1989-14.1. 1990, GBM, GIT. HJ: Miissey 
Range, 6km NW Bellenden Ker Centre Peak, 1 150m. 
2d 1 9 IN.l M2,x. 1991 .GBM, DJC. HJ; Maalan Rd. 
2km S Palmerston HWV, 750ni, \6 19, l8.v.l'./95. 
GBM; Mt Biirtie Frcrc, west side, I000-i400m. 2d 
49, 7.x.t980. GBM ^ SRM. Bocmjic, I3km ESE 
Mnlunda. lOOm, \6. 8.xii. 1988. GBM ^' GIT; Millaa 
Millaa Fails. I 9. 23.iv.l968, GBM; Palmerston NP. 
3d 49. 23, iv. 1968. GBM; Henrietta Ck, Palmerston 
NP.5d l9.5.xii.l965.GBM. ld.l5.ix.l984,GBM. 
5d 2 9 . 2.i. 1 990, GBM; Ml Fisher (Whiieine Rd), 7km 
SW Millna Millaa, iOOO-1200m. 2d 39r5.v.l983. 
GBM <fe DKY, 7d 29 . 27-29.iv. 1982. GBM. DKY & 
DJC; Ml Fisher (Kjcllbcrg Rd). ! 100m. QM Bed. 889. 
3d 3 9, I7.\.]995- GBM; Sluice Ck Rd. EastEvelvn. 
350Cr. 29., GBM & SRM; Mc Father Cl- 
ancy, 9km S Millaa Millaa, 900-lOOOm, 2d 19. 
r>.xii.l988, GBM &. GfT; Upp^r Boulder Ck, II krr 
NNWTullv. \mOm, I 9, 16-I9.xi.I984.GBM&GlT. 
56 5 9 . 5-7.xii. 1 989, GBM, GIT. HJ; Vine Creek Rd, 
nOOm. 56 29, 24.xLI994. GBM: Graham Range. 
550m, Id 1 9, 8-9 xii 1995, GBM, GIT DJC.inQM 
The lollowing are noi poralypes; 7km N Ml Spurgeon, 
1200-1250m,3d 39, 17-I9.X.1991. GBM.DJC. Rl. 
LR; Sicwan Cr. 4kin NE Mi Spurgeon, 1 250- 13(K)ni, 
Id, 15-20.X.199I, GBM, DJC, HJ, LR, Roots Ck- 
Francis Ck divide. 1250m. 19, 28.xt.J990. GBM, 
DJC, GIT, RS. HJ; Pauls Luck-Doolins Ck, ilOOm, 
I d . 30 xi. 1990. GBM. DJC. GIT. RS. HJ; P;h.!.< Luck, 
i lOOm. 1 d. 28-30.xi. 1990, GBM. GIT. DJC. RS. HJ. 
DcviPs Thumh, lOkni NW Mos.sman. UK30-im>in. 
I d,9-IO.x. 1 982. GBM. DKY .& GIT; Mo5.<mxn Bluff, 
I Ikm W Mossman,800-130f)ni. 2d.2.\i.l983.GBM, 
DKY Sc GIT, I d . I7-I9.xii.l988, GBM & GfT; Moss- 
man Gorge NP, 4d li\ 9.viii,19ft6, GBM, Id. 
I0.vui.r968, BKC, Id. 20..\.t980. GBM; 
O'Donoghuc's Falls. 150m, Id 29, 15-I6.v.l9tl5. 
GBM. T. Ford & D. Slancy; Mt Lewis. 3,500-4,rxiir. 
via Julailen, 3d 19. 27-28.xi.l965. GBM, 3d. 
4.V. 1 970, GBM, in QM. 1 d . 960m, 3U.X.1976, TayU* 

6 TAW. in ANIC. I V . I2.x.i980. GBM: 2.5)cm N Ml 
Lewis, 1040m. Id I 9, 3.xL!983. DKY Jt GIT; Ml 
Lwis summit. 1200m, 39. 9-IO.xi 1981. GBM & 
DJC: 7.5kinNMt Lewis. 1200m.2d.8.ix.l981. GBM 
A DJC; 10km N Mt Lewi.s, 19, 25.xi.1990, GBM. 
DJC. GIT, RS. HJ. Windsor Tabid. 28km NNW Ml 
Carhinc. 9(X)m. id, 15^18 iv 1982, GBM. DKY &. 
DJC. inQM. (QM duplicates lodged inBMNH. MDPL 
UQIC, DJ. SAM, EH, NMNH. HNHM) (paraiypes: 
QMTlil222-l4227, QMT 1 4233- J 4239, QMTI424L 

QMTU245-14265, QMT14273-14277, QMTI4286- 
14301, QMT14303-14308. QMTI4313-I433I, 
14333-14373. QMTI437g.t438l . QMT14389- 
14396. QMT22269-22378, QMT25568-25576. 

DESCRIPTION Moderate-sized, 8-IO.OOmm 
long, dari, wiih nam}\v«d prolhcrax bearing large 
explanaie lobes, wiih enecr seiae on antennae. 
MALE. Heiid Icn^elh about M-1.21 times width, 
its dorsum v$i\h granules and setae; poc^t^vul^ir 
ruhercles narrow, apically acute, dirccicd 
pivslemUuerdlly, usually reaching outer profile of 
L'vc^; eyes well-exsertetl, clefi benvecn ihcin imd 
antejiniferuus tubercles deep and rather wide for 
the genus; antenniferous tubercles long, diver- 
gent, outer murgin& slightly curved, apiecs 
pointed, extending beyond eyes by aboui 2 eye 
diameters; gen^l pnxesses long, parallel-sided or 
slightly divergent, pointed, separated by a deep 
median clelL Rostral gnx^e closed behind An- 
tcnnal length from ].l to 1.3 times head length; 
segment I longest, segments 11 and IV sgbequa], 
segment HI (Ofiger than U; segments I-III with 
long creel setae. 

Pronotum nouoeably nanxjwer than hind body, 
ab*:)«t 2.6-3.00 lirnes as wide as long; median 
iongiludmaJ sulcus disunct. bordered by 2 rows 
of granules; iubmedian areas with large glabrous 
discs which arc slightly elevated laterally; sub- 
lateral arcab wiih a srnall longitudinal mw of 
>elose granules; anterolateral angles bearing 
large, explanatc lobes, each a Utile more than 3 
limes size of an eye; lobes t>earing croci marginal 
setae; posterior ptonotal margin slightly convex, 
unbordered. Mesonoium ^viih scutellar area 
raised Into a rather narrow ridge cununuing pos- 
teriorly lo abdominal Tg I, ridge with median, 
longitudinal groove devoid Of granules. 
Mecanotum slightly inflated laterally with u 
smooth. a;labro\ts itrea along anterior nuugin and 
angled OTliquely across inflated regions T.cgs 
bicoloored, femo«a iKile with dark bases, tibiae 
largely pale; icmom and tibiae with long erect 

Abdominal tergal dbsc not inflated, with shin- 
ing granules fomung drcles arrmrvd positions of 
glabrous areas; scent gland scar forming a scl(»se 
tubercle with posteriorly a pale, uiajiguLir callu.^ 
Margins of Cx U-Vl not lobed of angled, ihi.>s<i of 
VU wiiJi a fainr angi^latton; Tg Vll with a pair of 
low. parallel, longitudinal ridges on middle above 
pygophore. Parvitergites of vm clavatc, with 
mcsal side of apices slightly produced. Abdomi- 
nal sterna not dtwpJy impressed with pattern of 
glahfous areas; median region uf Si Vll diirk, 

tiated bulb in duct (Fig. 631) 

'"° "' " shallower, less distinct. Scent gland tubercle 
lower. Hind margin of Cx VI conlrastingiy pale. 
MKASIIRRMENTS. Holotvpe 3 first, then St Vn of <? with central area smooth and s^^^^^ 



FIG. 63. A-R, Granulaptera, Phloeobia and Woodwardiessa spp.; A-F, ventral abdominal apices; A, C 
tuherculata 9; B. C verrucosa 9,C,G. alticola d; D. C. ovata d: E. C wberculata d; F, C. spiniceps S', 
G-L, spermaihecae; G, G. alticola; H, G. verrucosa; I, G. ovata\ J, G. tuherculata: K, P. sayi; L. C. spiniceps; 
M-T, left parameres. outer view; M, G. alticola, N, C luberculata; O, G. spiniceps; P. G. verrucosa; Q, G. 
ovaw; R, C. remota. S, /*. sav/; T, W. quadrata. 

polished, with a few raised granules. Parameres 
as in Fig. 63M. 

FEMALE. As for 6 except: Posterior portion of 
abdominal tergal disc quadrately elevated in mid- 
line and overhanging suture between Tg VI and 
VII; Tg VII with quadrate elevation and 2 poste- 
rior, setose tubercles. Paratergites of VIII 
pointed; St VII longer than median lengths of III, 
IV and V combined. Spcrmatheca of 
Granulaptera type; duct with shght thin-walled 
dilation in proximal third; length of duct about 
2^/1 bulb diameters (Fig. 630). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype 6 first, then 
ranges of additional 2d and 2?. L: 833, 8.00- 
8.33. 9.0-9.67; W: 4.17. 4.08-4.17, 5.17-542; 
HL: 2.32, 2.16-2.20, 2.32-2.40; HW: 1.92, 1.88- 
1.92, 2.00-2.20; PL: 0.84, 0.80-0.84, 0.92-0.96; 
PW: 2.53, 2.40, 2.72-2.88; AS: 1, 0.86, 0.80-0.88. 
0.84-0.98; U, 0.54, 0.52-0.58, 0.60-0.66; UI, 0.66, 
0.70-0.74, 0.76-0.80; IV, 0.48, 0.54-0.58, 0.54. 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 65). Mountain rainforests 
from the Waller Hill Range north to the Windsor 
and Carbine Tablelands, N Queensland. 



REMARKS. This species Is related to G. cookt 
and to die variable, G spiniceps, and shares the 
same charactenstic narrow prothorax and trun- 
cate abdominal apex as in those species. C al- 
ticola and G spiriicepa show a complex 
interrelated distribution pattern with C. alttcola 
predominating at higher elevations and G. 
.miniceps conruDonesi ai^low elevations, However, 
ihey are sympatric at many localities and where 
this occurs the 2 may be found »n mixed gregari- 
ous colonies. South oi Caims the 2 are sympatric 
over most of the range of G alticola on the 
Alherton Tableland but, whereas C. spiniceps is 
widely distributed, on adjacent lowlands also, G. 
idiicola does not occur below aboui 700m alii- 

Specimens from the mountains behind Moss- 
mati which are here referred to C. alticolo differ 
siighdy from material from further south and are 
excluded from the parat>pe series. All have the 
prothoracic lobes smaller (about twice size of 
cyc) and some 6 have a prominent pointed ap- 
pendage to the margin of Cx Vir At the seaward 
foot of the sleep coastal mountains in this region 
G. alticola occurs down to 100m altitude in 
Mossraan Gorge. 

Granulaptera cooki sp. nov. 

(Fig. 64) 

TYPE. Holoivpe o , Ml Finnigan, 850-llOOni, 37km 
SCooktown/N. Qld., 19-22 Apr.. 1982. RF. MontL-ilh. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype and 13 pamtypes: 
NORTH QUEENSLAND: Ml Finnigan, 37km S 
Cooklown. 850-1 100m. 6dr 29 J9-22.iv.1982.GBM. 
DKY &. DJC. 15,1 l*30ni. 2«-30.xi.l985.GBM. DJC 
J_R. 2<5 3? 3N. 3-5.xii.1990, GBM. GIT, DiC, RS. 
LR. in QM. The following 30 specimens are not 
paralvpes' Mt Hartlev. 790m, 66 ]9, S.xi.l995. 
GBM, DiC. LR. HJ; 2 5km SW Mt Hartley. 35km S 
CuokXDwn, 1 9. 23-24.iv.I9g2, GBM. DKY &. DJC, 
M» Sorrow, JOCz-SOOm. 5km W Cape Tribulation. 19, 
15.X.1980. GBM: Mt Pieter Boite. y50m, 56 75'. 
2! xi.l99LGBM,DJC.HJ.LR;MtHalL•vo^.870m.22- 
24Jd.l993, GBM.DJC,LR-HJ; Mi Hemmant. 1050m. 
K-? 19. 25-27.Ai. 1993, GBM, DJC, LR, HJ; Roanng 
Meg Valley. 720m. 2d. 22.xi.1993. GBM. DJC. LR. 
}U; Cooper Ck. 18ml N Daintrcc R. 20ra. I 9. 21- GBM, I?. Zv-I970.. GBM; Tliomton 
Pfeik,700.1000m.3 9,21ix.l98LGBM&DJCaQM 
duplicates lodged in BMNH, ANtC, EH) (paraiypes: 
QMT14407-I4409, QMT144I 1-14J20). 

DESCRIPTION. Large. 9.3-1 l.5mm long, dark, 
with very attenuate genai processes ami vHlh 
crca setae on antennae. 

MALE. Head length L36-1.42 umes width, its 
dorsum with granules and long, erect setae; 
postocuiar tubercles short, narrow, irianguJar, di- 
rected laterally, usually not reaching outer profile 
of eyes; eyes small, exsertcd. cleft between thciti 
and antenniferous tubercles deep and wide; an- 
tenniferous tubercles very long, divergent, taper- 
ing 10 acute apices, outer margins somewhat 
curv ed. extending beyond eyes by about 3-4 eye 
diaiTieters; genal processes ex ireniely long, fused 
for a short distance in from of clypeus, then 
separate and divergent, reaching to beyond 1/2 
lengtii of antenna] segment II- Rostral gnx)ve 
closed beh-ind AmennaJ lengdi 0.86-0.95 times 
head length; segment I longest, segments 11 and 
IV subequal. segment III longer than 11; segments 
I-ni With long, erect setae 

Pronotum transverse, much narrower than hind 
body, about 2.7-3.(M) times wider than long; me- 
dian longitudinal sulcus faint, bordered by 2 rows 
of granules; submedian areas poorly defined and 
faintly raised but with glabrous discs distinn; 
sublateral areas with faint, irregular, granular 
swellings; anterolateral angles ofpronolum vnih 
weli-deveiopcd, explanale lobes, projecting for- 
ward, each about 2-3 times the size nfeye. bear- 
ing long erect setae; posterior pronotal margin 
faintly convex, unbordered. Mesonotum with a 
weak median elevation, continuing posteriorly to 
Tg L its midline devoid of granules. Mctano<ujn 
slightly inflaied and granular laterally, inflated 
area with an oblique slrip bare of granules l-tgs 
not bicoloured, femora and tibiae with long erect 

Abdominal lergal disc fiat, with shjning gran- 
ules forniing circles around glabrous areas; scent 
gland scars with a setose anierior tubercle ante- 
rior to a pale triangular callus. Margins of Cx 
U-Vt not angled or projecting, forming a straight 
line continuous with margin of thorax. Margm of 
Cx Vll straight, giving strongly truncate appear- 
ance to hind body. Tg VII faintly elevated in front 
ofpygophore PaiatergitesofVIIl drawn out into 
attenuate, setose points beyond the spiracle. Ab- 
dominal sterna weakly impressed with pattern of 
glabrous areas; median area of St VII flat and 
smooth: spiracles of VII ventrally placed, far 
from Hiargin. 

FEMALE. As for '^ except: posterior midline of 
abdominal tergal disc elevated and overhanging 
suture between Tg VI and VII; Tg VII quadrately 
raised with 2 irregular posterior tubercles; 
posterolateral angles of Cx VI usually projecting 
a linle. St VII medially longer than V and VI 



FIG. 64, Dorsal view of 6 Granulaptera cooki. 

MEASUREMENTS. Hololype cJ first, then 
range of 26 and 2$ paratypes. L: 9,30. 9,37- 
10.00, 10.75-11.50; W: 4.50, 4.40-4.50, 4.75- 
5.58; HL: 3.16, 3.00-3.33, 3.19-3.40; HW: 2.25, 
2.20-2.34, 2.34-2.50; PL: 1.00, 0.90-0.93, 0.94- 
1.05; PW: 2.65, 2.65-2.81,2.81-3.00; AS: 1,0.90, 
0.94-1.00, 1-02-1.03; II, 0.53, 0.56-0.60, 0.62- 
0.66; III, 0.75, 0.76-0.78, 0.78-0.80; IV, 0.56, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 65). From Mt Finnigan in 
the N along the coastal ranges S to Thornton 
Peak, N Queensland. 

REMARKS. This is the largest species of 
Granulaptera and the one with the most spectac- 
ular development of attenuate head processes. It 
is named for Doug Cook whose bushcraft has 
been invaluable on many collecting trips with the 
author in search of aradids in remote places. It is 
a northern derivative of G. alticola but its striking 
appearance sets it apart. 

G. cooki is commonest on the summit plateau 
of Mt Finnigan. Specimens from elsewhere 
within its quite small geographic range vary a 
little, with slightly lesser development of head 
processes, and are not included in the paratype 
series. The species is restricted to high altitudes 
except for 2 collections at virtual seaievel at 
Cooper Creek just S of Cape Tribulation. These 
Cooper Creek 9 are the only specimens of G. 
cooki recorded from lowlands but since the local- 
ity is at the base of high mountains they may 
represent temporary establishment in lowlands 
after being carried downstream by the torrential 
rains typical of the region (Monteith, 1985). 

Granulaptera spiniceps sp. nov. 
(Figs 61 A-C,G-I,P-Q, 63F,L,0) 

TYPE. Holotype 6, Upper Mulgrave River, via 
Gordonvale, N. Qld, 26-27.xii.I967. G. Monteith, 

LAND: Hololype and 65 paratypes: Upper Mulgrave 
River, via Gordonvale, \S holotype, 3d, 26- 
27.xii.1967, GBM 13cJ 8 9. 30.iv.l970, GBM, 4d, 
15.viii.l966, GBM, 2d 19, l-3.xii. 1965, GBM, \6 
29, 25.iv.I968, GBM; Kearney's Falls, Upper Mul- 
grave, R.. 100m. \A6 109. I0.xu.l988, GBM & GfF; 
& GFF, in QM. 154 Non-tvpe specimens as follows: 
Alexandra Bay, ANIC Berl 328, 26 19, 21.V.1971, 
Taylor & Feehan; Noah Creek, 16.07 S, 142.25E, ANIC 
Berl. 321, \S, 21. v. 1971, Tavlor & Feehan, M, 
27.iii.1984, ACalder & TAW, in ANIC. Id, 16.x. 1980, 
GBM, in QM: Cooper Creek, 18 ml. N. ofDaintree River, 
ld,2.v. 1970, GBM, Id, 14.xi. 1969, BKC: Black Mtn, 
via Kuranda, 1 d 1 9, 31.vii.l956, T.E Woodward, 1 d, 
27.vii.1982, S&JP; Mt Formartine South, 700m, 39, 
22-24.xi.l990, GBM, GIT, Id, QM Berl. 848, 
24.xi.1990, GBM, GfT; Saddle Mm, 640m, pitfall trap, 
Id, 10.xii.l995-7.ii.l996, GBM,DJC; 6 ml. W of 
Kuranda, 19, 8.vui.l966, GBM, in QM; 4km NNW 
Kuranda, Id, 6.xi-10.xii.l984, RIS & K. Halfpapp, in 
MDPl; Lake Eacham. 6d , 24.iv. 1970, GBM; Lake Barr- 
ine, 750m, QM Berl. 820, Id, 10.xii.l988, GBM; 
Malanda Falls, 750m, 19, ll.v.1970, GBM, 29, 8- 
12.x. 1980, GBM, 2d, 9.xii. 1989- 14.1.1990, GBM, GIT, 
HJ; Baldy Mtn Rd, 4,000', 5 ml. SW. of Atheiton, 1 d. 
Il.v.l97a GBM, 19, 10.x. 1980, GBM. 19, 1150m, 
9.xii.l988, GBM & GFT; Crater NP, 29, 25.iv.1970, 
GBM, 1 9. 1000m, 5.xii.l988, GBM & GFT; Hugh Nel- 
son Ra, 21km S Atherton, 1040-1 100m, Id, 5.xi.l983, 
DKY & GFT, in QM, 19, 13.iii-l.v.l984, RIS & J. 
Brown, in MDPl; Bellenden Ker Ra., summit TV Sm, 
1560m, Id, lO.iv. 1979. GBM. 19, l-7.xi.l981, Earth- 
watch/QM, Id 19, 17.x-5.xi.l981, Earthwatch/QM; 
Bellenden Ker Ra., Cable Tower 3, 1054m, 4d 39, 
17.x-5.xi.I981, Earthwatch/QM, 3d, 12.iv.l979, GBM; 




• G. verrucosa 
■ G. tuberculata 

♦ G. remota 








A G. cooki 

• G. alticola 
■ G. ovafa 

♦ G. spiniceps 

FIG. 65. Records for species of Granulaptera in northern Queensland. 

Bellenden Ker Ra., Cable Base Sta. 100m, 56 49, 
17.x-9.xi.l981, Earthwalch/QM; Weslgid Ck, nr 
Bellenden Ker, 100m, \S. I.xi.l981, Earthwatch/QM; 
Graham Ra., nr Babinda, 6d 49, 9-10.iv.l979, GBM, 
Id, 550m, 8-9.xii.1995, GBM, GIT, DJC; Mt Bartle 
Frere, W side, 700-lOOOm, M 1 9, 7.X.1980, GBM & 
SRM, 29, QM Berl.815, 8.xii.l988, GBM, GIT, 29, 
1000-1400m, 7.x. 1980, GBM & SRM; Josephine Falls, 
26 59, 12.ii. 1996, GBM; Boonjie, 1 3kni BSE Malanda, 
700m, 2d 1 9, 8.xii.l988, GBM & GIT; Major's Mm, 
7km SE Ravenshoe, 1000-1 100m, 26 19, 4.V.1983, 
GBM & DKY; Mt Fisher, 7km SW MiUaaMillaa, 1 200m. 
19, 5.V.1983, GBM & DKY, 4d, QM Berl.889, 
1 7.V. 1 995,GBM; Mt FatherClancy, 9km S Millaa MiUaa, 
840m, l9,4.v.l983,GBM&DKY,3d 3 9,900-1 100m, 
6.xii.l988, GBM & GIT, 1 9, QM Berl. 812, 6.xu.l988, 
GBM,GIT; Downey Ck, 25km SE MiUaa Millaa, 400m, 
3d 39, 7.xii.l988, GBM & GIT, 19, QM Berl.813, 
7.xii. 1988, GBM, GIT; Cardstone, 200m, Id, lO.v.1983, 
GBM & DKY, in QM; TuUy Falls SF, 900m, 1 9, 5.xi- 
7xii.l988, RIS & Dickinson, in MDPI; The Boulders, 
Babinda, 2d 1 9, 7. viii. 1966, GBM; Stone Creek, 100m, 
pitfall trap, 19, 1. xi.l995-6.ii. 1996, JH; Henrietta Creek, 
Palmerston NP, 5d 39, 23.iv.1970, GBM, 2d 29, 
5.xii.l965, GBM; Palmereton NP, Id 39, 23.iv.1968, 
1 9, 9.xii.l 995, GBM, GIT, DJC; Millaa Millaa Falls, 1 9 , 
23.iv.I968, GBM, Id, QM Berl. 888, 17.V.1995, GBM; 
Mission Beach, 1 d 1 9, 7.xii. 1965, GBM; Lacey's Creek, 
Mission Beach, 5d, 21. iv. 1970, GBM, Id 1 9,9.iv.l979, 
GBM; KinamaSF,650m, 1 d, 1 l.v.i983,DKY. 1 9,500m, 
2.x. 1980. GBM, in QM (QM duplicates lodged in BMNH, 
ANIC, UQIC, DJ, SAM, EH, NMNH, HNHM) (paratypes: 
QMT14552-14554, QMT14565-14570, QMT14576- 
14578, QMTI4606-14625, QMT14701-14725). 

DESCRIPTION. Small to moderate-sized, 6- 
9. 1 mm long, brown, with narrowed prolhorax bear- 

ing small anterolateral lobes. This species varies 
considerably both individually and geographi- 
cally; the following description refers to the ho- 
lotype and paratypes from the Mulgrave River 
and variation will be discussed separately. 
MALE. Head long, length 1.3 times width; dor- 
sum with small granules and some curled setae; 
postocular tubercles short, apically acute, di- 
rected posterolaterally, not reaching outer profile 
of eyes; eyes moderately exserted, separated from 
antenniferous tubercles by a narrow cleft not 
reaching inner margin of eyes; antenniferous tu- 
bercles long, tapering rapidly to acute apices, 
with lateral margins slightly curved, extending 
beyond eyes by distance equalling 2 eye diame- 
ters; genal processes very long, strongly diver- 
gent, with apices acute. Rostral groove closed 
posteriorly. Antennal length 1.12 times head 
length; segment I longest, segment HI longer than 
segment II; segments II and III with short ad- 
pressed setae. 

Pronotum noticeably narrower than hindbody, 
its width 2.65 times median length; median lon- 
gitudinal sulcus narrow, bordered by two rows of 
granules; submedian areas with glabrous discs 
large, elevated laterally into low oblique ridges 
converging anteriorly; sublateral areas each with 
a faint row of setose granules; anterolateral an- 
gles each bearing a small, explanate lobe barely 
larger than an eye. Mesonotum with scutellar 
ridge narrow, extending posteriorly to Tg I of 
abdomen. Metanotum with sublateral areas 
weakly inflated, each with a broad smooth area 



along anterior margin and extending posteriorly 
into middle of segment. 

Abdominal tergal disc with many shining gran- 
ules, uniformly distributed except forming indis- 
tinct circles around positions of glabrous areas; 
scent gland scar forming a median, setose tuber- 
cle and a posterior triangular scar. Posterolateral 
angles of Cx V and VI slightly produced and angu- 
iate; margin with Cx VII straight. Paratergites of 
Vin clavate, with mesal side of apices produced and 
acute. Pygophore with a posterior, median, down- 
turned process. Abdominal sterna not distinctly 
impressed with glabrous area pattern; spiracles of 
segment VII displaced posteriorly to a position 
close to margin of body, making them almost 
visible from above. Parameres as in Fig. 630. 
FEMALE. As for 6 except: Posterior portion of 
abdominal tergal disc elevated in midline and 
overhanging suture between Tg VI and vii; Tg 
Vn with quadrate elevation and a pair of low 
posterior tubercles; paratergites of VIII elongate, 
acute, curved; St VII with median length equal to 
median lengths of FV, V and VI combined. Sper- 
matheca of Granulaptera type, its duct with 
length about 2Vi times bulb diameter, dilated 
over proximal third (Fig. 63L). 

MEASUREMENTS. Holotype S first, then 
ranges of additional 26 and 22. L: 7.83, 6.00- 
7.67, 7.33-9.17; W: 3.83, 3.08-3.92, 4.33-4.58; 
HL: 2.24, 1.60-2.20. 2.00-2.44; HW: 1.72, 1.44- 
1.72, L68-1.84; PL: 0.80, 0.60-0.76, 0.76-0.92; 
PW: 2. 12, 1 .80-2. 1 2, 2.20-2.33; AS: 1, 0.80, 0.68- 
0.82, 0.80-0.94; II, 0.54, 0.48-0.54, 0.54-0.66; IH, 
0.70, 0.62-0.76, 0.72-0.84; FV, 0.46, 0.38-0.48, 

DISTRIBUTION (Fig. 65). Widespread in 
rainforests of N Queensland from the Kirrama 
Range north to the Kuranda area beyond which 
there is a considerable hiatus in its distribution to 
an isolated population around Cape Tribulation. 
In the southern portion of its range it occurs 
widely at sealevel but is known from many local- 
ities on the Atherton Tableland and the Bellenden 
Ker range to a maximum altitude of 1,500m. At 
Cape Tribulation it is strictly lowland and is sym- 
patric there with southern populations of G. 

REMARKS. This species is widespread, com- 
mon and variable. The variability occurs in over- 
all size, in development of head processes and 
eighth paratergites, and in shape of abdominal 
apex. The situation is made more complex by the 

fact that while most variation is undoubtedly 
geographically induced there also seems to be a 
degree of polymorphism within some popula- 
tions at the same locality. I have selected the type 
locality as the Mulgrave River since the abundant 
material available from this locality is quite uni- 
form; only specimens from this region have been 
made paratypes. Without implying any taxo- 
nomic significance to the categories, I present 
some notes on the different 'forms' of G. 

Typical form. Specimens from the type locality 
have genae long, with apices surpassing the 
length of the first antennal segment; the S has 
posterolateral angles of Cx VI produced slightly, 
paratergites of VIII are relatively short, and the 
pygophore bears the apical downtumed process. 
This form also occurs at: Cooper Creek, The 
Boulders, Palmerston National Park, Crater Na- 
tional Park and Lake Eacham. 
Form A, Specimens with genal processes shorter 
than length of first antennal segment and less 
divergent than in typical form; posterolateral an- 
gles of Cx VI are often not produced and 
pygophore often does not have the apical process. 
This form occurs at the southern lowland locali- 
ties of Lacey's Creek and Mission Beach. Addi- 
tionally, about 1 in 3 of specimens from 
Palmerston National Park are best referable to 
this form. 

Form B. In the Kuranda region specimens have 
extremely long, attenuate, curved paratergites of 
segment VIII in both sexes and the genal pro- 
cesses are more divergent than in the typical 


Kormilev (1967b) erected a new genus and 
species in the Mezirinae, Micromezira australls, 
on the basis of a single brachypterous specimen 
from Australia in the British Museum. This spe- 
cies is here shown to be a synonym of a species 
of Carventus (Subfamily Carventinae) which 
Kormilev had described one year earlier. The 
synonymy for this species is as follows: 

Subfamily CARVENTINAE Usinger & 

Matsuda, 1959 

Carventus Stal, 1865 

Can^entus Stal, 1865: 32 (descr.); Kormilev & 
Froeschner, 1987: 72 (catalogue of spp.). 



Micromezira Kormi!ev» 1967b: 488 (descr.); 
Kormilev, 1971. 7 (mcl. in key); Kormilev &. 
Froe&chner. ] 987: 160 (catalogue of spp \ syn. no\K 

Carventus brachypterus Kormilev, 1966 
(Fig. 66) 

Can'efuus brachypterus Kormiitv, 1966: 301 (descr., 

fig.); Korrai!e\', 1969: 52, 54 (incl. in key; lisied); 

Kormilev & Fa^eschncr, 1987: 73 (listed). 
hikromezira australis Kormilev, 1967b: 490 (descr, 

fig.): Kormilev & Froeschner, 1987: 160 (listed). 

svfi nov. 

TYPES. Can'entus brachvpierus: Holotype 5, 
Mimawah. Tasmania. A.M. Lea, SAM 120.298), Ex- 

Microfnezira australis: Holotype d. Sydney, NSW, 
1900-1903. U. Walker, 1910-384, in BMNH. Exam- 

RLMARKS. Kormilev described C. brachypterus 
from a .single 2 from Tasmania. The species is 
now known to be widespread in Tasmania. Vic- 
toria, A.C.T., N.S.W., Queensland and the SW 
ci>mer of W.A. (Monieith, unpuhl. records). The 
unique holotype otMtcromezira australis is an 
old (S specimen lacking the pygophore and some 
iuitennal segments but is still clearly identical 
with 6 of C brachypterus from Victoria. Its 
locality is given as Sydney but the coi lector, J.J. 
WaJker. is known to have collected widely on the 
southern coast of New South Wales (Walker 
1905) Kormilev^s mistaken attribution of his 
genus Micromezira to the Mezirinac instead of 
the Carventinae becomes more understandable 
when the only specimen available to him is ex- 
amined. The Carventinae differ from the 
Mc/irinae by the lack of a distinct me^athoracic 
scent gland opening and by the presence of a 
wuxy surface secretion on the body. The surface 
secretion is very inconspicuous in C. brachypterus 
iind in the specimen forming the type of Af <7»5- 
tralis it is almost transparent from age. Further- 
more, the specimen has a slight split in the cuticle 
ofibe meiapleuron and this isctearly the structure 
referred to as the ^meiathoraclc gland opening 
placed laterally near the border, just belo^^' v^ttig 
padh" in Kormilev's descriptjon ofMicromezira. 
The specimen has. m fact, no visible metalhonkric 
gland openings. Thus ihe genus Micnvnez'tro is 
excluded from the Mezinnae and falls as a syn- 
onym of Car\'emus in the Carvenunae. 

ing 2 apterous genera from New Calctkinia and 
NcA^' Zealand are described to illustrate iheir cUisc 

RO 66, Dorsal view of i Carventus brachypterus 
(Halls Gap. Vicicda). 

relationship to the complex of Australian apter- 
ous genera. 

Phloeobia Montrou/icf, 1865 

Phloeobia Montrouzier, 1865: 236 (descr.); UsiTigcr 
and Matsuda, 1959: 236 (rcdescr.: incl. in key); 
Kormilev, 1971: 6 (incl. in key), KomiDcv St 
Ftoeschner. 1987; 185 (catalog, of spp.}. 

TYPE SPECIES. Phloeobia sayt Montrouzier, 1864. 

by rrA>noiYp>- 

REMARKS- This monotypic genus, comnwn 
and widespread on New CaJedonia, was the firs! 
apterous aradid described in the worid but its 
apterous condition was not reali2ed until it was 
redescribedalmo^iiahuiKircdyears la;cr(Usingcr 



FIG. 67. Dorsal view of o Phloeobia sayi iCoJ 
d'Amieu New Caledonia] 

& Matsuda, 1959). A new descriplicm is given 
here compariTig it x^ith its dose relatives in Australia, 

DESCRIPTION (Figs 63K.S, 67). Moderale- 
^zed. apterous, wilh siDooih txxiy surface. Head 
as long as wide, broad and flattened; postocular 
tubercles as triangular lobes; eyes rather sessile, 
separaied from nntetiniferous tubercles by a nar- 
row cleft; aniennilcrous tubercles with apices 
curved mesally; genal processes long, blunt, 
with bases fused anterior lo cl>peal apex, ros- 
iral groove open posteriorly; rostral atrium 
ckiscd. Antcnnal segments II and III of lesser 
diameter ihan I and IV; segment III longer than II 
or IV. 

ProflOtum with a median, longitudinal sulcus 
positions; pronolai collar distinct and bearing 
dorsal and ventral opposable tubercles: antero- 
lateral pronotal angles with explanate lobes 
whose lateral margins are continuous to pt>slcrx>- 
latcral angles; hind margin of pronotum bofilercd 
mediaily. Sculellar region ofmcsonotum weakly 
elevated and continuous posteriorly to abdominal 
Tg I; weak opposable tubercles present on each 
si<k of scutellar elevation; meso and metanota 
without clevatmns laterad of median ridge. Legs 
bicoloured. Tarsal pulvilli present, spatulutc. 

Fused abdominal tergal disc smooth, nongran- 
ular, impunctate and with barely discernible pot- 
tern of glabrous areas, weak opposable tubercles 
present between sublateral areas of Tg 1 and II; 
suture between I and 11 distinct in middle and 
obliterated laterally; external margin of Ck VIT 
lobed in d . 

Meso- and mctastema with weak median im- 
pressions; pattern of glabrous areas clearly im- 
pressed on abdominal stetna; length of St VII of 
$ less than of V and VI combined. 

Spermatheca and its duct not modilicd (Fig. 
63K). Paramercs with arow of fi ne teeth on iniv?r 
face (Fig. 63S). 

Wood>vardi«if:»a Usinger & Matsuda, 1^59 

Woodt^^miiesia I'singer & Maisuda, 1^59: 215 
(desL't.. incL in key"). Komiilev. 1971: 6 tincl. in 
itey); Lee & Pendergra.M, 1977: 173 (diagnosis); 
Komilev & Froeschner, 1987: l%(caiak>g. ol'spp.), 

TYPE SPECIES. Woodwardifss{3 qmulrata Usinger c!fc 
Maisuda, 1959, by original designation. 

REMARKS. This monotypic genus is the only 
apterous mezirine in New Zealand and is confine^l 
CO the N portion of the North Island (Fig. J OD j. It was 
describal and tigured by Usinger & Maisuda ( 1959^) 
and Lee & Pendergi'ast (1977). A further defini- 
tion is given here to place it in context of relaied 
genera from Australia and New Caledonia- 

DESCRIPTION (Fig. 63T). Medium-sued, ap- 
terous, with open rostral atnum and distinct wing 

Head about as long as wide; postocular tuber- 
cles smaU, narrow, no< reaching outer pnifile of 
eyes; eyes small, stylatc, .separated Irom an- 
tenniferous tubercles by a wide, deep clcfl; an- 
lentiiferous tubercles broad, divergent, apically 
blunt; gcnal processes small, parallel-sidcd. fused 
at bases anterior to clypcus. Rostral atrium 



broadly open; rostral groove not closed behind. 
Antennae long, with segments II and III of lesser 
diameter than I and IV; segment I exceeding apex 
of genal process; antennae with long erect setae. 

Pronotum with median, longitudinal sulcus; 
submedian areas with flat glabrous discs; sublate- 
ral areas each with a low ridge; antero-lateral 
angles of pronotum with prominent explanate 
lobes which terminate posteriorly before hind 
pronotal angles; pronotal collar not defined by a 
groove and without dorsal and ventral opposable 
tubercles; hind margin straight, unbordered. 
Mesonotum with scutellum defined as a semicir- 
cular fiat plate separated off by a complete pos- 
terior suture; a small lobe on each side of base of 
scutellum subtends an opposable tubercle me- 
sally towards the scutellum; subquadrate 
hemelytral vestiges extend to posterior margin of 
mesonotum, defined by sutures but fused with 
surface of mesonotum. Legs setose, not 
bicoloured. Tarsal pulvilli present, spatulate. 

Abdominal Tg I raised into a median, trans- 
verse elevation behind scutellar apex; suture be- 
tween Tg I and n present medially and obliterated 
laterally; abdominal tergal disc with pattern of 
glabrous areas clearly defined by raised, setose 
ridges; intersegmental sutures between dorsal 
connexival plates strongly marked, each with an 
opposable tubercle developed at its mesal end and 
subtended against the lateral carina of the fused 
abdominal disc; lateral margins of Cx VII not 
lobed or angled in d or 2 . 

Meso- and metastema with deep median im- 
pressions; pattern of glabrous areas strongly 
marked on abdominal sterna; spiracles of seg- 
ments II-VI ventral, those of VII elevated on a 
posteriorly directed lateral tubercle and visible 
from above. Paratergites of VIII short, u-uncate. 
9 with median length of St VII longer than 
combined length of V and VI. Spermatheca with 
duct inflated in part. Parameres with a row of fine 
teeth on inner face (Fig. 63T). 


LIAN MEZIRINAE. Because of the intensity of 
collecting over a long period of time we now have 
a very complete picture of the Australian species 
and their distributions. These distributions are 
given here in several ways: (1) Maps of extents 
of individual genera in Australia and adjacent 
land masses of the Indo-Pacific (Figs 8-10); (2) 
Maps of locality records for individual species in 
each genus (Figs 14, 17, 21, 25, 28, 30, 33, 35, 

38, 45, 48, 52, 56, 59, 65); (3) Tabulations of the 
extent of species through defined regions along 
the eastern seaboard of Australia (Figs 68-70); 
and (4) Diagrammatic illustrations of the gradi- 
ents of magnitude of various faunal components 
along the eastern seaboard (Figs 71-72). 

The 91 species of 22 genera treated here show 
an extremely unequal distribution over the I'ace 
of the continent, shown in the following break- 
down in the number of genera and species re- 
corded from each State: 






New South Wales 






South Australia 



Western Australia 



Northern Territory 






One of the overriding dichotomies in the Aus- 
tralian biota is that existing between those ani- 
mals and plants associated with rainforest (closed 
forest) and those associated with sclerophyllous 
open forests dominated by trees of the genera 
Eucalyptus and Acacia. Aradidae are humidity 
loving insects which feed on fungi in moist, de- 
caying wood, reaching their greatest diversity in 
warm rainforests.Thus, even though rainforest 
covered only 1 % of Australia's land surface at the 
time of European discovery, it is significant that 
75% of its Mezirinae are restricted to this vege- 
tation type (Figs 69,70). The distribution and 
evolution of the mezirine fauna is thus inextrica- 
bly linked to history of rainforest on the continent. 

While the modem open forest flora mostly 
evolved on the Australian plate during the aridity 
of the late Tertiary, the rainforests have a dual 
origin. They have an old element exemplified by 
the conifers, primitive angiosperms and 
Nothofagus which was widespread and shared 
with the other southern continents before breakup 
of Gondwanaland, and a younger element which 
arose as an injection of Malesian flora from New 
Guinea via Cape York Peninsula when the north- 
ward drifting Australian plate made contact with 
the New Guinea land mass. Added to this pattern 
has been the massive fluctuations in extent of 
rainforest due to successive waves of aridity and 
pluviality across the continent (Webb & Tracey, 
1981 ; Kershaw 1975). The Torres Strait sea bar- 
rier between New Guinea and Cape York has 
opened and closed many times due to sea level 
fluctuations (Kikkawa et al, 1 98 1 ). At present the 



environment is in a relatively dry period such that 
the rainforest forms a series of islands' along the 
eastern seaboard (Fig. 68). 

The oldest open forest elements in the 
Mezirinae appear to be the open forest species of 
the old cosmopolitan genera Neuroctenus (grac- 
ilis, grandis, proximus, trans it us, occidentalis. 
woodwardi) and Brachyrhynchus (australis, 
wilsoni) whose distributions in the southern parts 
of the continent, and lack of close relationships to 
congeneric Oriental-NG species, are symptom- 
atic of evolution with that of Australia's sclero- 
phyil flora. Aspisocoris, highly specialised and 
isolated in the SW, must also be an ancient ele- 
ment and may be derived from Ctenoneurus. 

Australian Mezirinae show no examples of 
classic 'antarctic' links with South America or 
South Africa though any that may exist may be 
concealed by inadequate knowledge of the faunas 
of those continents. However the close supertlcial 
resemblance between the Madagascan 
Robertiessa and the South American Emydocoris 
with Australian genera needs examination in this 

There are some rainforest groups which show 
connections with New Zealand and New Caledo- 
nia and probably reflect links maintained since 
before separation of those land masses from the 
Australian plate. These include the suite of 7 
genera and 40 species of apterous Australian 
forms {Drakiessa, Chelonoderus, Pseudo- 
argocoris. Aegisocoris, Neophloeobia, 
Mesophloeobia and Gramdaptera) which are 
closely related to the New Caledonian Phloeobia, 
and probably arose from Mezira-WkQ ancestors 
via forms equivalent to the New Zealand 
Woodwardiessa. Among macropterous genera 
both Ctenoneurus and the tropicus-frazieri group 
oi Arbanatus are restricted to cool, upland relict 
areas of Australia and apparently have their near- 
est allies in New Caledonia rather than New Guinea. 

A group of macropterous, rainforest species are 
very recent immigrants from the north. This im- 
migration has been via Cape York Peninsula with 
no known entries via either the NW of Western 
Australia or the Northern Territory as commonly 
occur in other insect groups. There is evidence of 
several waves of migration, undoubtedly corre- 
sponding to openings and closings of rainforest 
corridors between New Guinea and Australia 
( Kikkawa et al, 1981 ). The most obvious compo- 
nents are (i) those laxa which entered and reached 
the Cairns rainforest system before the arid bar- 
rier level with Princess Charlotte Bay became 
operational (e.g., Arictus thoracoceras, Neu- 

roctenus hyalinipennis, Artabanus bilobiceps, 
Chinessa bispiniceps, Clavicornia usingeri) and 
(ii) those taxa which entered after the formation 
of the arid barrier and were not able to penetrate 
further south than N Cape York Peninsula (e.g., 
Arictus iobuliventris, Chinessa iniqua, Mezira 
subtriangula, Neuroctenus crassicornis). 

A group of three wing dimorphic species at Iron 
Range are of special note {Scironocorisaustralis, 
Usingerida roberti and Caecicoris microcerus). 
These enjoy the advantages of aptery in a rainfor- 
est habitat but retain dispersal ability through a 
facultative macropterous morph. These belong to 
an Indo-Pacific group which has colonised many 
island groups (Monteith, 1982) and are clearly 
very recent arrivals. Their failure to penetrate 
further south is probably because of competition 
from a diverse, already-existing, obligately-ap- 
terous fauna in the Wet Tropics Zone. 

AUSTRALIA. Most Australian Mezirinae are 
confined to the eastern states and most are also 
restricted to the narrow, high-rainfall belt 
(750mm per annum) which runs along the moun- 
tainous, eastern seaboard. Thus, in examining 
their distribution, we are dealing with patterns 
and processes within a ribbon of terrain some 
4,000km long but only 200km wide, bounded to 
the north by Torres Strait, to the east by the 
Pacific Ocean, to the west by the arid inland, and 
interrupted in the south by Bass Strait between 
the mainland and Tasmania. Within this belt there 
are topographic discontinuities due to distribu- 
tion of mountain ranges, plateaus and river val- 
leys; there are rainfall discontinuities due to both 
localised topographic effects and to large scale 
climatic effects; and there are vegetationa! dis- 
continuities, largely in the distribution of rainfor- 
est. These discontinuities are reflected in the 
latitudinal distribution of Mezirinae in this 
coastal strip and a number of barriers can be 
recognised between localised regions of species 
richness. Fig. 68B shows eastern Australia di- 
vided into 8 zones ( A to H) by major distributio- 
nal barriers; the zones are subdivided into regions 
(1-20) by lesser distributional barriers. The disuH- 
bution of all mezirines within these zones and 
regions is summarized in Figs 69 & 70. Gradients 
in overall faunal size and in size of various faunal 
components along this latitudinal series are 
graphically presented in Figs 7 1 & 72. The nature 
of these regions, barriers and associated faunas 
will be discussed in sequence from north to south. 



^---Mofl Island 

A- Uiutnrrt»w 

1) - — -Mcllmruilh n«nqt 

A. Cape York Peninsula Zone. 
This zone is topographically 
low with eievational maxima 
slightly exceeding 600m in the 
Mcllwraiih Range. The islands 
of Torres Strait comprising Re- 
gion I are generally low, rather 
arid, granitic bodies subject to 
a long dry season in the harsh 
monsoonal climate. Rainforest 
is poorly developed but present 
to a limited extent on most is- 
lands. Only 4 Mezirinae are re- 
corded, all macropterous and 
all subcortical, 3 of them open 
forest Australian endemics 
[Ancfiis monreithi, A. obscurus 
and Neuroctenus handschini) 
and 1 a non-endemic rainforest 
spcAiies (A^- crassicornis) This 
supports the view of Kikkawa 
et al ( 198 1 ), based on butterfly 
distribution, that the Torres 
Strait Islands have had little 
role in the migration of the 
mesic New Guinea biota into 
Cape York Peninsula: in fact 
their fauna is largely a depau- 
perate Australian derivative. 
Small areas of rainforest occur 
at Lockerbie and Shelbume 
Bay in Region 2, and in larger, 
more luxuriant tracts at Iron 
Range and Mcll wraith Range 
in Region 3. Region 2 has a 
depauperate fauna of 9 mac- 
ropterous, subcortical species; piG 68 A. Map of eastern Ausuaiia showing distribution of rainforest a.s a 

HmlUnoniM 'toiml 


Cvuwoy RNriua 

- GunoMlVt 

— S*(«i« Hancp 

"or.tJnitfil Srau-i 
,fn>iO' I«tnii6 

' Cirlliif It- 

- Ml Glvwwt 


Ul </Ainlrx| 
vvni»« ffrwn 

.piahr^cl n^i'w 

■ M«(»M|ill 

iSniMwit Pnw 



— £V* i^i-<rt 

ih»s conforms with the belief, 
first expressed by Darlington 
(1961) on evidence from car- 
abid beetles, and later sup- 
ported by Webb ik Trace y 
( 1981 ) on'the basis of plant dis- 
persal mechanisms, that these 
rainforests disappeared during 
recent periods of aridity and 
were reconstituted by seed dis- 
persal aca>ss open forest barriers; they received 
their mezirine fauna in a similar way. Region 3, 
by comparison, has 30 species. 29 of them present 
at Iron Range, making il the richest locality in 
Australia. Of these, 15 species are conspecific 
with N.G. forms and 1 6 do not cross Bamer2 into 
the Wet Tropics Zone. Only one member of the 
endemic apterous complex occurs in the region. 

chain of "isiands^ from The rip of Cape York Peninsula in Ihe north lo 
Tasmania in ibe south. Some of the common rainforesi localii> names are 
indicated. B,The same map showing, the 8 major Zones ( A-H. separated by 
solid bars) into which the chain of rainforests has been divided for discus- 
sion in the text. These zones arc further subdivided into 20 Regions ( I -20, 
separated bv dashed bars). Names of the zones and regions are given in 
Figs. 69 70. 71 and 72. Complementarity values between adjaccni zones 
are given al the righi hand end of each solid bar Those between adjaccni 
regions are given lu the left of both solid and dashed bars. 

Drakiessa ^x'asselli. It is isolated in its genus and 
is best regarded as a relict from ancient rainforesi 
connections witli the Wet Tropics Zone. The ab- 
sence of a normal complement of apterous species 
is partly compensated for by the presence of 3 
N.G. species with tlightiess morphs {Caedcoris 
microcerus, Ustngerida roberti and Scironocoris 
australis) and 4 species of Chinessa w^hich live In 
flie same niche on dead wood as do apterous species 




Uj -1 









UJ ^ 



S a. 




< i- 
O < 



< < 


> t- 






>- O 

CO d: 


, o 

z cc 
m 2 



ir w 

llJ UJ 



UJ cc 


cc ir 
cc q: 
< < 



Q < 











3 CO 


Z m =3 

Lii Izd 





















Neuroctenus gracilis 
Neuroctenus grandis 
Neuroctenus proximus 
Neuroctenus transitus 
Neuroctenus occidenlalis 
Neuroctenus woodwardi 
Neuroctenus handschini 
Neuroctenus kapalga 
Neuroctenus hyalinlpennis 
Neuroctenus crassicornis 
Neuroctenus par 
Neuroctenus eurycephalus 
Neuroctenus yorkensis 
Ctenoneurus australis 
Ctenoneurus merldionalls 
Ctenoneurus robertsi 
Aspisocoris lennltophilus 
Artabanus sinuatus 
Artabanus bilobiceps 
Caecicoris microcerus 
Scironocoris australis 
Usingerlda roberll 
Chinessa bisplniceps 
Chinessa claudlae 
Chinessa pusilla 
Chinessa inlqua 
Clavlcomla uslngen 
Chiastoplonla minuta 
Chiastoplonla bamaga 
Chiastoplonla granulala 
Chiastoplonla thoracica 
Chiastoplonla pygmaea 
Corynophloeobia dimorpha 
Glochocoris monteithl 
Glochocoris abdominalls 
Giochocoris brisbanicus 
Glochocons gippslandlcus 
Arbanatus peninsularls 
Arbanatus tropicus 
Arbanatus frazieri 
Arlctus monteithl 
Arlctus tasmani 
Arlctus dimldlatus 
Arlctus thoracoceras 
Arlctus obscurus 



















































FIG. 69. Table summarising distribution and biology of the first 45 species of Australian Mezirinae in taxonomic 
sequence. Presence of each species in the series of geographic zones is indicated by the solid bar. Entries for 
the other columns are as follows; Endemicity, E=species restricted to Australia, N=species also occurring 
elsewhere; Vegetation, R=species occurring in rainforest, 0=open forest species; Flight Ability, M=macrop- 
terous (winged) species, A=apterous (wingless) species, B=brachypterous (short-winged) species, M/B=wing 
dimorphic species; Biology, S=species occurring under bark, O, species occurring in other situations. 

B. Wet Tropics Zone, This zone has extensive 
rainforests overlaying a complex, mountainous 
topography including the highest mountains in N 
Australia. With 42 species it has the most diverse 
fauna but due to considerable allopatric specia- 
tion no localised part has a fauna as rich as Iron 
Range. The Zone is limited to the north by the arid 
corridor at Princess Charlotte Bay, and to the 
south by an arid corridor south of Townsville 
caused by lack of coastal mountains. These are 
the two most potent barriers in eastern Australia; 
of the Wet Tropics Zone's 42 Mezirinae, 26 do 
not cross the Barrier to the north and 32 do not 
cross the Barrier to the south. The faunistic foci 
of the Zone lie in Regions 5 (Mossman-Mt Lewis- 
Cooktown: 27 species) and 6 (Cairns-Atherton: 
26 species) and there is rapid decrease in the 

numbers of species in the various isolated rainfor- 
est mountains (Regions 6-8) in the southern sec- 
tor. Each of these regions has local endemic 
species (e.g., Mesophloeobia kirrama and 
Neophloeohia cataracta at 6; Neophloeobia pal- 
uma at 7; Drakiessa virago at 8) and this is 
symptomatic of the past waxing and waning of 
rainforest in NE Queensland described by 
Kershaw (1975) from palynological studies. Re- 
gion 7 (Paluma Range), despite intensive collect- 
ing, is extraordinary in having only a single 
rainforest mezirine species, evidence, perhaps, 
that rainforest there was completely lost in the 

The overall fauna of this Zone has two promi- 
nent elements: (i) a great number of apterous 
species including 2 genera locally endemic 



S < o 

CL ' 


en ^ LU 1 

CL 4^ CD f 


Om < 



' -; ir cc 

■ I- t;: ^ 

■ en £ [c 
'r: Ouj 

:< z H 

Arictus lobulivenlris 
Brachyrhynchus sulcatus 
Brachyrhynchus subtriangulus 
Brachyrhynchus etegans 
Brachyrhynchus austraiis 
Brachyrhynchus wilsoni 
Drakiessa hackeri 
Drakiessa canlrelli 
Drakiessa glaebuta 
Drakiessa parva 
Drakiessa consobrina 
Drakiessa lerlia 
Drakiessa planuia 
Drakiessa minor 
Drakiessa confusa 
braltiessa was sell I 
Drakiessa virago 
Drakiessa sybilae 
Drakiessa areJimira 
Drakiessa sp (nymph) 
ChGlonoderus stylatus 
Chelonoderus forfex 
Chelonoderus thompsoni 
Chelonoderus minor 
Pseudoargocoris grossi 
Aegisocoris granulatus 
Aegisocoris kormilevi 
Neophloeobia montrouzieri 
Neophloeobia australiensis 
Neophloeobia rnirabilis 
Neophloeobia bulburina 
Neophloeobia incisa 
Neophloeobia paluma 
Neophloeobia calaracta 
Neophloeobia elongata 
Mesophloeobia vetusta 
Neophloeobia australica 
Mesophloeobia ktrrama 
Neophloeobia yeatesi 
Granulaplera tubercuiata 
Granulaptera verrucosa 
Granulaptera ovala 
Granulaptera remote 
Granulaptera alticola 
Granulaptera cooki 
Granulaptera spjniceps 

FIG. 70. Table summarising distribution and biology of remaining 46 species of Australian Mezirinae in 
taxonomic sequence. Details as in Fig. 69. 

(Chelonoderus and Aegisocoris) and 1 
(Granulaptera) virtually so; each has undergone 
radiation within the region; and (ii) a group of 8 
New Guinea species (e.g., Artabanus bilobiceps, 
Chinessa bispiniceps, Arictus thoracoceras) 
which have their southern limits within the zone; 
only one non-endemic species (Brachyrhynchus 
sulcatus) is found south of the Wet Tropics. 

C. Central Queensland Zone. In this zone the 
Great Dividing Range is displaced far inland so 
that rainfall sufficient for rainforest development 
occurs only where subcoastal mountains are de- 
veloped. This occurs significantly on the high 
Eungella Range and associated coastal areas in 
Region 9, and to a lesser extent near Byfield in 
Region 10. Although the Zone has a small fauna 
of only 1 6 species there are some striking local 
endemics (Drakiessa sybilae, D. arelimira, 
Pseudoargocoris grossi and Neophloeobia in- 

cisa) all of which are confined to Region 9. In 
keeping with the paucity of rainforest the overall 
fauna shows a low proportion of apterous species 
(4) and a high proportion of subcortical species (6). 

D. Southern Queensland Zone. This is a large, 
diverse zone with a rich fauna of 25 species of 
Mezirinae. The topographic framework consists 
of a series of subcoastal ranges (Dawes Range 
and Kroombit Tops in Region 11; Jimna, Black- 
all, Bunya and D'Aguilar Ranges in Region 12; 
Mt Tamborine, Main Range, MacPherson Range 
and Mt Warning complex in Region 13). 
Rainforest is developed to a variable extent on all 
mountain systems but its quality is in accord with 
local rainfall which ranges in a gradient from low 
in Region 11 to high in 13. Region 11 has the 
smallest mezirine total of 12 species but these 
include an important focus of relict apterous spe- 
cies in the isolated rainforests of the Dawes 



FIG. 7 1 . Gradient in species number of various faunal components of Mezirinae through the north/south series 
of Regions of eastern Australia as indicated in Fig. 68B. Widths indicate relative number of species of each 
component in each region. Values for New Guinea indicate only N.G. species which are shared with Australia. 

Range (Bulburin State Forest); these are 
Granulaptera remota, the only member of its 
genus to occur south of the Wet Tropics, plus 
Drakiessa minor and Mesophloeobia australica, 
both uncommon species known from highly dis- 
junct localities. Regions 12 and 13 each have 
diverse, contrasting faunas, which are separated 
by the distributional barrier of the Brisbane River 
Valley. Within these regions there has been a 
radiation of 5 species of the apterous genus 
Drakiessa, 4 of which are virtually sympatric in 
the southern half of Region 12. Region 13 is 
based on the ring of mountain ranges which form 
the eroded remnants of the former giant shield 
volcano based on Mt Warning. This once contin- 
uous massif was an evolutionary centre for apter- 
ous Aradidae and 8 wingless Mezirinae are now 
found on its dissected fragments. 
E. Northern New South Wales Zone. The moun- 
tain backbone of the Great Dividing Range is here 
thrown into a number of high, cool plateaus with 
temperate rainforest (Ebor/Dorrigo: Region 14; 
Carrai Plateau and Harrington Tops: Region 15). 
The overall region has 14 species, a little more 
than half the total for S Queensland, and this 
heralds the beginning of a rapid decline in species 
richness with increasing latitude in E Australia. 
This is reflected in the region totals, from N to S, 

of 13 and 11 species respectively. This is due a 
great deal to the decline of apterous species, none 
of which occur S of Harrington Tops. 

F. Southern New South Wales Zone. With moun- 
tains formed by the Great Dividing Range this 
region has a few fragments of rainforest which 
support only the widespread, minute, macropter- 
ous species, Chiastoplonia minuta and 
Glochocoris monteithi. The overall total of 9 
species for the zone includes the curious endemic 
Corynophloeobia dimorpha and otherwise only 
species of the old, cosmopolitan genera Arictus, 
Neuroctenus, Ctenoneurus and Brachyrhynchus. 

G. Victoria. Although this region has fragments 
of subtropical rainforest in E Gippsland (Region 
19) and rather extensive temperate rainforests on 
both the Great Divide and the Otway Ranges of 
Region 20 it has no obligatory rainforest species. 
Only one species, Brachyrhynchus wilsoni inhab- 
its the higher parts of the Australian Alps. 

H. Tasmania, The fact that the diverse environ- 
ment of Tasmania is inhabited by only two 
Mezirinae {Brachyrhynchus wilsoni and Neu- 
roctenus woodwardi), both of them macropterous 
species shared with the mainland, suggests that if 
die island ever did have a richer fauna compara- 
ble with that found in similar environments of 




FIG. 72. Gradients in the relative size of fauna] components of Mezirinae from north to south in the eastern 
Australian zones as shown in Fig. 68B. Widths of bars represent percentage of species in each zone which fall 
in each category. The first column gives total species number for each zone. 

New Zealand, then it became extinct during the 
Pleistocene glaciations. 

RIERS, To give comparative values for the bar- 
riers between the zones and regions (Fig. 68B) a 
simple calculation of complementarity (percent- 
age similarity) for each pair of adjacent areas was 
carried out as described by Colwell & 
Coddington (1994). The formula is: 

No. of shared species -^ Total species occurring 
at one or both sites X 100% 

In Fig. 68B the complementarity values be- 
tween zones and between individual regions are 
shown. The lower the value the more powerful 
the barrier is to dispersal between adjacent areas. 
At a zonal level the barrier between B and C is 
most marked with only 12% similarity between 
the faunas on each side of the arid corridor to the 
south of the Wet Tropics. The barrier to the north 
of the Wet Tropics is also very strong with only 
24% similarity. Most notable among the regional 
barriers is that between Cardwell and the Paluma 
Range with only 6% similarity, due to the very 
small fauna at Paluma. 

The tables in Figs 69 and 70 give entries for 4 
characteristics of each species: Endemicity — 
whether the species is endemic to Australia or 
also occurs elsewhere; Vegetation Affiliation — 
whether the species occurs in rainforest or open 

forest; Flight Ability — whether species are mac- 
ropterous, apterous, brachypterous or wing di- 
morphic; Biology — whether species live under 
bark (sub-cortical) or elsewhere. The total fauna 
of Mezirinae in a particular area can be divided 
into faunal components on the basis of these 
characteristics. The N-S transition in proportions 
of these components is graphically shown for the 
20 regions (Fig. 71) and the 8 zones (Fig. 72). 
Figure 7 1 shows actual numbers of species while 
Fig. 72 shows the values as percentage of each 
zone fauna. Among other points these diagrams 
illustrate: faunal maxima occurring in N, Central 
and S Queensland are result of peaks of rainfor- 
est species in those areas; these rainforest spe- 
cies are largely apterous species in the Wet Tropics 
and S Queensland but in Cape York they comprise 
a large group of non-endemic winged species. 


This study originated as a PhD project in the 
Department of Entomology at the University of 
Queensland and was completed and greatly ex- 
tended at the Queensland Museum. I am grateful 
to both institutions for facilities provided and 
especially to the late T.E. Woodward, of the 
University of Queensland, a distinguished 
hemipterist whom I was privileged to have had as 
doctoral advisor. The Aradidae are complex 
three-dimensional animals and in illustrating 
them I have been fortunate in having had the 



assistance of two of Australia's top insect 
illustrators, my wife. Sybil Monteith, and the 
Queensland Museum's Geoff Thompson. They 
are responsible for the full dorsal views as indi- 
cated by their respective initials. Neither needs to 
take the blame for the numerous line drawings of 
'spare pans' which v/ere inked by Sybil from my 
own pencil sketches. Geoff Thompson inked 
many of the maps and charts. John Hardy for- 
merly of the UQ SEM Unit took the stereoscan 
photographs. The more cryptic Aradidae. espe- 
cially the diverse apterous rainforest species re- 
vealed in this work, are extremely difficuh tn 
collect and tend to occur in wet mouniam areas 
whose great beauty is often impaired by unspeak- 
able weather. Over the 30 years during which 1 
have accumulated field collections for this study 
many friends have shared these conditions to help 
bring these curious creatures back for study. 
Many are named among the collectors listed 
under the Study Material section and lo all I am 
grateful. I have a special debt to I>oug Cook 
whose bushcraf! and navigation skills have been 
invaluable during many months of difficult work 
in the N Queensland mountains. Ross Storey at 
Mareeba, andCh;irlie & VaJ McCracken at Moss- 
man, have cheertully allowed their homes to be- 
come warm, dry refuges on innumerable 
occasions during this work. Many collection cu- 
ralor^, as listed previously, have helped with loan 
material and 1 specially thank Bill Dolling, for- 
merly of The Natural History Museum in Lon- 
don, who gave much advice on ihe provenance of 
early specimens in that collection. Lynctte 
Dickfos and Jennifer Mahoney handled the typ- 
ing with professional polish. Karin K<x:h kept 
efficient track of data. 


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Revision of the Australian flat bugs of the subfamily Mezirinae 
(Insecta: Hemiptera: Aradidae)